## CryptoDB

### Miyako Ohkubo

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CRYPTO

CDS Composition of Multi-Round Protocols
Abstract

We revisit the Cramer, Damg{\aa}rd, Schoenmakers (CDS) approach for composing sigma protocols, and adapt it to a setting in which the underlying protocols have multiple rounds of interaction. The goal of CDS composition is to prove compound NP-relations by combining multiple ``atomic'' proof systems. Its key feature is that it interacts with the atomic proofs in a generic fashion, enabling simpler and more efficient implementation.
Recent developments in multi-round protocols call for the adaptation of CDS composition beyond its original scope, which not only was restricted to three-move protocols but in fact fails in the multi-round case, as well as in the composition of so-called $k$-special sound proofs.
We propose a new method for multi-round composition in the plain model, in a soundness preserving way and with an ``offline'' zero-knowledge simulation property. The need for handling arbitrary monotone access structures in $\mathsf{mNC}^1$, which is all Boolean function families represented by polynomial-size formulas over some fixed complete basis, leads us to identify a complexity theoretic problem of independent interest.
Prior to our work, multi-round composition was either restricted to the random oracle model, or worked only for argument systems, and moreover required heavy ``online'' zero-knowledge simulation.

2023

JOFC

Compact Structure-Preserving Signatures with Almost Tight Security
Abstract

In structure-preserving cryptography, every building block shares the same bilinear groups. These groups must be generated for a specific, a priori fixed security level, and thus, it is vital that the security reduction in all involved building blocks is as tight as possible. In this work, we present the first generic construction of structure-preserving signature schemes whose reduction cost is independent of the number of signing queries. Its chosen-message security is almost tightly reduced to the chosen-plaintext security of a structure-preserving public-key encryption scheme and the security of Groth–Sahai proof system. Technically, we adapt the adaptive partitioning technique by Hofheinz (Eurocrypt 2017) to the setting of structure-preserving signature schemes. To achieve a structure-preserving scheme, our new variant of the adaptive partitioning technique relies only on generic group operations in the scheme itself. Interestingly, however, we will use non-generic operations during our security analysis. Instantiated over asymmetric bilinear groups, the security of our concrete scheme is reduced to the external Diffie–Hellman assumption with linear reduction cost in the security parameter, independently of the number of signing queries. The signatures in our schemes consist of a larger number of group elements than those in other non-tight schemes, but can be verified faster, assuming their security reduction loss is compensated by increasing the security parameter to the next standard level.

2021

TCC

Acyclicity Programming for Sigma-Protocols
📺
Abstract

Cramer, Damgård, and Schoenmakers (CDS) built a proof system to demonstrate the possession of subsets of witnesses for a given collection of statements that belong to a prescribed access structure P by composing so-called sigma-protocols for each atomic statement. Their verifier complexity is linear in the size of the monotone span program
representation of P.
We propose an alternative method for combining sigma-protocols into a single non-interactive system for a compound statement in the random oracle model. In contrast to CDS, our verifier complexity is linear in the size of the acyclicity program representation of P, a complete model of monotone computation introduced in this work. We show that the acyclicity program size of a predicate is never larger than its de Morgan formula size and it is polynomially incomparable to its monotone span program size. We additionally present an extension of our proof system, with verifier complexity linear in the monotone circuit size of P, in the common reference string model.
Finally, considering the types of statement that naturally reduce to acyclicity programming, we discuss several applications of our new methods to protecting privacy in cryptocurrency and social networks.

2020

PKC

On Black-Box Extensions of Non-interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments, and Signatures Directly from Simulation Soundness
📺
Abstract

