Efficient Attribute-Based Signatures for Unbounded Arithmetic Branching Programs
This paper presents the first attribute-based signature (ABS) scheme in which the correspondence between signers and signatures is captured in an arithmetic model of computation. Specifically, we design a fully secure, i.e., adaptively unforgeable and perfectly signer-private ABS scheme for signing policies realizable by arithmetic branching programs (ABP), which are a quite expressive model of arithmetic computations. On a more positive note, the proposed scheme places no bound on the size and input length of the supported signing policy ABP’s, and at the same time, supports the use of an input attribute for an arbitrary number of times inside a signing policy ABP, i.e., the so called unbounded multi-use of attributes. The size of our public parameters is constant with respect to the sizes of the signing attribute vectors and signing policies available in the system. The construction is built in (asymmetric) bilinear groups of prime order, and its unforgeability is derived in the standard model under (asymmetric version of) the well-studied decisional linear (DLIN) assumption coupled with the existence of standard collision resistant hash functions. Due to the use of the arithmetic model as opposed to the boolean one, our ABS scheme not only excels significantly over the existing state-of-the-art constructions in terms of concrete efficiency, but also achieves improved applicability in various practical scenarios. Our principal technical contributions are (a) extending and refining the techniques of Okamoto and Takashima [PKC 2011, PKC 2013], which were originally developed in the context of boolean span programs, to the arithmetic setting; and (b) innovating new ideas to allow unbounded multi-use of attributes inside ABP’s, which themselves are of unbounded size and input length.
Fully Secure Functional Encryption with a Large Class of Relations from the Decisional Linear Assumption
This paper presents a fully secure (adaptively secure) practical functional encryption scheme for a large class of relations, that are specified by non-monotone access structures combined with inner-product relations. The security is proven under a standard assumption, the decisional linear assumption, in the standard model. Our scheme is constructed on the concept of dual pairing vector spaces and a hierarchical reduction technique on this concept is employed for the security proof. The proposed functional encryption scheme covers, as special cases, (1) key-policy, ciphertext-policy and unified-policy attribute-based encryption with non-monotone access structures, (2) (hierarchical) attribute-hiding functional encryption with inner-product relations and functional encryption with nonzero inner-product relations and (3) spatial encryption and a more general class of encryption than spatial encryption.
Unbounded Inner Product Functional Encryption from Bilinear Maps
Inner product functional encryption (IPFE), introduced by Abdalla et al. (PKC2015), is a kind of functional encryption supporting only inner product functionality. All previous IPFE schemes are bounded schemes, meaning that the vector length that can be handled in the scheme is fixed in the setup phase. In this paper, we propose the first unbounded IPFE schemes, in which we do not have to fix the lengths of vectors in the setup phase and can handle (a priori) unbounded polynomial lengths of vectors. Our first scheme is private-key based and fully function hiding. That is, secret keys hide the information of the associated function. Our second scheme is public-key based and provides adaptive security in the indistinguishability based security definition. Both our schemes are based on SXDH, which is a well-studied standard assumption, and secure in the standard model. Furthermore, our schemes are quite efficient, incurring an efficiency loss by only a small constant factor from previous bounded function hiding schemes.
Adaptively Simulation-Secure Attribute-Hiding Predicate Encryption
This paper demonstrates how to achieve simulation-based strong attribute hiding against adaptive adversaries for predicate encryption (PE) schemes supporting expressive predicate families under standard computational assumptions in bilinear groups. Our main result is a simulation-based adaptively strongly partially-hidingPE (PHPE) scheme for predicates computing arithmetic branching programs (ABP) on public attributes, followed by an inner-product predicate on private attributes. This simultaneously generalizes attribute-based encryption (ABE) for boolean formulas and ABP’s as well as strongly attribute-hiding PE schemes for inner products. The proposed scheme is proven secure for any a priori bounded number of ciphertexts and an unbounded (polynomial) number of decryption keys, which is the best possible in the simulation-based adaptive security framework. This directly implies that our construction also achieves indistinguishability-based strongly partially-hiding security against adversaries requesting an unbounded (polynomial) number of ciphertexts and decryption keys. The security of the proposed scheme is derived under (asymmetric version of) the well-studied decisional linear (DLIN) assumption. Our work resolves an open problem posed by Wee in TCC 2017, where his result was limited to the semi-adaptive setting. Moreover, our result advances the current state of the art in both the fields of simulation-based and indistinguishability-based strongly attribute-hiding PE schemes. Our main technical contribution lies in extending the strong attribute hiding methodology of Okamoto and Takashima [EUROCRYPT 2012, ASIACRYPT 2012] to the framework of simulation-based security and beyond inner products.
Fully Secure Functional Encryption: Attribute-Based Encryption and (Hierarchical) Inner Product Encryption
In this paper, we present two fully secure functional encryption schemes. Our first result is a fully secure attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme. Previous constructions of ABE were only proven to be selectively secure. We achieve full security by adapting the dual system encryption methodology recently introduced by Waters and previously leveraged to obtain fully secure IBE and HIBE systems. The primary challenge in applying dual system encryption to ABE is the richer structure of keys and ciphertexts. In an IBE or HIBE system, keys and ciphertexts are both associated with the same type of simple object: identities. In an ABE system, keys and ciphertexts are associated with more complex objects: attributes and access formulas. We use a novel information-theoretic argument to adapt the dual system encryption methodology to the more complicated structure of ABE systems. We construct our system in composite order bilinear groups, where the order is a product of three primes. We prove the security of our system from three static assumptions. Our ABE scheme supports arbitrary monotone access formulas. Our second result is a fully secure (attribute-hiding) predicate encryption (PE) scheme for inner-product predicates. As for ABE, previous constructions of such schemes were only proven to be selectively secure. Security is proven under a non-interactive assumption whose size does not depend on the number of queries. The scheme is comparably efficient to existing selectively secure schemes. We also present a fully secure hierarchical PE scheme under the same assumption. The key technique used to obtain these results is an elaborate combination of the dual system encryption methodology (adapted to the structure of inner product PE systems) and a new approach on bilinear pairings using the notion of dual pairing vector spaces (DPVS) proposed by Okamoto and Takashima.