## CryptoDB

### Vadim Lyubashevsky

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

PKC

A Thorough Treatment of Highly-Efficient NTRU Instantiations
Abstract

Cryptography based on the hardness of lattice problems over
polynomial rings currently provides the most practical solution for pub-
lic key encryption in the quantum era. Indeed, three of the four schemes
chosen by NIST in the recently-concluded post-quantum standardization
effort for encryption and signature schemes are based on the hardness of
these problems. While the first encryption scheme utilizing properties of
polynomial rings was NTRU (ANTS ’98), the scheme that NIST chose
for public key encryption (CRYSTALS-Kyber) is based on the hardness
of the somewhat-related Module-LWE problem. One of the reasons for
Kyber’s selection was the fact that it is noticeably faster than NTRU
and a little more compact. And indeed, the practical NTRU encryption
schemes in the literature generally lag their Ring/Module-LWE counter-
parts in either compactness or speed, or both.
In this paper, we put the efficiency of NTRU-based schemes on equal
(even slightly better, actually) footing with their Ring/Module-LWE
counterparts. We provide several instantiations and transformations, with
security given in the ROM and the QROM, that are on par, compactness-
wise, with their counterparts based on Ring/Module-LWE. Performance-
wise, the NTRU schemes instantiated in this paper over NTT-friendly
rings of the form Z_q[X]/(X^d − X^{d/2} + 1) are the fastest of all public key
encryption schemes, whether quantum-safe or not. When compared to
the NIST finalist NTRU-HRSS-701, our scheme is 15% more compact
and has a 15X improvement in the round-trip time of ephemeral key
exchange, with key generation being 35X faster, encapsulation being 6X
faster, and decapsulation enjoying a 9X speedup.

2023

CRYPTO

A Framework for Practical Anonymous Credentials from Lattices
Abstract

We present a framework for building practical anonymous credential schemes based on the hardness of lattice problems. The running time of the prover and verifier is independent of the number of users and linear in the number of attributes. The scheme is also compact in practice, with the proofs being as small as a few dozen kilobytes for arbitrarily large (say up to $2^{128}$) users with each user having several attributes. The security of our scheme is based on a new family of lattice assumptions which roughly states that given short pre-images of random elements in some set $S$, it is hard to create a pre-image for a fresh element in such a set. We show that if the set admits efficient zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge of a commitment to a set element and its pre-image, then this yields practically-efficient privacy-preserving primitives such as blind signatures, anonymous credentials, and group signatures. We propose a candidate instantiation of a function from this family which allows for such proofs and thus yields practical lattice-based primitives.

2022

PKC

Efficient Lattice-Based Blind Signatures via Gaussian One-Time Signatures
📺
Abstract

Lattice-based blind signature schemes have been receiving some recent attention lately. Earlier efficient 3-round schemes (Asiacrypt 2010, Financial Cryptography 2020) were recently shown to have mistakes in their proofs, and fixing them turned out to be extremely inefficient and limited the number of signatures that a signer could send to less than a dozen (Crypto 2020). In this work we propose a round-optimal, 2-round lattice-based blind signature scheme which produces signatures of length 150KB. The running time of the signing protocol is linear in the maximum number signatures that can be given out, and this limits the number of signatures that can be signed per public key. Nevertheless, the scheme is still quite efficient when the number of signatures is limited to a few dozen thousand, and appears to currently be the most efficient lattice-based candidate.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Practical Non-interactive Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing with Thousands of Parties
📺
Abstract

