International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Yevgeniy Dodis

Affiliation: New York University, USA

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
EUROCRYPT
The Double Ratchet: Security Notions, Proofs, and Modularization for the Signal Protocol
Joël Alwen Sandro Coretti Yevgeniy Dodis
Signal is a famous secure messaging protocol used by billions of people, by virtue of many secure text messaging applications including Signal itself, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Skype, and Google Allo. At its core it uses the concept of “double ratcheting,” where every message is encrypted and authenticated using a fresh symmetric key; it has many attractive properties, such as forward security, post-compromise security, and “immediate (no-delay) decryption,” which had never been achieved in combination by prior messaging protocols.While the formal analysis of the Signal protocol, and ratcheting in general, has attracted a lot of recent attention, we argue that none of the existing analyses is fully satisfactory. To address this problem, we give a clean and general definition of secure messaging, which clearly indicates the types of security we expect, including forward security, post-compromise security, and immediate decryption. We are the first to explicitly formalize and model the immediate decryption property, which implies (among other things) that parties seamlessly recover if a given message is permanently lost—a property not achieved by any of the recent “provable alternatives to Signal.”We build a modular “generalized Signal protocol” from the following components: (a) continuous key agreement (CKA), a clean primitive we introduce and which can be easily and generically built from public-key encryption (not just Diffie-Hellman as is done in the current Signal protocol) and roughly models “public-key ratchets;” (b) forward-secure authenticated encryption with associated data (FS-AEAD), which roughly captures “symmetric-key ratchets;” and (c) a two-input hash function that is a pseudorandom function (resp. generator with input) in its first (resp. second) input, which we term PRF-PRNG. As a result, in addition to instantiating our framework in a way resulting in the existing, widely-used Diffie-Hellman based Signal protocol, we can easily get post-quantum security and not rely on random oracles in the analysis.
2019
CRYPTO
Seedless Fruit Is the Sweetest: Random Number Generation, Revisited 📺
The need for high-quality randomness in cryptography makes random-number generation one of its most fundamental tasks.A recent important line of work (initiated by Dodis et al., CCS ’13) focuses on the notion of robustness for pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) with inputs. These are primitives that use various sources to accumulate sufficient entropy into a state, from which pseudorandom bits are extracted. Robustness ensures that PRNGs remain secure even under state compromise and adversarial control of entropy sources. However, the achievability of robustness inherently depends on a seed, or, alternatively, on an ideal primitive (e.g., a random oracle), independent of the source of entropy. Both assumptions are problematic: seed generation requires randomness to start with, and it is arguable whether the seed or the ideal primitive can be kept independent of the source. This paper resolves this dilemma by putting forward new notions of robustness which enable both (1) seedless PRNGs and (2) primitive-dependent adversarial sources of entropy. To bypass obvious impossibility results, we make a realistic compromise by requiring that the source produce sufficient entropy even given its evaluations of the underlying primitive. We also provide natural, practical, and provably secure constructions based on hash-function designs from compression functions, block ciphers, and permutations. Our constructions can be instantiated with minimal changes to industry-standard hash functions SHA-2 and SHA-3, or key derivation function HKDF, and can be downgraded to (online) seedless randomness extractors, which are of independent interest.On the way we consider both a computational variant of robustness, where attackers only make a bounded number of queries to the ideal primitive, as well as a new information-theoretic variant, which dispenses with this assumption to a certain extent, at the price of requiring a high rate of injected weak randomness (as it is, e.g., plausible on Intel’s on-chip RNG). The latter notion enables applications such as everlasting security. Finally, we show that the CBC extractor, used by Intel’s on-chip RNG, is provably insecure in our model.
2019
CRYPTO
Reusable Non-Interactive Secure Computation 📺
We consider the problem of Non-Interactive Two-Party Secure Computation (NISC), where Rachel wishes to publish an encryption of her input x, in such a way that any other party, who holds an input y, can send her a single message which conveys to her the value f(x, y), and nothing more. We demand security against malicious parties. While such protocols are easy to construct using garbled circuits and general non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, this approach inherently makes a non-black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives and is infeasible in practice.Ishai et al. (Eurocrypt 2011) showed how to construct NISC protocols that only use parallel calls to an ideal oblivious transfer (OT) oracle, and additionally make only a black-box use of any pseudorandom generator. Combined with the efficient 2-message OT protocol of Peikert et al. (Crypto 2008), this leads to a practical approach to NISC that has been implemented in subsequent works. However, a major limitation of all known OT-based NISC protocols is that they are subject to selective failure attacks that allows a malicious sender to entirely compromise the security of the protocol when the receiver’s first message is reused.Motivated by the failure of the OT-based approach, we consider the problem of basing reusable NISC on parallel invocations of a standard arithmetic generalization of OT known as oblivious linear-function evaluation (OLE). We obtain the following results:We construct an information-theoretically secure reusable NISC protocol for arithmetic branching programs and general zero-knowledge functionalities in the OLE-hybrid model. Our zero-knowledge protocol only makes an absolute constant number of OLE calls per gate in an arithmetic circuit whose satisfiability is being proved. We also get reusable NISC in the OLE-hybrid model for general Boolean circuits using any one-way function.We complement this by a negative result, showing that reusable NISC is impossible to achieve in the OT-hybrid model. This provides a formal justification for the need to replace OT by OLE.We build a universally composable 2-message reusable OLE protocol in the CRS model that can be based on the security of Paillier encryption and requires only a constant number of modular exponentiations. This provides the first arithmetic analogue of the 2-message OT protocols of Peikert et al. (Crypto 2008).By combining our NISC protocol in the OLE-hybrid model and the 2-message OLE protocol, we get protocols with new attractive asymptotic and concrete efficiency features. In particular, we get the first (designated-verifier) NIZK protocols for NP where following a statement-independent preprocessing, both proving and verifying are entirely “non-cryptographic” and involve only a constant computational overhead. Furthermore, we get the first statistical designated-verifier NIZK argument for NP under an assumption related to factoring.
