International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Elena Andreeva

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
EUROCRYPT
Compactness of Hashing Modes and Efficiency beyond Merkle Tree 📺
We revisit the classical problem of designing optimally efficient cryptographically secure hash functions. Hash functions are traditionally designed via applying modes of operation on primitives with smaller domains. The results of Shrimpton and Stam (ICALP 2008), Rogaway and Steinberger (CRYPTO 2008), and Mennink and Preneel (CRYPTO 2012) show how to achieve optimally efficient designs of $2n$-to-$n$-bit compression functions from non-compressing primitives with asymptotically optimal $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$-query collision resistance. Designing optimally efficient and secure hash functions for larger domains ($> 2n$ bits) is still an open problem. To enable efficiency analysis and comparison across hash functions built from primitives of different domain sizes, in this work we propose the new \textit{compactness} efficiency notion. It allows us to focus on asymptotically optimally collision resistant hash function and normalize their parameters based on Stam's bound from CRYPTO 2008 to obtain maximal efficiency. We then present two tree-based modes of operation as a design principle for compact, large domain, fixed-input-length hash functions. \begin{enumerate} \item Our first construction is an \underline{A}ugmented \underline{B}inary T\underline{r}ee (\cmt) mode. The design is a $(2^{\ell}+2^{\ell-1} -1)n$-to-$n$-bit hash function making a total of $(2^{\ell}-1)$ calls to $2n$-to-$n$-bit compression functions for any $\ell\geq 2$. Our construction is optimally compact with asymptotically (optimal) $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$-query collision resistance in the ideal model. For a tree of height $\ell$, in comparison with Merkle tree, the $\cmt$ mode processes additional $(2^{\ell-1}-1)$ data blocks making the same number of internal compression function calls. \item With our second design we focus our attention on the indifferentiability security notion. While the $\cmt$ mode achieves collision resistance, it fails to achieve indifferentiability from a random oracle within $2^{n/3}$ queries. $\cmt^{+}$ compresses only $1$ less data block than $\cmt$ with the same number of compression calls and achieves in addition indifferentiability up to $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$ queries. \end{enumerate} Both of our designs are closely related to the ubiquitous Merkle Trees and have the potential for real-world applicability where the speed of hashing is of primary interest.
2021
TOSC
1, 2, 3, Fork: Counter Mode Variants based on a Generalized Forkcipher
A multi-forkcipher (MFC) is a generalization of the forkcipher (FC) primitive introduced by Andreeva et al. at ASIACRYPT’19. An MFC is a tweakable cipher that computes s output blocks for a single input block, with s arbitrary but fixed. We define the MFC security in the ind-prtmfp notion as indistinguishability from s tweaked permutations. Generalizing tweakable block ciphers (TBCs, s = 1), as well as forkciphers (s = 2), MFC lends itself well to building simple-to-analyze modes of operation that support any number of cipher output blocks.Our main contribution is the generic CTR encryption mode GCTR that makes parallel calls to an MFC to encrypt a message M. We analyze the set of all 36 “simple and natural” GCTR variants under the nivE security notion by Peyrin and Seurin rom CRYPTO’16. Our proof method makes use of an intermediate abstraction called tweakable CTR (TCTR) that captures the core security properties of GCTR common to all variants, making their analyses easier. Our results show that many of the schemes achieve from well beyond birthday bound (BBB) to full n-bit security under nonce respecting adversaries and some even BBB and close to full n-bit security in the face of realistic nonce misuse conditions.We finally present an efficiency comparison of GCTR using ForkSkinny (an MFC with s = 2) with the traditional CTR and the more recent CTRT modes, both are instantiated with the SKINNY TBC. Our estimations show that any GCTR variant with ForkSkinny can achieve an efficiency advantage of over 20% for moderately long messages, illustrating that the use of an efficient MFC with s ≥ 2 brings a clear speed-up.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Forkcipher: A New Primitive for Authenticated Encryption of Very Short Messages
Highly efficient encryption and authentication of short messages is an essential requirement for enabling security in constrained scenarios such as the CAN FD in automotive systems (max. message size 64 bytes), massive IoT, critical communication domains of 5G, and Narrowband IoT, to mention a few. In addition, one of the NIST lightweight cryptography project requirements is that AEAD schemes shall be “optimized to be efficient for short messages (e.g., as short as 8 bytes)”.In this work we introduce and formalize a novel primitive in symmetric cryptography called forkcipher. A forkcipher is a keyed primitive expanding a fixed-lenght input to a fixed-length output. We define its security as indistinguishability under a chosen ciphertext attack (for n-bit inputs to 2n-bit outputs). We give a generic construction validation via the new iterate-fork-iterate design paradigm.We then propose $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ as a concrete forkcipher instance with a public tweak and based on SKINNY: a tweakable lightweight cipher following the TWEAKEY framework. We conduct extensive cryptanalysis of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ against classical and structure-specific attacks.We demonstrate the applicability of forkciphers by designing three new provably-secure nonce-based AEAD modes which offer performance and security tradeoffs and are optimized for efficiency of very short messages. Considering a reference block size of 16 bytes, and ignoring possible hardware optimizations, our new AEAD schemes beat the best SKINNY-based AEAD modes. More generally, we show forkciphers are suited for lightweight applications dealing with predominantly short messages, while at the same time allowing handling arbitrary messages sizes.Furthermore, our hardware implementation results show that when we exploit the inherent parallelism of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ we achieve the best performance when directly compared with the most efficient mode instantiated with SKINNY.
2017
TOSC
Turning Online Ciphers Off
CAESAR has caused a heated discussion regarding the merits of one-pass encryption and online ciphers. The latter is a keyed, length preserving function which outputs ciphertext blocks as soon as the respective plaintext block is available as input. The immediacy of an online cipher affords a clear performance advantage, but it comes at a price: ciphertext blocks cannot depend on later plaintext blocks, limiting diffusion and hence security. We show how one can attain the best of both worlds by providing provably secure constructions, achieving full cipher security, based on applications of an online cipher around blockwise reordering layers. Explicitly, we show that with just two calls to the online cipher, prp security up to the birthday bound is both attainable and maximal. Moreover, we demonstrate that three calls to the online cipher suffice to obtain beyond birthday bound security. We provide a full proof of this for a prp construction, and, in the ±prp setting, security against adversaries who make queries of any single length. As part of our investigation, we extend an observation by Rogaway and Zhang by further highlighting the close relationship between online ciphers and tweakable blockciphers with variable-length tweaks.
2016
JOFC
2015
FSE
2014
ASIACRYPT
2014
FSE
2014
FSE
2013
CRYPTO
2013
ASIACRYPT
2013
FSE
2008
EUROCRYPT
2007
ASIACRYPT

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2019
FSE 2018
Crypto 2017
FSE 2017
Asiacrypt 2016
FSE 2015
FSE 2014
Asiacrypt 2014