Non-interactive publicly verifiable secret sharing (PVSS) schemes enables (re-)sharing of secrets in a decentralized setting in the presence of malicious parties.
A recently proposed application of PVSS schemes is to enable permissionless proof-of-stake blockchains to ``keep a secret" via a sequence of committees that share that secret.
These committees can use the secret to produce signatures on the blockchain's behalf, or to disclose hidden data conditioned on consensus that some event has occurred.
That application needs very large committees with thousands of parties, so the PVSS scheme in use must be efficient enough to support such large committees, in terms of both computation and communication.
Yet, previous PVSS schemes have large proofs and/or require many exponentiations over large groups.
We present a non-interactive PVSS scheme in which the underlying encryption scheme is based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem.
While lattice-based encryption schemes are very fast, they often have long ciphertexts and public keys.
We use the following two techniques to conserve bandwidth:
First, we adapt the Peikert-Vaikuntanathan-Waters (PVW) encryption scheme to the multi-receiver setting, so that the bulk of the parties' keys is a common random string.
The resulting scheme yields $\Omega(1)$ amortized plaintext/ciphertext rate, where concretely the rate is $\approx 1/60$ for 100 parties, $\approx 1/8$ for 1000 parties, and approaching 1/2 as the number of parties grows.
Second, we use bulletproofs over a DL-group of order about 256 bits to get compact proofs of correct encryption/decryption of shares.
Alternating between the lattice and DL settings is relatively painless, as we equate the LWE modulus with the order of the group. We also show how to reduce the the number of exponentiations in the bulletproofs by applying Johnson-Lindenstrauss-like compression to reduce the dimension of the vectors whose properties must be verified.
An implementation of our PVSS with 1000 parties showed that it is feasible even at that size, and should remain so even with one or two order of magnitude increase in the committee size.

2022

CRYPTO

Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs and Applications: Shorter, Simpler, and More General
📺
Abstract

We present a much-improved practical protocol, based on the hardness of Module-SIS and Module-LWE problems, for proving knowledge of a short vector $s$ satisfying $As=t\bmod q$. The currently most-efficient technique for constructing such a proof works by showing that the $\ell_\infty$ norm of $s$ is small. It creates a commitment to a polynomial vector $m$ whose CRT coefficients are the coefficients of $s$ and then shows that (1) $A\cdot \mathsf{CRT}(m)=t\bmod\,q$ and (2) in the case that we want to prove that the $\ell_\infty$ norm is at most $1$, the polynomial product $(m - 1)\cdot m\cdot(m+1)$ equals to $0$. While these schemes are already quite efficient for practical applications, the requirement of using the CRT embedding and only being naturally adapted to proving the $\ell_\infty$-norm, hinders the efficiency of this approach.
In this work, we show that there is a direct and efficient way to prove that the coefficients of $s$ have a small $\ell_2$ norm which does not require an equivocation with the $\ell_\infty$ norm, nor any conversion to the CRT representation. We observe that the inner product between two vectors $ r$ and $s$ can be made to appear as a coefficient of a product (or sum of products) between polynomials which are functions of $r$ and $s$. Thus, by using a polynomial product proof system and hiding all but one coefficient, we are able to prove knowledge of the inner product of two vectors modulo $q$. Using a cheap, approximate range proof, one can then lift the proof to be over $\mathbb{Z}$ instead of $\mathbb{Z}_q$. Our protocols for proving short norms work over all (interesting) polynomial rings, but are particularly efficient for rings like $\mathbb{Z}[X]/(X^n+1)$ in which the function relating the inner product of vectors and polynomial products happens to be a ``nice'' automorphism.
The new proof system can be plugged into constructions of various lattice-based privacy primitives in a black-box manner. As examples, we instantiate a verifiable encryption scheme and a group signature scheme which are more than twice as compact as the previously best solutions.

2022

ASIACRYPT

BLOOM: Bimodal Lattice One-Out-of-Many Proofs and Applications
📺
Abstract

We give a construction of an efficient one-out-of-many proof system, in which a prover shows that he knows the pre-image for one element in a set, based on the hardness of lattice problems. The construction employs the recent zero-knowledge framework of Lyubashevsky et al. (Crypto 2022) together with an improved, over prior lattice-based one-out-of-many proofs, recursive procedure, and a novel rejection sampling proof that allows to use the efficient bimodal rejection sampling throughout the protocol.
Using these new primitives and techniques, we give instantiations of the most compact lattice-based ring and group signatures schemes. The improvement in signature sizes over prior works ranges between $25\%$ and $2$X. Perhaps of even more significance, the size of the user public keys, which need to be stored somewhere publicly accessible in order for ring signatures to be meaningful, is reduced by factors ranging from $7$X to $15$X. In what could be of independent interest, we also provide noticeably improved proofs for integer relations which, together with one-out-of-many proofs are key components of confidential payment systems.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Shorter Lattice-Based Group Signatures via ``Almost Free'' Encryption and Other Optimizations
📺
Abstract