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
CRYPTO
Non-Uniform Bounds in the Random-Permutation, Ideal-Cipher, and Generic-Group Models 📺
Sandro Coretti Yevgeniy Dodis Siyao Guo
The random-permutation model (RPM) and the ideal-cipher model (ICM) are idealized models that offer a simple and intuitive way to assess the conjectured standard-model security of many important symmetric-key and hash-function constructions. Similarly, the generic-group model (GGM) captures generic algorithms against assumptions in cyclic groups by modeling encodings of group elements as random injections and allows to derive simple bounds on the advantage of such algorithms.Unfortunately, both well-known attacks, e.g., based on rainbow tables (Hellman, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory ’80), and more recent ones, e.g., against the discrete-logarithm problem (Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan, EUROCRYPT ’18), suggest that the concrete security bounds one obtains from such idealized proofs are often completely inaccurate if one considers non-uniform or preprocessing attacks in the standard model. To remedy this situation, this workdefines the auxiliary-input (AI) RPM/ICM/GGM, which capture both non-uniform and preprocessing attacks by allowing an attacker to leak an arbitrary (bounded-output) function of the oracle’s function table;derives the first non-uniform bounds for a number of important practical applications in the AI-RPM/ICM, including constructions based on the Merkle-Damgård and sponge paradigms, which underly the SHA hashing standards, and for AI-RPM/ICM applications with computational security; andusing simpler proofs, recovers the AI-GGM security bounds obtained by Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan against preprocessing attackers, for a number of assumptions related to cyclic groups, such as discrete logarithms and Diffie-Hellman problems, and provides new bounds for two assumptions. An important step in obtaining these results is to port the tools used in recent work by Coretti et al. (EUROCRYPT ’18) from the ROM to the RPM/ICM/GGM, resulting in very powerful and easy-to-use tools for proving security bounds against non-uniform and preprocessing attacks.
2018
CRYPTO
Provable Security of (Tweakable) Block Ciphers Based on Substitution-Permutation Networks 📺
Substitution-Permutation Networks (SPNs) refer to a family of constructions which build a wn-bit block cipher from n-bit public permutations (often called S-boxes), which alternate keyless and “local” substitution steps utilizing such S-boxes, with keyed and “global” permutation steps which are non-cryptographic. Many widely deployed block ciphers are constructed based on the SPNs, but there are essentially no provable-security results about SPNs.In this work, we initiate a comprehensive study of the provable security of SPNs as (possibly tweakable) wn-bit block ciphers, when the underlying n-bit permutation is modeled as a public random permutation. When the permutation step is linear (which is the case for most existing designs), we show that 3 SPN rounds are necessary and sufficient for security. On the other hand, even 1-round SPNs can be secure when non-linearity is allowed. Moreover, 2-round non-linear SPNs can achieve “beyond-birthday” (up to $$2^{2n/3}$$ 22n/3 adversarial queries) security, and, as the number of non-linear rounds increases, our bounds are meaningful for the number of queries approaching $$2^n$$ 2n. Finally, our non-linear SPNs can be made tweakable by incorporating the tweak into the permutation layer, and provide good multi-user security.As an application, our construction can turn two public n-bit permutations (or fixed-key block ciphers) into a tweakable block cipher working on wn-bit inputs, 6n-bit key and an n-bit tweak (for any $$w\ge 2$$ w≥2); the tweakable block cipher provides security up to $$2^{2n/3}$$ 22n/3 adversarial queries in the random permutation model, while only requiring w calls to each permutation, and 3w field multiplications for each wn-bit input.
2018
CRYPTO
Fast Message Franking: From Invisible Salamanders to Encryptment 📺
Message franking enables cryptographically verifiable reporting of abusive messages in end-to-end encrypted messaging. Grubbs, Lu, and Ristenpart recently formalized the needed underlying primitive, what they call compactly committing authenticated encryption (AE), and analyze security of a number of approaches. But all known secure schemes are still slow compared to the fastest standard AE schemes. For this reason Facebook Messenger uses AES-GCM for franking of attachments such as images or videos.We show how to break Facebook’s attachment franking scheme: a malicious user can send an objectionable image to a recipient but that recipient cannot report it as abuse. The core problem stems from use of fast but non-committing AE, and so we build the fastest compactly committing AE schemes to date. To do so we introduce a new primitive, called encryptment, which captures the essential properties needed. We prove that, unfortunately, schemes with performance profile similar to AES-GCM won’t work. Instead, we show how to efficiently transform Merkle-Damgärd-style hash functions into secure encryptments, and how to efficiently build compactly committing AE from encryptment. Ultimately our main construction allows franking using just a single computation of SHA-256 or SHA-3. Encryptment proves useful for a variety of other applications, such as remotely keyed AE and concealments, and our results imply the first single-pass schemes in these settings as well.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
CRYPTO
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2016
CRYPTO
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
Non-Malleable Codes
Yevgeniy Dodis
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2013
TCC
2013
CRYPTO
2013
ASIACRYPT
2012
TCC
2012
TCC
2012
TCC
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2011
CRYPTO
2011
EUROCRYPT
2010
TCC
2010
TCC
2010
ASIACRYPT
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EPRINT
Efficient Public-Key Cryptography in the Presence of Key Leakage
We study the design of cryptographic primitives resistant to a large class of side-channel attacks, called "memory attacks", where an attacker can repeatedly and adaptively learn information about the secret key, subject *only* to the constraint that the *overall amount* of such information is bounded by some parameter $\ell$. Although the study of such primitives was initiated only recently by Akavia et al. [AGV09], subsequent work already produced many such "leakage-resilient" primitives [NS09,ADW09,KV09], including signature, encryption, identification (ID) and authenticated key agreement (AKA) schemes. Unfortunately, every existing scheme, --- for any of the four fundamental primitives above, --- fails to satisfy at least one of the following desirable properties: - Efficiency. While the construction may be generic, it should have some *efficient* instantiations, based on standard cryptographic assumptions, and without relying on random oracles. - Strong Security. The construction should satisfy the strongest possible definition of security (even in the presence of leakage). For example, encryption schemes should be secure against chosen *ciphertext* attack (CCA), while signatures should be *existentially* unforgeable. - Leakage Flexibility. It should be possible to set the parameters of the schemes so that the leakage bound $\ell$ can come arbitrarily close to the size of the secret key $sk$. In this work we design the first signature, encryption, ID and AKA schemes which overcome these limitations, and satisfy all the properties above. Moreover, all our constructions are generic, in several cases elegantly simplifying and generalizing the prior constructions (which did not have any efficient instantiations). We also introduce several tools of independent interest, such as the abstraction (and constructions) of *simulation extractable* NIZK arguments, and a new *deniable* DH-based AKA protocol based on any CCA-secure encryption.
