International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Svetla Nikova


All You Need Is Fault: Zero-Value Attacks on AES and a New λ-Detection M&M
Deploying cryptography on embedded systems requires security against physical attacks. At CHES 2019, M&M was proposed as a combined countermeasure applying masking against SCAs and information-theoretic MAC tags against FAs. In this paper, we show that one of the protected AES implementations in the M&M paper is vulnerable to a zero-value SIFA2-like attack. A practical attack is demonstrated on an ASIC board. We propose two versions of the attack: the first follows the SIFA approach to inject faults in the last round, while the second one is an extension of SIFA and FTA but applied to the first round with chosen plaintext. The two versions work at the byte level, but the latter version considerably improves the efficiency of the attack. Moreover, we show that this zero-value SIFA2 attack is specific to the AES tower-field decomposed S-box design. Hence, such attacks are applicable to any implementation featuring this AES S-box architecture.Then, we propose a countermeasure that prevents these attacks. We extend M&M with a fine-grained detection-based feature capable of detecting the zero-value glitch attacks. In this effort, we also solve the problem of a combined attack on the ciphertext output check of M&M scheme by using Kronecker’s delta function. We deploy the countermeasure on FPGA and verify its security against both fault and side-channel analysis with practical experiments.
Who Watches the Watchers: Attacking Glitch Detection Circuits
Over the last decades, fault injection attacks have been demonstrated to be an effective method for breaking the security of electronic devices. Some types of fault injection attacks, like clock and voltage glitching, require very few resources by the attacker and are practical and simple to execute. A cost-effective countermeasure against these attacks is the use of a detector circuit which detects timing violations - the underlying effect that glitch attacks rely on. In this paper, we take a closer look at three examples of such detectors that have been presented in the literature. We demonstrate four high-speed clock glitching attacks, which successfully inject faults in systems, where detectors have been implemented to protect. The attacks remain unnoticed by the glitch detectors. We verify our attacks with practical experiments on FPGA.
M&M: Masks and Macs against Physical Attacks 📺
Cryptographic implementations on embedded systems need to be protected against physical attacks. Today, this means that apart from incorporating countermeasures against side-channel analysis, implementations must also withstand fault attacks and combined attacks. Recent proposals in this area have shown that there is a big tradeoff between the implementation cost and the strength of the adversary model. In this work, we introduce a new combined countermeasure M&M that combines Masking with information-theoretic MAC tags and infective computation. It works in a stronger adversary model than the existing scheme ParTI, yet is a lot less costly to implement than the provably secure MPC-based scheme CAPA. We demonstrate M&M with a SCA- and DFA-secure implementation of the AES block cipher. We evaluate the side-channel leakage of the second-order secure design with a non-specific t-test and use simulation to validate the fault resistance.
CAPA: The Spirit of Beaver Against Physical Attacks 📺
In this paper we introduce two things: On one hand we introduce the Tile-Probe-and-Fault model, a model generalising the wire-probe model of Ishai et al. extending it to cover both more realistic side-channel leakage scenarios on a chip and also to cover fault and combined attacks. Secondly we introduce CAPA: a combined Countermeasure Against Physical Attacks. Our countermeasure is motivated by our model, and aims to provide security against higher-order SCA, multiple-shot FA and combined attacks. The tile-probe-and-fault model leads one to naturally look (by analogy) at actively secure multi-party computation protocols. Indeed, CAPA draws much inspiration from the MPC protocol SPDZ. So as to demonstrate that the model, and the CAPA countermeasure, are not just theoretical constructions, but could also serve to build practical countermeasures, we present initial experiments of proof-of-concept designs using the CAPA methodology. Namely, a hardware implementation of the KATAN and AES block ciphers, as well as a software bitsliced AES S-box implementation. We demonstrate experimentally that the design can resist second-order DPA attacks, even when the attacker is presented with many hundreds of thousands of traces. In addition our proof-of-concept can also detect faults within our model with high probability in accordance to the methodology.
Rhythmic Keccak: SCA Security and Low Latency in HW 📺
Glitches entail a great issue when securing a cryptographic implementation in hardware. Several masking schemes have been proposed in the literature that provide security even in the presence of glitches. The key property that allows this protection was introduced in threshold implementations as non-completeness. We address crucial points to ensure the right compliance of this property especially for low-latency implementations. Specifically, we first discuss the existence of a flaw in DSD 2017 implementation of Keccak by Gross et al. in violation of the non-completeness property and propose a solution. We perform a side-channel evaluation on the first-order and second-order implementations of the proposed design where no leakage is detected with up to 55 million traces. Then, we present a method to ensure a non-complete scheme of an unrolled implementation applicable to any order of security or algebraic degree of the shared function. By using this method we design a two-rounds unrolled first-order Keccak-

Program Committees

Asiacrypt 2022
Eurocrypt 2022
Asiacrypt 2020
CHES 2020
Asiacrypt 2019
Crypto 2019
Eurocrypt 2019
Asiacrypt 2018
Eurocrypt 2018
FSE 2016
Asiacrypt 2016
Eurocrypt 2016
FSE 2015
FSE 2014