We present an improved lattice-based group signature scheme whose parameter sizes and running times are independent of the group size. The signature length in our scheme is around $200$KB, which is approximately a $3$X reduction over the previously most compact such scheme, based on any quantum-safe assumption, of del Pino et al. (CCS 2018). The improvement comes via several optimizations of some basic cryptographic components that make up group signature schemes, and we think that they will find other applications in privacy-based lattice cryptography.

2021

PKC

Shorter Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs via One-Time Commitments
📺
Abstract

There has been a lot of recent progress in constructing efficient zero-knowledge proofs for showing knowledge of an $\vec{\bm{s}}$ with small coefficients satisfying $\bm{A}\vec{\bm{s}}=\vec{\bm{t}}$. For typical parameters, the proof sizes have gone down from several megabytes to a bit under $50$KB (Esgin et al., Asiacrypt 2020). These are now within an order of magnitude of the sizes of lattice-based signatures, which themselves constitute proof systems which demonstrate knowledge of something weaker than the aforementioned equation. One can therefore see that this line of research is approaching optimality. In this paper, we modify a key component of these proofs, as well as apply several other tweaks, to achieve a further reduction of around $30\%$ in the proof output size. We also show that this savings propagates itself when these proofs are used in a general framework to construct more complex protocols.

2021

CRYPTO

SMILE: Set Membership from Ideal Lattices with Applications to Ring Signatures and Confidential Transactions
📺
Abstract

In a set membership proof, the public information consists of a set of elements and a commitment. The prover then produces a zero-knowledge proof showing that the commitment is indeed to some element from the set. This primitive is closely related to concepts like ring signatures and ``one-out-of-many'' proofs that underlie many anonymity and privacy protocols. The main result of this work is a new succinct lattice-based set membership proof whose size is logarithmic in the size of the set.
We also give transformations of our set membership proof to a ring signature scheme and to a confidential transaction payment system. The ring signature size is also logarithmic in the size of the public key set and has size $16$~KB for a set of $2^5$ elements, and $22$~KB for a set of size $2^{25}$. At an approximately $128$-bit security level, these outputs are between 1.5X and 7X smaller than the current state of the art succinct ring signatures of Beullens et al. (Asiacrypt 2020) and Esgin et al. (CCS 2019).
We then show that our ring signature, combined with a few other techniques and optimizations, can be turned into a fairly efficient Monero-like confidential transaction system based on the MatRiCT framework of Esgin et al. (CCS 2019). With our new techniques, we are able to reduce the transaction proof size by factors of about 4X - 10X over the aforementioned work. For example, a transaction with two inputs and two outputs, where each input is hidden among $2^{15}$ other accounts, requires approximately $30$KB in our protocol.

2020

CRYPTO

A non-PCP Approach to Succinct Quantum-Safe Zero-Knowledge
📺
Abstract

Today's most compact zero-knowledge arguments are based on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem and related classical assumptions. If one is interested in quantum-safe solutions, then all of the known techniques stem from the PCP-based framework of Kilian (STOC 92) which can be instantiated based on the hardness of any collision-resistant hash function. Both approaches produce asymptotically logarithmic sized arguments but, by exploiting extra algebraic structure, the discrete logarithm arguments are a few orders of magnitude more compact in practice than the generic constructions.\\
In this work, we present the first (poly)-logarithmic \emph{post-quantum} zero-knowledge arguments that deviate from the PCP approach. At the core of succinct zero-knowledge proofs are succinct commitment schemes (in which the commitment and the opening proof are sub-linear in the message size), and we propose two such constructions based on the hardness of the (Ring)-Short Integer Solution (Ring-SIS) problem, each having certain trade-offs. For commitments to $N$ secret values, the communication complexity of our first scheme is $\tilde{O}(N^{1/c})$ for any positive integer $c$, and $O(\log^2 N)$ for the second. %Both of our protocols have somewhat large \emph{slack}, which in lattice constructions is the ratio of the norm of the extracted secrets to the norm of the secrets that the honest prover uses in the proof. The lower this factor, the smaller we can choose the practical parameters. For a fixed value of this factor, our $\tilde{O}(N^{1/c})$-argument actually achieves lower communication complexity.
Both of these are a significant theoretical improvement over the previously best lattice construction by Bootle et al. (CRYPTO 2018) which gave $O(\sqrt{N})$-sized proofs.