2010
EPRINT
Cryptography Against Continuous Memory Attacks
We say that a cryptographic scheme is Continous Leakage-Resilient (CLR), if it allows users to refresh their secret keys, using only fresh local randomness, such that: 1. The scheme remains functional after any number of key refreshes, although the public key never changes. Thus, the “outside world” is neither affected by these key refreshes, nor needs to know about their frequency. 2. The scheme remains secure even if the adversary can continuously leak arbitrary information about the current secret-key of the system, as long as the amount of leaked information is bounded in between any two successive key refreshes. There is no bound on the total amount of information that can be leaked during the lifetime of the system. In this work, we construct a variety of practical CLR schemes, including CLR one-way relations, CLR signatures, CLR identification schemes, and CLR authenticated key agreement protocols. For each of the above, we give general constructions, and then show how to instantiate them efficiently using a well established assumption on bilinear groups, called the K-Linear assumption (for any constant K >= 1). Our constructions are highly modular, and we develop many interesting techniques and building-blocks along the way, including: leakage-indistinguishable re-randomizable relations, homomorphic NIZKs, and leakage-of-ciphertext non-malleable encryption schemes. Prior to our work, no “truly CLR” schemes were known, as previous leakage-resilient schemes suffer from one or more of the following drawbacks: (a) restrictions are placed on the type of allowed leakage, such as the axiom that “only computation leaks information”; (b) the overall amount of key leakage is bounded a-priori for the lifetime of the system and there is no method for refreshing keys ; (c) the efficiency of the scheme degrades proportionally with the number of refreshes; (d) the key updates require an additional leak-free “master secret key” to be stored securely; (e) the scheme is only proven secure under a strong non-standard assumption.
2010
EPRINT
Robust Fuzzy Extractors and Authenticated Key Agreement from Close Secrets
Consider two parties holding samples from correlated distributions W and W', respectively, that are within distance t of each other in some metric space. These parties wish to agree on a uniformly distributed secret key R by sending a single message over an insecure channel controlled by an all-powerful adversary. We consider both the keyless case, where the parties share no additional secret information, and the keyed case, where the parties share a long-term secret SK that they can use to generate a sequence of session keys {R_j} using multiple pairs {W_j, W'_j}. The former has applications to, e.g., biometric authentication, while the latter arises in, e.g., the bounded storage model with errors. Our results improve upon previous work in several respects: -- The best previous solution for the keyless case with no errors (i.e., t=0) requires the min-entropy of W to exceed 2n/3, where n is the bit-length of W. Our solution applies whenever min-entropy of W exceeds the minimal possible} threshold n/2, and yields a longer key. -- Previous solutions for the keyless case in the presence of errors (i.e., t>0) required random oracles. We give the first constructions (for certain metrics) in the standard model. -- Previous solutions for the keyed case were stateful. We give the first stateless solution.
2009
TCC
2009
TCC
2009
TCC
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
CRYPTO
2009
CRYPTO
2009
FSE
2009
EPRINT
Proofs of Retrievability via Hardness Amplification
Yevgeniy Dodis Salil P. Vadhan Daniel Wichs
Proofs of Retrievability (PoR), introduced by Juels and Kaliski, allow the client to store a file $F$ on an untrusted server, and later run an efficient audit protocol in which the server proves that it (still) possesses the client's data. Constructions of PoR schemes attempt to minimize the client and server storage, the communication complexity of an audit, and even the number of file-blocks accessed by the server during the audit. In this work, we identify several different variants of the problem (such as bounded-use vs. unbounded-use, knowledge-soundness vs. information-soundness), and giving nearly optimal PoR schemes for each of these variants. Our constructions either improve (and generalize) the prior PoR constructions, or give the first known PoR schemes with the required properties. In particular, we \begin{itemize} \item Formally prove the security of an (optimized) variant of the bounded-use scheme of Juels and Kaliski~\cite{JuelsK07}, without making any simplifying assumptions on the behavior of the adversary. \item Build the first unbounded-use PoR scheme where the communication complexity is linear in the security parameter and which does not rely on Random Oracles, resolving an open question of Shacham and Waters~\cite{ShachamW08}. \item Build the first bounded-use scheme with {\em information-theoretic} security. \end{itemize} The main insight of our work comes from a simple connection between PoR schemes and the notion of {\em hardness amplification}, extensively studied in complexity theory. In particular, our improvements come from first abstracting a purely information-theoretic notion of {\em PoR codes}, and then building nearly optimal PoR codes using state-of-the-art tools from coding and complexity theory.
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
CRYPTO
2008
EPRINT
Detection of Algebraic Manipulation with Applications to Robust Secret Sharing and Fuzzy Extractors
Consider an abstract storage device $\Sigma(\G)$ that can hold a single element $x$ from a fixed, publicly known finite group $\G$. Storage is private in the sense that an adversary does not have read access to $\Sigma(\G)$ at all. However, $\Sigma(\G)$ is non-robust in the sense that the adversary can modify its contents by adding some offset $\Delta \in \G$. Due to the privacy of the storage device, the value $\Delta$ can only depend on an adversary's {\em a priori} knowledge of $x$. We introduce a new primitive called an {\em algebraic manipulation detection} (AMD) code, which encodes a source $s$ into a value $x$ stored on $\Sigma(\G)$ so that any tampering by an adversary will be detected, except with a small error probability $\delta$. We give a nearly optimal construction of AMD codes, which can flexibly accommodate arbitrary choices for the length of the source $s$ and security level $\delta$. We use this construction in two applications: \begin{itemize} \item We show how to efficiently convert any linear secret sharing scheme into a {\em robust secret sharing scheme}, which ensures that no \emph{unqualified subset} of players can modify their shares and cause the reconstruction of some value $s'\neq s$. \item We show how how to build nearly optimal {\em robust fuzzy extractors} for several natural metrics. Robust fuzzy extractors enable one to reliably extract and later recover random keys from noisy and non-uniform secrets, such as biometrics, by relying only on {\em non-robust public storage}. In the past, such constructions were known only in the random oracle model, or required the entropy rate of the secret to be greater than half. Our construction relies on a randomly chosen common reference string (CRS) available to all parties. \end{itemize}
2008
EPRINT
One-Round Authenticated Key Agreement from Weak Secrets
Yevgeniy Dodis Daniel Wichs
We study the question of information-theoretically secure authenticated key agreement from weak secrets. In this setting, Alice and Bob share a $n$-bit secret $W$, which might \emph{not} be uniformly random but the adversary has at least $k$ bits of uncertainty about it (formalized using conditional min-entropy). Alice and Bob wish to use $W$ to agree on a nearly uniform secret key $R$, over a public channel controlled by an \emph{active} adversary Eve. We show that non-interactive (single-message) protocols do not work when $k\le \frac{n}{2}$, and require poor parameters even when $\frac{n}{2} < k\ll n$. On the other hand, for arbitrary values of $k$, we design a communication efficient {\em two-message (i.e, one-round!)} protocol extracting nearly $k$ random bits. This dramatically improves the only previously known protocol of Renner and Wolf~\cite{RennerW03}, which required $O(\lambda)$ rounds where $\lambda$ is the security parameter. Our solution takes a new approach by studying and constructing \emph{``non-malleable'' seeded randomness extractors} --- if an attacker sees a random seed $X$ and comes up with an arbitrarily related seed $X'$, then we bound the relationship between $R= \Ext(W;X)$ and $R' = \Ext(W;X')$. We also extend our one-round key agreement protocol to the ``fuzzy'' setting, where Alice and Bob share ``close'' (but not equal) secrets $W_A$ and $W_B$, and to the Bounded Retrieval Model (BRM) where the size of the secret $W$ is huge.