Highly efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments (NIZK) are often constructed for limited languages and it is not known how to extend them to cover wider classes of languages in general. In this work we initiate a study on black-box language extensions for conjunctive and disjunctive relations, that is, building a NIZK system for $${mathcal L}diamond hat{{mathcal L}}$$ (with $$diamond in {wedge , vee }$$ ) based on NIZK systems for languages $${mathcal L}$$ and $$hat{{mathcal L}}$$ . While the conjunctive extension of NIZKs is straightforward by simply executing the given NIZKs in parallel, it is not known how disjunctive extensions could be achieved in a black-box manner. Besides, observe that the simple conjunctive extension does not work in the case of simulation-sound NIZKs (SS-NIZKs), as pointed out by Sahai (Sahai, FOCS 1999). Our main contribution is an impossibility result that negates the existence of the above extensions and implies other non-trivial separations among NIZKs, SS-NIZKs, and labelled SS-NIZKs. Motivated by the difficulty of such transformations, we additionally present an efficient construction of signature schemes based on unbounded simulation-sound NIZKs (USS-NIZKs) for any language without language extensions.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Non-Interactive Composition of Sigma-Protocols via Share-then-Hash
📺
Abstract

Proofs of partial knowledge demonstrate the possession of certain subsets of witnesses for a given collection of statements x_1,\dots,x_n.
Cramer, Damg{\aa}rd, and Schoenmakers (CDS), built proofs of partial knowledge, given "atomic" protocols for individual statements x_i, by having the prover randomly secret share the verifier's challenge and using the shares as challenges for the atomic protocols. This simple and highly-influential transformation has been used in numerous applications, ranging from anonymous credentials to ring signatures.
We consider what happens if, instead of using the shares directly as challenges, the prover first hashes them. We show that this elementary enhancement can result in significant benefits:
- the proof contains a {\em single} atomic transcript per statement x_i,
- it suffices that the atomic protocols are k-special sound for k \geq 2,
- when compiled using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic, the protocol retains its soundness in the {\em non-programmable} random oracle model.
None of the above features is satisfied by the CDS transformation.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Shorter QA-NIZK and SPS with Tighter Security
Abstract

Quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (QA-NIZK) systems and structure-preserving signature (SPS) schemes are two powerful tools for constructing practical pairing-based cryptographic schemes. Their efficiency directly affects the efficiency of the derived advanced protocols.We construct more efficient QA-NIZK and SPS schemes with tight security reductions. Our QA-NIZK scheme is the first one that achieves both tight simulation soundness and constant proof size (in terms of number of group elements) at the same time, while the recent scheme from Abe et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) achieved tight security with proof size linearly depending on the size of the language and the witness. Assuming the hardness of the Symmetric eXternal Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) problem, our scheme contains only 14 elements in the proof and remains independent of the size of the language and the witness. Moreover, our scheme has tighter simulation soundness than the previous schemes.Technically, we refine and extend a partitioning technique from a recent SPS scheme (Gay et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of the tightly secure SPS schemes by using a relaxation of NIZK proof system for OR languages, called designated-prover NIZK system. Under the SXDH assumption, our SPS scheme contains 11 group elements in the signature, which is shortest among the tight schemes and is the same as an early non-tight scheme (Abe et al., ASIACRYPT 2012). Compared to the shortest known non-tight scheme (Jutla and Roy, PKC 2017), our scheme achieves tight security at the cost of 5 additional elements.All the schemes in this paper are proven secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumptions (Escala et al., CRYPTO 2013). These are a class of assumptions which include the well-known SXDH and DLIN assumptions and provide clean algebraic insights to our constructions. To the best of our knowledge, our schemes achieve the best efficiency among schemes with the same functionality and security properties. This naturally leads to improvement of the efficiency of cryptosystems based on simulation-sound QA-NIZK and SPS.

2019

JOFC

Efficient Fully Structure-Preserving Signatures and Shrinking Commitments
Abstract

In structure-preserving signatures, public keys, messages, and signatures are all collections of source group elements of some bilinear groups. In this paper, we introduce fully structure-preserving signature schemes, with the additional requirement that even secret keys are group elements. This strong property allows efficient non-interactive proofs of knowledge of the secret key, which is useful in designing cryptographic protocols under simulation-based security where online extraction of the secret key is needed. We present efficient constructions under simple standard assumptions and pursue even more efficient constructions with the extra property of randomizability based on the generic bilinear group model. An essential building block for our efficient standard model construction is a shrinking structure-preserving trapdoor commitment scheme, which is by itself an important primitive and of independent interest as it appears to contradict a known impossibility result that structure-preserving commitments cannot be shrinking. We argue that a relaxed binding property lets us circumvent the impossibility while still retaining the usefulness of the primitive in important applications as mentioned above.