2020

CRYPTO

Practical Product Proofs for Lattice Commitments
📺
Abstract

We construct a practical lattice-based zero-knowledge argument for proving multiplicative relations between committed values. The underlying commitment scheme that we use is the currently most efficient one of Baum et al. (SCN 2018), and the size of our multiplicative proof is only slightly larger than of the one for just proving knowledge of the committed values. We additionally improve on the results of Lyubashevsky and Seiler (Eurocrypt 2018) to show that the above-mentioned techniques can work over rings $Z_q[X]/(X^d+1)$ where $X^d+1$ splits into low-degree factors, which is a property necessary for many applications. In particular, we use Fourier analysis to show that the NTT coefficients of random small-norm challenges are not concentrated on any particular value.

2019

PKC

Short Discrete Log Proofs for FHE and Ring-LWE Ciphertexts
Abstract

In applications of fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) that involve computation on encryptions produced by several users, it is important that each user proves that her input is indeed well-formed. This may simply mean that the inputs are valid FHE ciphertexts or, more generally, that the plaintexts m additionally satisfy
$$f(m)=1$$
for some public function f. The most efficient FHE schemes are based on the hardness of the Ring-LWE problem and so a natural solution would be to use lattice-based zero-knowledge proofs for proving properties about the ciphertext. Such methods, however, require larger-than-necessary parameters and result in rather long proofs, especially when proving general relationships.In this paper, we show that one can get much shorter proofs (roughly 1.25 KB) by first creating a Pedersen commitment from the vector corresponding to the randomness and plaintext of the FHE ciphertext. To prove validity of the ciphertext, one can then prove that this commitment is indeed to the message and randomness and these values are in the correct range. Our protocol utilizes a connection between polynomial operations in the lattice scheme and inner product proofs for Pedersen commitments of Bünz et al. (S&P 2018). Furthermore, our proof of equality between the ciphertext and the commitment is very amenable to amortization – proving the equivalence of k ciphertext/commitment pairs only requires an additive factor of
$$O(\log {k})$$
extra space than for one such proof. For proving additional properties of the plaintext(s), one can then directly use the logarithmic-space proofs of Bootle et al. (Eurocrypt 2016) and Bünz et al. (IEEE S&P 2018) for proving arbitrary relations of discrete log commitment.Our technique is not restricted to FHE ciphertexts and can be applied to proving many other relations that arise in lattice-based cryptography. For example, we can create very efficient verifiable encryption/decryption schemes with short proofs in which confidentiality is based on the hardness of Ring-LWE while the soundness is based on the discrete logarithm problem. While such proofs are not fully post-quantum, they are adequate in scenarios where secrecy needs to be future-proofed, but one only needs to be convinced of the validity of the proof in the pre-quantum era. We furthermore show that our zero-knowledge protocol can be easily modified to have the property that breaking soundness implies solving discrete log in a short amount of time. Since building quantum computers capable of solving discrete logarithm in seconds requires overcoming many more fundamental challenges, such proofs may even remain valid in the post-quantum era.