2007
EUROCRYPT
2007
FSE
2007
PKC
2007
TCC
2007
TCC
2007
TCC
2007
EPRINT
Optimistic Fair Exchange in a Multi-user Setting
Yevgeniy Dodis Pil Joong Lee Dae Hyun Yum
This paper addresses the security of optimistic fair exchange in a multi-user setting. While the security of public key encryption and public key signature schemes in a single-user setting guarantees the security in a multi-user setting, we show that the situation is different in the optimistic fair exchange. First, we show how to break, in the multi-user setting, an optimistic fair exchange scheme provably secure in the single-user setting. This example separates the security of optimistic fair exchange between the single-user setting and the multi-user setting. We then define the formal security model of optimistic fair exchange in the multi-user setting, which is the first complete security model of optimistic fair exchange in the multi-user setting. We prove the existence of a generic construction meeting our multi-user security based on one-way functions in the random oracle model and trapdoor one-way permutations in the standard model. Finally, we revisit two well-known methodologies of optimistic fair exchange, which are based on the verifiably encrypted signature and the sequential two-party multisignature, respectively. Our result shows that these paradigms remain valid in the multi-user setting.
2006
CRYPTO
2006
TCC
2006
TCC
2006
TCC
2006
TCC
2006
EPRINT
Threshold and Proactive Pseudo-Random Permutations
We construct a reasonably efficient threshold and proactive pseudo-random permutation (PRP). Our protocol needs only O(1) communication rounds. It tolerates up to (n-1)/2 of n dishonest servers in the semi-honest environment. Many protocols that use PRPs (e.g., a CBC block cipher mode) can now be translated into the distributed setting. Our main technique for constructing invertible threshold PRPs is a distributed Luby-Rackoff construction where both the secret keys *and* the input are shared among the servers. We also present protocols for obliviously computing pseudo-random functions by Naor-Reingold and Dodis-Yampolskiy with shared input and keys.
2006
PKC
2006
EPRINT
Verifiable Random Permutations
Yevgeniy Dodis Prashant Puniya
Pseudorandom Functions (PRFs), introduced by Goldreich, Goldwasser and Micali, allow one to efficiently simulate the computation of a function which is indistinguishable from a truly random function. A seemingly stronger primitive is that of a (strong) pseudorandom permutation (PRP), which allows one to efficiently simulate a truly random permutation (and its inverse). The celebrated result of Luby and Rackoff shows that these primitives are, in fact, equivalent: four rounds of the Feistel transform are necessary and sufficient to turn a PRF into a (strong) PRP. In this paper we study a similar conversion for the verifiable analogs of PRFs and PRPs, called Verifiable Random Functions (VRFs) and Verifiable Random Permutations (VRPs). VRFs, introduced by Micali, Rabin and Vadhan, extend the notion of a PRF to allow the owner of the secret key for the VRF to prove to the outside parties that a given VRF value was correctly (and uniquely!) computed. Yet, such proofs do not violate the pseudorandomness of the remaining, yet ``unopened'' values. VRPs, introduced in this paper, similarly extend the notion of PRPs. We notice that the result of Luby and Rackoff no longer applies to converting VRFs into VRPs, since the VRP proofs must reveal the VRF outputs (and proofs) of the intermediate rounds. Indeed, we show that even logarithmic (in the security parameter) number of rounds is not enough for this conversion. Our main result, however, shows that super-logarithmic number of rounds of the Feistel transform suffice to build a VRP out of an arbitrary VRF. As an application, we give a construction of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs with efficient provers for any NP language from any VRF. The result is obtained from our VRF--->VRP conversion, by noticing that VRPs easily yield ``invariant signatures'' of Goldwasser and Ostrovsky , which are known to imply NIZK. (We also notice that the detour through VRPs seems necessary for this implication, since using VRFs in place of invariant signatures is provably insufficient for the NIZK construction of Goldwasser et al. to go through.)
2006
EPRINT
Does Privacy Require True Randomness?
Carl Bosley Yevgeniy Dodis
Most cryptographic primitives require randomness (for example, to generate their secret keys). Usually, one assumes that perfect randomness is available, but, conceivably, such primitives might be built under weaker, more realistic assumptions. This is known to be true for many authentication applications, when entropy alone is typically sufficient. In contrast, all known techniques for achieving privacy seem to fundamentally require (nearly) perfect randomness. We ask the question whether this is just a coincidence, or, perhaps, privacy inherently requires true randomness? We completely resolve this question for the case of (information-theoretic) private-key encryption, where parties wish to encrypt a b-bit value using a shared secret key sampled from some imperfect source of randomness S. Our main result shows that if such n-bit source S allows for a secure encryption of b bits, where b>log n, then one can deterministically extract nearly b almost perfect random bits from S. Further, the restriction that b>log n is nearly tight: there exist sources S allowing one to perfectly encrypt (log n - loglog n) bits, but not to deterministically extract even a single slightly unbiased bit. Hence, to a large extent, *true randomness is inherent for encryption*: either the key length must be exponential in the message length b, or one can deterministically extract nearly b almost unbiased random bits from the key. In particular, the *one-time pad scheme is essentially universal*. Our technique also extends to related *computational* primitives which are perfectly-binding, such as perfectly-binding commitment and computationally secure private- or public-key encryption, showing the necessity to efficiently extract almost b *pseudorandom* bits.
2006
EPRINT
Universally Composable Security with Global Setup
Cryptographic protocols are often designed and analyzed under some trusted setup assumptions, namely in settings where the participants have access to global information that is trusted to have some basic security properties. However, current modeling of security in the presence of such setup falls short of providing the expected security guarantees. A quintessential example of this phenomenon is the deniability concern: there exist natural protocols that meet the strongest known composable security notions, and are still vulnerable to bad interactions with rogue protocols that use the same setup. We extend the notion of universally composable (UC) security in a way that re-establishes its original intuitive guarantee even for protocols that use globally available setup. The new formulation prevents bad interactions even with adaptively chosen protocols that use the same setup. In particular, it guarantees deniability. While for protocols that use no setup the proposed requirements are the same as in traditional UC security, for protocols that use global setup the proposed requirements are significantly stronger. In fact, realizing Zero Knowledge or commitment becomes provably impossible, even in the Common Reference String model. Still, we propose reasonable alternative setup assumptions and protocols that allow realizing practically any cryptographic task under standard hardness assumptions even against adaptive corruptions.