2018

PKC

Improved (Almost) Tightly-Secure Structure-Preserving Signatures
Abstract

Structure Preserving Signatures (SPS) allow the signatures and the messages signed to be further encrypted while retaining the ability to be proven valid under zero-knowledge. In particular, SPS are tailored to have structure suitable for Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs. More precisely, the messages, signatures, and verification keys are required to be elements of groups that support efficient bilinear-pairings (bilinear groups), and the signature verification consists of just evaluating one or more bilinear-pairing product equations. Since Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs can (with zero-knowledge) prove the validity of such pairing product equations, it leads to interesting applications such as blind signatures, group signatures, traceable signatures, group encryption, and delegatable credential systems.In this paper, we further improve on the SPS scheme of Abe, Hofheinz, Nishimaki, Ohkubo and Pan (CRYPTO 2017) while maintaining only an
$$O(\lambda )$$
O(λ)-factor security reduction loss to the SXDH assumption. In particular, we compress the size of the signatures by almost 40%, and reduce the number of pairing-product equations in the verifier from fifteen to seven. Recall that structure preserving signatures are used in applications by encrypting the messages and/or the signatures, and hence these optimizations are further amplified as proving pairing-product equations in Groth-Sahai NIZK system is not frugal. While our scheme uses an important novel technique introduced by Hofheinz (EuroCrypt 2017), i.e. structure-preserving adaptive partitioning, our approach to building the signature scheme is different and this leads to the optimizations mentioned. Thus we make progress towards an open problem stated by Abe et al. (CRYPTO 2017) to design more compact SPS-es with smaller number of group elements.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Improved (Almost) Tightly-Secure Simulation-Sound QA-NIZK with Applications
Abstract

We construct the first (almost) tightly-secure unbounded-simulation-sound quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments (USS-QA-NIZK) for linear-subspace languages with compact (number of group elements independent of the security parameter) common reference string (CRS) and compact proofs under standard assumptions in bilinear-pairings groups. In particular, under the SXDH assumption, the USS-QA-NIZK proof size is only seventeen group elements with a factor $$O(\log {Q})$$ loss in security reduction to SXDH. The USS-QA-NIZK primitive has many applications, including structure-preserving signatures (SPS), CCA2-secure publicly-verifiable public-key encryption (PKE), which in turn have applications to CCA-anonymous group signatures, blind signatures and unbounded simulation-sound Groth-Sahai NIZK proofs. We show that the almost tight security of our USS-QA-NIZK translates into constructions of all of the above applications with (almost) tight-security to standard assumptions such as SXDH and, more generally, $$\mathcal{D}_k$$-MDDH. Thus, we get the first publicly-verifiable (almost) tightly-secure multi-user/multi-challenge CCA2-secure PKE with practical efficiency under standard bilinear assumptions. Our (almost) tight SPS construction is also improved in the signature size over previously known constructions.

2016

CRYPTO

2016

JOFC

2012

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023
- Eurocrypt 2022
- Asiacrypt 2021
- PKC 2020
- Eurocrypt 2017
- Asiacrypt 2017
- Eurocrypt 2013

#### Coauthors

- Masayuki Abe (26)
- Miguel Ambrona (3)
- Andrej Bogdanov (3)
- Melissa Chase (2)
- Bernardo David (3)
- Georg Fuchsbauer (2)
- Jens Groth (8)
- Kristiyan Haralambiev (4)
- Dennis Hofheinz (2)
- Fumitaka Hoshino (1)
- Charanjit S. Jutla (3)
- Tetsutaro Kobayashi (1)
- Markulf Kohlweiss (5)
- Ryo Nishimaki (5)
- Jiaxin Pan (3)
- Alon Rosen (3)
- Arnay Roy (2)
- Arnab Roy (1)
- Jae Hong Seo (1)
- Zehua Shang (1)
- Koutarou Suzuki (2)
- Takeya Tango (1)
- Mehdi Tibouchi (5)
- Yuyu Wang (1)