2019

TCHES

NTTRU: Truly Fast NTRU Using NTT
📺
Abstract

We present NTTRU – an IND-CCA2 secure NTRU-based key encapsulation scheme that uses the number theoretic transform (NTT) over the cyclotomic ring Z7681[X]/(X768−X384+1) and produces public keys and ciphertexts of approximately 1.25 KB at the 128-bit security level. The number of cycles on a Skylake CPU of our constant-time AVX2 implementation of the scheme for key generation, encapsulation and decapsulation is approximately 6.4K, 6.1K, and 7.9K, which is more than 30X, 5X, and 8X faster than these respective procedures in the NTRU schemes that were submitted to the NIST post-quantum standardization process. These running times are also, by a large margin, smaller than those for all the other schemes in the NIST process as well as the KEMs based on elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman. We additionally give a simple transformation that allows one to provably deal with small decryption errors in OW-CPA encryption schemes (such as NTRU) when using them to construct an IND-CCA2 key encapsulation.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Worst-Case Hardness for LPN and Cryptographic Hashing via Code Smoothing
📺
Abstract

We present a worst case decoding problem whose hardness reduces to that of solving the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem, in some parameter regime. Prior to this work, no worst case hardness result was known for LPN (as opposed to syntactically similar problems such as Learning with Errors). The caveat is that this worst case problem is only mildly hard and in particular admits a quasi-polynomial time algorithm, whereas the LPN variant used in the reduction requires extremely high noise rate of
$$1/2-1/\mathrm{poly}(n)$$
. Thus we can only show that “very hard” LPN is harder than some “very mildly hard” worst case problem. We note that LPN with noise
$$1/2-1/\mathrm{poly}(n)$$
already implies symmetric cryptography.Specifically, we consider the (n, m, w)-nearest codeword problem ((n, m, w)-NCP) which takes as input a generating matrix for a binary linear code in m dimensions and rank n, and a target vector which is very close to the code (Hamming distance at most w), and asks to find the codeword nearest to the target vector. We show that for balanced (unbiased) codes and for relative error
$$w/m \approx {\log ^2 n}/{n}$$
, (n, m, w)-NCP can be solved given oracle access to an LPN distinguisher with noise ratio
$$1/2-1/\mathrm{poly}(n)$$
.Our proof relies on a smoothing lemma for codes which we show to have further implications: We show that (n, m, w)-NCP with the aforementioned parameters lies in the complexity class
$$\mathrm {{Search}\hbox {-}\mathcal {BPP}}^\mathcal {SZK}$$
(i.e. reducible to a problem that has a statistical zero knowledge protocol) implying that it is unlikely to be
$$\mathcal {NP}$$
-hard. We then show that the hardness of LPN with very low noise rate
$$\log ^2(n)/n$$
implies the existence of collision resistant hash functions (our aforementioned result implies that in this parameter regime LPN is also in
$$\mathcal {BPP}^\mathcal {SZK}$$
).

2019

CRYPTO

Algebraic Techniques for Short(er) Exact Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs
📺
Abstract

A key component of many lattice-based protocols is a zero-knowledge proof of knowledge of a vector
$$\vec {s}$$
with small coefficients satisfying
$$A\vec {s}=\vec {u}\bmod \,q$$
. While there exist fairly efficient proofs for a relaxed version of this equation which prove the knowledge of
$$\vec {s}'$$
and c satisfying
$$A\vec {s}'=\vec {u}c$$
where
$$\Vert \vec {s}'\Vert \gg \Vert \vec {s}\Vert $$
and c is some small element in the ring over which the proof is performed, the proofs for the exact version of the equation are considerably less practical. The best such proof technique is an adaptation of Stern’s protocol (Crypto ’93), for proving knowledge of nearby codewords, to larger moduli. The scheme is a
$$\varSigma $$
-protocol, each of whose iterations has soundness error
$$2{/}3$$
, and thus requires over 200 repetitions to obtain soundness error of
$$2^{-128}$$
, which is the main culprit behind the large size of the proofs produced.
In this paper, we propose the first lattice-based proof system that significantly outperforms Stern-type proofs for proving knowledge of a short
$$\vec {s}$$
satisfying
$$A\vec {s}=\vec {u}\bmod \,q$$
. Unlike Stern’s proof, which is combinatorial in nature, our proof is more algebraic and uses various relaxed zero-knowledge proofs as sub-routines. The main savings in our proof system comes from the fact that each round has soundness error of
$$1{/}n$$
, where n is the number of columns of A. For typical applications, n is a few thousand, and therefore our proof needs to be repeated around 10 times to achieve a soundness error of
$$2^{-128}$$
. For concrete parameters, it produces proofs that are around an order of magnitude smaller than those produced using Stern’s approach.