2005
CRYPTO
2005
CRYPTO
2005
EUROCRYPT
2005
PKC
2005
TCC
2005
TCC
2005
EPRINT
Minimal Assumptions for Efficient Mercurial Commitments
Yevgeniy Dodis
Mercurial commitments were introduced by Chase et al. (Eurocrypt 2005) and form a key building block for constructing zero-knowledge sets (introduced by Micali, Rabin and Kilian (FOCS'03)}). Unlike regular commitments, which are strictly binding, mercurial commitments allow for certain amount of (limited) freedom. The notion of Chase et al. also required that mercurial commitments should be equivocable given a certain trapdoor, although the notion is interesting even without this condition. While trivially implying regular (trapdoor) commitments, it was not clear from the prior work if the converse was true: Chase et al. gave several constructions of mercurial commitments from various incompatible assumptions, leaving open if they can be built from any (trapdoor) commitment scheme, and, in particular, from any one-way function. We give an affirmative answer to this question, by giving two simple constructions of mercurial commitments from any trapdoor bit commitment scheme. By plugging in various (trapdoor) bit commitment schemes, we get *all* the efficient constructions from Chase et al. and Micali et al., as well as several immediate new constructions. Our results imply that (a) ** mercurial commitments can be viewed as surprisingly simple variations of regular (trapdoor) commitments ** (and, thus, can be built from one-way functions and, more efficiently, from a variety of other assumptions); and (b) ** the existence of zero-knowledge sets is equivalent to the existence of collision-resistant hash functions ** (moreover, the former can be efficiently built from the latter and trapdoor commitments). Of independent interest, we also give a stronger and yet much simpler definition of mercurial commitments than that of Chase et al. (which is also met by our constructions). Overall, we believe that our results eludicate the notion of mercurial commitments, and better explain the rational following the previous constructions of mercurial commitments.
2004
CRYPTO
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
EPRINT
Optimal Signcryption from Any Trapdoor Permutation
We build several highly-practical and optimized signcryption constructions directly from trapdoor permutations, in the random oracle model. All our constructions share features such as simplicity, efficiency, generality, near-optimal exact security, flexible and ad-hoc key management, key reuse for sending/receiving data, optimally-low message expansion, "backward" use for plain signature/encryption, long message and associated data support, the strongest-known qualitative security (so-called IND-CCA and sUF-CMA) and, finally, complete compatibility with the PKCS#1 infrastructure. While some of these features are present in previous works to various extents, we believe that our schemes improve on earlier proposals in at least several dimensions, making the overall difference quite noticeable in practice. Concretely, we present three methods generally based on what we call Parallel, Sequential, and eXtended sequential Padding schemes (P-Pad, S-Pad, X-Pad). P-Pad offers parallel "signing" and "encrypting", optimal exact security, and minimum ciphertext length twice as long as the length of a TDP , while still maintaining optimal bandwidth. S-Pad loses parallelism and some exact security, but has minimal ciphertext length equal to that of a TDP. Any S-Pad can also be used as a "universal padding" scheme. X-Pad is similar to S-Pad, but regains optimal exact security at the expense of a marginally-longer minimum ciphertext length. Moreover, to unify various padding options, we construct a single versatile padding scheme PSEP (Probabilistic Signature-Encryption Padding) which, by simply adjusting the lengths of the parameters, can work optimally as either a P-Pad, S-Pad or X-Pad.
2004
EPRINT
Scalable Public-Key Tracing and Revoking
Traitor Tracing Schemes constitute a very useful tool against piracy in the context of digital content broadcast. In such multi-recipient encryption schemes, each decryption key is fingerprinted and when a pirate decoder is discovered, the authorities can trace the identities of the users that contributed in its construction (called traitors). Public-key traitor tracing schemes allow for a multitude of non-trusted content providers using the same set of keys, which makes the scheme ``server-side scalable.'' To make such schemes also ``client-side scalable,'' i.e. long lived and usable for a large population of subscribers that changes dynamically over time, it is crucial to implement efficient Add-user and Remove-user operations. Previous work on public-key traitor tracing did not address this dynamic scenario thoroughly, and there is no efficient scalable public key traitor tracing scheme that allows an increasing number of Add-user and Remove-user operations. To address these issues, we introduce the model of Scalable Public-Key Traitor Tracing, and present the first construction of such a scheme. Our model mandates for deterministic traitor tracing and an unlimited number of efficient Add-user operations and Remove-user operations. A scalable system achieves an unlimited number of revocations while retaining high level of efficiency by dividing the run-time of the system into periods. Each period has a saturation level for the number of revocations. When a period becomes saturated, an _efficient_ New-period operation is issued by the system server that resets the saturation level. We present a formal adversarial model for our system taking into account its periodic structure, and we prove our construction secure, both against adversaries that attempt to cheat the revocation mechanism as well as against adversaries that attempt to cheat the traitor tracing mechanism.
2004
EPRINT
ID-Based Encryption for Complex Hierarchies with Applications to Forward Security and Broadcast Encryption
A forward-secure encryption scheme protects secret keys from exposure by evolving the keys with time. Forward security has several unique requirements in Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE) scheme: (1) users join dynamically; (2) encryption is joining-time-oblivious; (3) users evolve secret keys autonomously. We present a scalable forward-secure HIBE scheme satisfying the above properties. Note that a naive combination of Gentry-Silverberg HIBE scheme with the forward-secure Public-Key Encryption scheme by Canetti, Halevi and Katz would not meet the requirements. We also show how our fs-HIBE scheme can be used to construct a forward-secure public-key Broadcast Encryption scheme, which protects the secrecy of prior transmissions in the Broadcast Encryption setting. We further generalize fs-HIBE into a collusion-resistant Multiple Hierarchical ID-Based Encryption scheme, which can be used for secure communications with entities having multiple roles in Role-Based Access Control. The security of our schemes is based on the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.
2004
EPRINT
Entropic Security and the Encryption of High Entropy Messages
Yevgeniy Dodis Adam Smith
Russell and Wang (Eurocrypt 2002) recently introduced an elegant, information-theoretic notion called entropic security of encryption: they required that the cipher text leak no predicate of the plaintext (similar to semantic security (Goldwasser and Micali, JCSS 1984)) but only as long as the distribution on messages has high entropy from the adversary's point of view. They show that this notion of security can be achieved with very short keys for entropically rich message spaces. Canetti, Miccianci and Reingold (STOC, 1998) had previously constructed hash functions which satisfy a similar entropic security condition. The output of such hash function leaks no partial information about the input, provided the input has sufficiently high entropy. This paper studies entropic security in general, and its application to the encryption of high-entropy messages. (1) We elucidate the notion of entropic security. Our results apply to all entropically-secure primitives, including both encryption and hash functions. We strengthen the formulation of Canetti and Russell and Wang: we require that an entropically-secure primitive leak no function whasoever of its input, while the previous works focus only on predicates. This stronger formulation is much closer to the original notion of semantic security. We also show that entropic security is equivalent to indistinguishability on pairs of input distributions of sufficiently high entropy. This equivalence generalizes the conventional equivalence between indistinguishability and semantic security. Indistinguishability, in turn, is related to randomness extraction from non-uniform distributions. The proof of the equivalence of hiding predicates to hiding all functions is quite involved, and requires very different techniques from those of Goldwasser and Micali. (2) We use the equivalence above, and the connection to randomness extraction, to prove several new results on entropically-secure encryption. We obtain: (a) Two general frameworks for constructing entropically secure encryption schemes, one based on expander graphs and the other on XOR-universal hash functions. These schemes generalize the schemes of Russell and Wang, yielding simpler constructions and proofs as well as improved parameters. The best scheme uses a key of length k=n-t+2log(1/eps)+O(1), where eps is a measure of leakage and t is the initial min-entropy of the message. (b) Lower bounds on the key length k for entropic security and indistinguishability. In particular, we show near tightness of Russell-Wang constructions: k > n-t. (In fact, for a large class of schemes k >= n-t + log(1/eps).)
2004
EPRINT
A Verifiable Random Function With Short Proofs and Keys
Yevgeniy Dodis Aleksandr Yampolskiy
We give a simple and efficient construction of a verifiable random function (VRF) on bilinear groups. Our construction is direct. In contrast to prior VRF constructions [MRV99, Lys02], it avoids using an inefficient Goldreich-Levin transformation, thereby saving several factors in security. Our proofs of security are based on a decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman inversion assumption, which seems reasonable given current state of knowledge. For small message spaces, our VRF's proofs and keys have constant size. By utilizing a collision-resistant hash function, our VRF can also be used with arbitrary message spaces. We show that our scheme can be instantiated with an elliptic group of very reasonable size. Furthermore, it can be made distributed and proactive.
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
PKC
2003
PKC
2003
PKC
2003
EPRINT
Parallel Signcryption with OAEP, PSS-R, and other Feistel Paddings
We present a new, elegant composition method for joint signature and encryption, also referred to as signcryption. The new method, which we call *Padding-based Parallel Signcryption* (PbPS), builds an efficient signcryption scheme from any family of trapdoor permutations, such as RSA. Each user U generates a single public/secret key pair f_U/f^{-1}_U used for both sending and receiving the data. To signcrypt a message m to a recipient with key f_{rcv}, a sender with key f_{snd} efficiently transforms m into a pair {w|s}, and simply sends { f_{rcv}(w) | f^{-1}_{snd}(s) }. PbPS enjoys many attractive properties: simplicity, efficiency, generality, parallelism of ``encrypting''/``signing'', optimal exact security, flexible and ad-hoc key management, key reuse for sending/receiving data, optimally-low message expansion, long message and associated data support, and, finally, complete compatibility with the PKCS#1 infrastructure. The pairs {w|s} sufficient for the security of PbPS are called *universal two-padding schemes*. Using one round of the Feistel transform, we give a very general construction of such schemes. Interestingly, we notice that all popular padding schemes with message recovery used for plain signature or encryption, such as OAEP, OAEP+, PSS-R, and ``scramble all, encrypt small'', naturally consist of two pieces {w|s}. Quite remarkably, we show that all such pairs become special cases of our construction. As a result, we find a natural generalization of all conventional padding schemes, and show that any such padding can be used for signcryption with PbPS. However, none of such paddings gives optimal message bandwidth. For that purpose and of independent interest, we define a new ``hybrid'' between PSS-R and OAEP, which we call *Probabilistic Signature-Encryption Padding* (PSEP). We recommend using PbPS with PSEP to achieve the most flexible and secure signcryption scheme up-to-date. To justify this point, we provide a detailed practical comparison of PbPS/PSEP with other previously-proposed signcryption candidates.
2003
EPRINT
Concealment and its Applications to Authenticated Encryption
Yevgeniy Dodis Jee Hea An
We introduce a new cryptographic primitive we call **concealment**, which is related, but quite different from the notion of commitment. A concealment is a publicly known randomized transformation, which, on input m, outputs a *hider* h and a *binder* b. Together, h and b allow one to recover m, but separately, (1) the hider h reveals "no information" about m, while (2) the binder b can be "meaningfully opened" by at most one hider h. While setting b=m, h=empty is a trivial concealment, the challenge is to make |b|<<|m|, which we call a "non-trivial" concealment. We show that non-trivial concealments are equivalent to the existence of collision-resistant hash functions. Moreover, our construction of concealments is extremely simple, optimal, and yet very general, giving rise to a multitude of efficient implementations. We show that concealments have natural and important applications in the area of **authenticated encryption**. Specifically, let AE be an authenticated encryption scheme (either public- or symmetric-key) designed to work on short messages. We show that concealments are **exactly** the right abstraction allowing one to use AE for encrypting long messages. Namely, to encrypt long m, one uses a concealment scheme to get h and b, and outputs authenticated ciphertext (AE(b),h). More surprisingly, the above paradigm leads to a very simple and general solution to the problem of **remotely keyed (authenticated) encryption** (RKAE). In this problem, one wishes to split the task of high-bandwidth authenticated encryption between a secure, but low-bandwidth/computationally limited device, and an insecure, but computationally powerful host. We give formal definitions for RKAE, which we believe are simpler and more natural than all the previous definitions. We then show that our composition paradigm satisfies our (very strong) definition. Namely, for authenticated encryption, the host simply sends a short value b to the device (which stores the actual secret key for AE), gets back AE(b), and outputs (AE(b),h) (authenticated decryption is similar). Finally, we also observe that several previous RKAE proposals are all special examples of our general paradigm.
2003
EPRINT
Public Key Trace and Revoke Scheme Secure against Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack
Yevgeniy Dodis Nelly Fazio
A (public key) Trace and Revoke Scheme combines the functionality of broadcast encryption with the capability of traitor tracing. Specifically, (1) a trusted center publishes a single public key and distributes individual secret keys to the users of the system; (2) anybody can encrypt a message so that all but a specified subset of ``revoked'' users can decrypt the resulting ciphertext; and (3) if a (small) group of users combine their secret keys to produce a ``pirate decoder'', the center can trace at least one of the ``traitors'' given access to this decoder. We construct the first chosen ciphertext (CCA2) secure Trace and Revoke Scheme based on the DDH assumption. Our scheme is also the first adaptively secure scheme, allowing the adversary to corrupt players at any point during execution, while prior works (e.g., [NP00,TT01]) only achieves a very weak form of non-adaptive security even against chosen plaintext attacks. In fact, no CCA2 scheme was known even in the symmetric setting. Of independent interest, we present a slightly simpler construction that shows a ``natural separation'' between the classical notion of CCA2 security and the recently proposed [Sho01,ADR02] relaxed notion of gCCA2 security.