2018

EUROCRYPT

2018

CRYPTO

Sub-linear Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Arithmetic Circuits
📺
Abstract

We propose the first zero-knowledge argument with sub-linear communication complexity for arithmetic circuit satisfiability over a prime
$${p}$$
whose security is based on the hardness of the short integer solution (SIS) problem. For a circuit with
$${N}$$
gates, the communication complexity of our protocol is
$$O\left( \sqrt{{N}{\lambda }\log ^3{{N}}}\right) $$
, where
$${\lambda }$$
is the security parameter. A key component of our construction is a surprisingly simple zero-knowledge proof for pre-images of linear relations whose amortized communication complexity depends only logarithmically on the number of relations being proved. This latter protocol is a substantial improvement, both theoretically and in practice, over the previous results in this line of research of Damgård et al. (CRYPTO 2012), Baum et al. (CRYPTO 2016), Cramer et al. (EUROCRYPT 2017) and del Pino and Lyubashevsky (CRYPTO 2017), and we believe it to be of independent interest.

2018

TCHES

CRYSTALS-Dilithium: A Lattice-Based Digital Signature Scheme
Abstract

In this paper, we present the lattice-based signature scheme Dilithium, which is a component of the CRYSTALS (Cryptographic Suite for Algebraic Lattices) suite that was submitted to NIST’s call for post-quantum cryptographic standards. The design of the scheme avoids all uses of discrete Gaussian sampling and is easily implementable in constant-time. For the same security levels, our scheme has a public key that is 2.5X smaller than the previously most efficient lattice-based schemes that did not use Gaussians, while having essentially the same signature size. In addition to the new design, we significantly improve the running time of the main component of many lattice-based constructions – the number theoretic transform. Our AVX2-based implementation results in a speed-up of roughly a factor of 2 over the previously best algorithms that appear in the literature. The techniques for obtaining this speed-up also have applications to other lattice-based schemes.

2015

EUROCRYPT

2014

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2022
- PKC 2021
- TCC 2021
- Crypto 2020
- Crypto 2019
- Crypto 2017
- PKC 2017
- Eurocrypt 2016
- PKC 2014
- Crypto 2013
- Eurocrypt 2013
- PKC 2012
- TCC 2012
- Eurocrypt 2011
- TCC 2011
- PKC 2010
- Asiacrypt 2010

#### Coauthors

- Michel Abdalla (3)
- Thomas Attema (1)
- Carsten Baum (1)
- Fabrice Benhamouda (1)
- Jonathan Bootle (4)
- Zvika Brakerski (1)
- Jan Camenisch (1)
- Andrea Cerulli (1)
- Rafael del Pino (2)
- Léo Ducas (3)
- Julien Duman (1)
- Alain Durmus (1)
- Dario Fiore (1)
- Pierre-Alain Fouque (2)
- Craig Gentry (1)
- Jens Groth (1)
- Tim Güneysu (1)
- Shai Halevi (1)
- Stefan Heyse (1)
- Kathrin Hövelmanns (1)
- Eike Kiltz (4)
- Stephan Krenn (1)
- Tancrède Lepoint (2)
- Daniel Masny (1)
- Daniele Micciancio (4)
- Gregory Neven (2)
- Ngoc Khanh Nguyen (8)
- Christof Paar (1)
- Adriana Palacio (1)
- Chris Peikert (3)
- Krzysztof Pietrzak (1)
- Rafaël Del Pino (1)
- Maxime Plançon (3)
- Thomas Pöppelmann (1)
- Thomas Prest (2)
- Oded Regev (2)
- Alon Rosen (1)
- Christian Schaffner (1)
- Peter Schwabe (1)
- Gil Segev (1)
- Gregor Seiler (11)
- Alessandro Sorniotti (1)
- Damien Stehlé (1)
- Mehdi Tibouchi (2)
- Dominique Unruh (1)
- Vinod Vaikuntanathan (1)
- Daniel Wichs (2)