2003
EPRINT
Breaking and Repairing Optimistic Fair Exchange from PODC 2003
Yevgeniy Dodis Leonid Reyzin
In PODC 2003, Park, Chong, Siegel and Ray [PCSR03] proposed an optimistic protocol for fair exchange, based on RSA signatures. We show that their protocol is *totally breakable* already in the registration phase: the honest-but-curious arbitrator can easily determine the signer's secret key. On a positive note, the authors of [PCSR03] informally introduced a connection between fair exchange and "sequential two-party multisignature schemes" (which we call two-signatures), but used an insecure two-signature scheme in their actual construction. Nonetheless, we show that this connection *can* be properly formalized to imply *provably secure* fair exchange protocols. By utilizing the state-of-the-art non-interactive two-signature of Boldyreva (PKC 2003), we obtain an efficient and provably secure (in the random oracle model) fair exchange protocol, which is based on GDH signatures of Boneh, Lynn and Shacham (Asiacrypt 2001). Of independent interest, we introduce a unified model for non-interactive fair exchange protocols, which results in a new primitive we call *verifiably committed signatures*. Verifiably committed signatures generalize (non-interactive) verifiably encrypted signatures and two-signatures, both of which are sufficient for fair exchange.
2003
EPRINT
Fuzzy Extractors: How to Generate Strong Keys from Biometrics and Other Noisy Data
We provide formal definitions and efficient secure techniques for -- turning noisy information into keys usable for any cryptographic application, and, in particular, -- reliably and securely authenticating biometric data. Our techniques apply not just to biometric information, but to any keying material that, unlike traditional cryptographic keys, is (1) not reproducible precisely and (2) not distributed uniformly. We propose two primitives: a fuzzy extractor reliably extracts nearly uniform randomness R from its input; the extraction is error-tolerant in the sense that R will be the same even if the input changes, as long as it remains reasonably close to the original. Thus, R can be used as a key in a cryptographic application. A secure sketch produces public information about its input w that does not reveal w, and yet allows exact recovery of w given another value that is close to w. Thus, it can be used to reliably reproduce error-prone biometric inputs without incurring the security risk inherent in storing them. We define the primitives to be both formally secure and versatile, generalizing much prior work. In addition, we provide nearly optimal constructions of both primitives for various measures of "closeness" of input data, such as Hamming distance, edit distance, and set difference.
2002
EUROCRYPT
2002
EUROCRYPT
2002
EPRINT
On the Security of Joint Signature and Encryption
Jee Hea An Yevgeniy Dodis Tal Rabin
We formally study the notion of a joint signature and encryption in the public-key setting. We refer to this primitive as {\em signcryption}, adapting the terminology of Zheng [Zhe97]. We present wo definitions for the security of signcryption depending on whether the adversary is an outsider or a legal user of the system. We then examine generic sequential composition methods of building signcryption from a signature and encryption scheme. Contrary to what recent results in the symmetric setting [BN00,Kra01] might lead one to expect, we show that classical ``encrypt-then-sign'' (EtS) and ``sign-then-encrypt'' (StE) methods are both {\em secure} composition methods in the public-key setting. We also present a new composition method which we call ``commit-then-encrypt-and-sign'' (CtE&S). Unlike the generic sequential composition methods, CtE&S applies the expensive signature and encryption operations {\em in parallel}, which could imply a gain in efficiency over the StE and EtS schemes. We also show that the new CtE&S method elegantly combines with the recent ``hash-sign-switch'' technique of Shamir and Tauman [ST01], leading to efficient {\em on-line/off-line} signcryption. Finally and of independent interest, we discuss the {\em definitional} inadequacy of the standard notion of chosen ciphertext (CAA) security. Motivated by our applications to signcryption, we show that the notion of CAA-security is syntactically ill-defined, and leads to artificial examples of ``secure'' encryption schemes which do not meet the formal definition of CCA-security. We suggest a natural and very slight relaxation of CAA-security, which we call generalized CCA-security (gCCA). We show that gCCA-security suffices for all known uses of CCA-secure encryption, while no longer suffering from the definitional shortcomings of the latter.
2002
EPRINT
Key-Insulated Public-Key Cryptosystems
Cryptographic computations (decryption, signature generation, etc.) are often performed on a relatively insecure device (e.g., a mobile device or an Internet-connected host) which cannot be trusted to maintain secrecy of the private key. We propose and investigate the notion of \emph{key-insulated security} whose goal is to minimize the damage caused by secret-key exposures. In our model, the secret key(s) stored on the insecure device are refreshed at discrete time periods via interaction with a physically-secure --- but computationally-limited --- device which stores a ``master key''. All cryptographic computations are still done on the insecure device, and the public key remains unchanged. In a (t, N)-key-insulated scheme, an adversary who compromises the insecure device and obtains secret keys for up to t periods of his choice is unable to violate the security of the cryptosystem for \emph{any} of the remaining N-t periods. Furthermore, the scheme remains secure (for \emph{all} time periods) against an adversary who compromises \emph{only} the physically-secure device. We notice that key-insulated schemes significantly improve the security guarantee of forward-secure schemes [A97,BM99], in which exposure of the secret key at even a single time period (necessarily) compromises the security of the system for all future time periods. This improvement is achieved with minimal cost: infrequent key updates with a (possibly untrusted) secure device. We focus primarily on key-insulated public-key encryption. We construct a (t,N)-key-insulated encryption scheme based on any (standard) public-key encryption scheme, and give a more efficient construction based on the DDH assumption. The latter construction is then extended to achieve chosen-ciphertext security.
2002
EPRINT
On the Power of Claw-Free Permutations
Yevgeniy Dodis Leonid Reyzin
Probabilistic Signature Scheme (PSS), Full Domain Hash (FDH) and several of their variants are widely used signature schemes, which can be formally analyzed in the random oracle model. These schemes output a signature of the form (f^{-1}(y),pub), where y somehow depends on the message signed (and pub) and f is some public trapdoor permutation (typically RSA). Interestingly, all these signature schemes can be proven {\em asymptotically} secure for an {\em arbitrary} trapdoor permutation f, but their {\em exact} security seems to be significantly better for {\em special} trapdoor permutations like RSA. This leads to two natural questions: (1) can the asymptotic security analysis be improved with general trapdoor permutations?; and, if not, (2) what {\em general cryptographic assumption} on f --- enjoyed by specific functions like RSA --- is ``responsible'' for the improved security? We answer both these questions. First, we show that if f is a ``black-box'' trapdoor permutation, then the poor exact security is unavoidable. More specifically, the ``security loss'' for general trapdoor permutations is \Omega(q_hash), where q_hash is the number of random oracle queries made by the adversary (which could be quite large). On the other hand, we show that all the security benefits of the RSA-based variants come into effect once f comes from a family of {\em claw-free permutation} pairs. Our results significantly narrow the current ``gap'' between general trapdoor permutations and RSA to the ``gap'' between trapdoor permutations and claw-free permutations. Additionally, they can be viewed as the first {\em security/efficiency} separation between these basic cryptographic primitives. In other words, while it was already believed that certain cryptographic objects {\em can} be build from claw-free permutations but {\em not} from general trapdoor permutations, we show that certain important schemes (like FDH and PSS) provably work with {\em either}, but enjoy a much better tradeoff between security and efficiency when deployed with claw-free permutations.
2002
EPRINT
Efficient Construction of (Distributed) Verifiable Random Functions
Yevgeniy Dodis
We give the first simple and efficient construction of {\em verifiable random functions} (VRFs). VRFs, introduced by Micali et al. [MRV99], combine the properties of regular pseudorandom functions (PRFs) [GGM86] (i.e., indistinguishability from a random function) and digital signatures [GMR88] (i.e., one can provide an unforgeable proof that the VRF\ value is correctly computed). The efficiency of our VRF construction is only slightly worse than that of a regular PRF construction of Naor and Reingold [NR97]. In contrast to ours, the previous VRF constructions [MRV99,Lys02] all involved an expensive generic transformation from verifiable unpredictable functions (VUFs), while our construction is simple and direct. We also provide the first construction of {\em distributed} VRFs. Our construction is more efficient than the only known construction of distributed (non-verifiable) PRFs [Nie02], but has more applications than the latter. For example, it can be used to distributively implement the random oracle model in a {\em publicly verifiable} manner, which by itself has many applications (e.g., constructing threshold signature schemes). Our main construction is based on a new variant of decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption on certain groups where the regular DDH assumption does {\em not} hold. We do not make any claims about the validity of our assumption (which we call {\em sum-free} DDH, or sf-DDH). However, this assumption seems to be plausible based on our {\em current} understanding of certain candidate elliptic and hyper-elliptic groups which were recently proposed for use in cryptography [JN01,Jou00]. We hope that the demonstrated power of our sf-DDH assumption will serve as a motivation for its closer study.
2001
EUROCRYPT
2000
CRYPTO
2000
CRYPTO
2000
EUROCRYPT
1999
EUROCRYPT

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2018
Eurocrypt 2016
TCC 2015
Crypto 2014
TCC 2014
Crypto 2012
Crypto 2011
Asiacrypt 2010
Crypto 2008
TCC 2008
Eurocrypt 2006
Eurocrypt 2005
Crypto 2004
Eurocrypt 2003

Coauthors

Divesh Aggarwal (1)
Shweta Agrawal (1)
Joël Alwen (3)
Jee Hea An (4)
Elena Andreeva (1)
Boaz Barak (1)
Allison Bishop (1)
Andrey Bogdanov (1)
Carl Bosley (2)
Xavier Boyen (1)
Ran Canetti (3)
David Cash (1)
Dario Catalano (1)
Melissa Chase (1)
Rahul Chatterjee (1)
Benoît Cogliati (1)
Sandro Coretti (6)
Jean-Sébastien Coron (2)
Ronald Cramer (2)
Yan Zong Ding (1)
Nelly Fazio (4)
Serge Fehr (2)
Michael J. Freedman (2)
Chaya Ganesh (1)
Rosario Gennaro (1)
Shafi Goldwasser (1)
Alexander Golovnev (1)
Paul Grubbs (1)
Siyao Guo (3)
Iftach Haitner (1)
Shai Halevi (3)
Kristiyan Haralambiev (3)
Johan Håstad (1)
Russell Impagliazzo (1)
Yuval Ishai (1)
Zahra Jafargholi (1)
Abhishek Jain (1)
Ragesh Jaiswal (1)
Stanislaw Jarecki (1)
Ari Juels (2)
Valentine Kabanets (1)
Yael Tauman Kalai (1)
Harish Karthikeyan (1)
Jonathan Katz (10)
Aggelos Kiayias (3)
Eike Kiltz (1)
Daniel Kraschewski (1)
Hugo Krawczyk (2)
Eyal Kushilevitz (1)
Wenke Lee (1)
Pil Joong Lee (2)
Jooyoung Lee (1)
Richard J. Lipton (1)
Tianren Liu (3)
Adriana López-Alt (4)
Anna Lysyanskaya (1)
Cécile Malinaud (1)
Tal Malkin (1)
Avradip Mandal (1)
Bart Mennink (1)
Silvio Micali (2)
Eric Miles (1)
Ilya Mironov (3)
Tal Moran (1)
Moni Naor (1)
Antonio Nicolosi (1)
Roberto Oliveira (1)
Rafail Ostrovsky (3)
Carles Padró (2)
Rafael Pass (2)
Chris Peikert (1)
Olivier Pereira (1)
Krzysztof Pietrzak (8)
Bartosz Przydatek (1)
Prashant Puniya (5)
Tal Rabin (4)
Leonid Reyzin (8)
Thomas Ristenpart (6)
Ronald L. Rivest (1)
Ron D. Rothblum (1)
Amit Sahai (2)
Gil Segev (1)
Yannick Seurin (1)
Adi Shamir (2)
Emily Shen (1)
Victor Shoup (2)
Thomas Shrimpton (1)
Adam Smith (9)
Martijn Stam (2)
François-Xavier Standaert (1)
John P. Steinberger (8)
Noah Stephens-Davidowitz (4)
Björn Tackmann (2)
Aris Tentes (1)
Stefano Tessaro (2)
Aishwarya Thiruvengadam (1)
Salil P. Vadhan (4)
Vinod Vaikuntanathan (3)
Daniele Venturi (2)
Ivan Visconti (1)
Shabsi Walfish (8)
Daniel Wichs (17)
Joanne Woodage (2)
Shouhuai Xu (3)
Aleksandr Yampolskiy (4)
Yanqing Yao (2)
Danfeng Yao (1)
Yu Yu (2)
Dae Hyun Yum (2)
Moti Yung (7)
Zhe Zhang (1)