## CryptoDB

### Shashank Agrawal

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

TCC

CASE: A New Frontier in Public-Key Authenticated Encryption
Abstract

We introduce a new cryptographic primitive, called Completely Anonymous Signed Encryption(CASE). CASE is a public-key authenticated encryption primitive, that offers anonymity for senders as well as receivers. A “case-packet” should appear, without a (decryption) key for opening it, to be a blackbox that reveals no information at all about its contents. To decase a case-packet fully – so that the message is retrieved and authenticated – a verification key is also required.
Defining security for this primitive is subtle. We present a relatively simple Chosen Objects Attack (COA) security definition. Validating this definition, we show that it implies a comprehensive indistinguishability-preservation definition in the real-ideal paradigm. To obtain the latter definition, we extend the Cryptographic Agents framework to allow maliciously created objects.
We also provide a novel and practical construction for COA-secure CASE under standard assumptions in public-key cryptography, and in the standard model.
We believe CASE can be a staple in future cryptographic libraries, thanks to its robust security guarantees and efficient instantiations based on standard assumptions.

2021

PKC

BETA: Biometric-Enabled Threshold Authentication
📺
Abstract

In the past decades, user authentication has been dominated by server-side password-based solutions that rely on ``what users know". This approach is susceptible to breaches and phishing attacks, and poses usability challenges. As a result, the industry is gradually moving to biometric-based client-side solutions that do not store any secret information on servers. This shift necessitates the safe storage of biometric templates and private keys, which are used to generate tokens, on user devices.
We propose a new generic framework called Biometric Enabled Threshold Authentication (BETA) to protect sensitive client-side information like biometric templates and cryptographic keys. Towards this, we formally introduce the notion of Fuzzy Threshold Tokenizer (FTT) where an initiator can use a ``close'' biometric measurement to generate an authentication token if at least t (the threshold) devices participate. We require that the devices only talk to the initiator, and not to each other, to capture the way user devices are connected in the real world. We use the universal composability (UC) framework to model the security properties of FTT, including the unforgeability of tokens and the privacy of the biometric values (template and measurement), under a malicious adversary. We construct three protocols that meet our definition.
Our first two protocols are general feasibility results that work for any distance function, any threshold t and tolerate the maximal (i.e. t-1) amount of corruption. They are based on any two round UC-secure multi-party computation protocol in the standard model (with a CRS) and threshold fully homomorphic encryption, respectively. We show how to effectively use these primitives to build protocols in a constrained communication model with just four rounds of communication.
For the third protocol, we consider inner-product based distance metrics (cosine similarity, Euclidean distance, etc.) specifically, motivated by the recent interest in its use for face recognition. We use Paillier encryption, efficient NIZKs for specific languages, and a simple garbled circuit to build an efficient protocol for the common case of n=3 devices with one compromised.

2020

ASIACRYPT

KVaC: Key-Value Commitments for Blockchains and Beyond
📺
Abstract

As blockchains grow in size, validating new transactions becomes more and more resource intensive. To deal with this, there is a need to discover compact encodings of the (effective) state of a blockchain --- an encoding that allows for efficient proofs of membership and updates. In the case of account-based cryptocurrencies, the state can be represented by a key-value map, where keys are the account addresses and values consist of account balance, nonce, etc.
We propose a new commitment scheme for key-value maps whose size does not grow with the number of keys, yet proofs of membership are of constant-size. In fact, both the encoding and the proofs consist of just two and three group elements respectively (in groups of unknown order like class groups). Verifying and updating proofs involves just a few group exponentiations. Additive updates to key values enjoy the same level of efficiency too.
Key-value commitments can be used to build dynamic accumulators and vector commitments, which find applications in group signatures, anonymous credentials, verifiable databases, interactive oracle proofs, etc. Using our new key-value commitment, we provide the most efficient constructions of (sub)vector commitments to date.

2018

CRYPTO

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Composite Statements
📺
Abstract

The two most common ways to design non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs are based on Sigma protocols and QAP-based SNARKs. The former is highly efficient for proving algebraic statements while the latter is superior for arithmetic representations. Motivated by applications such as privacy-preserving credentials and privacy-preserving audits in cryptocurrencies, we study the design of NIZKs for composite statements that compose algebraic and arithmetic statements in arbitrary ways. Specifically, we provide a framework for proving statements that consist of ANDs, ORs and function compositions of a mix of algebraic and arithmetic components. This allows us to explore the full spectrum of trade-offs between proof size, prover cost, and CRS size/generation cost. This leads to proofs for statements of the form: knowledge of x such that $$SHA(g^x)=y$$SHA(gx)=y for some public y where the prover’s work is 500 times fewer exponentiations compared to a QAP-based SNARK at the cost of increasing the proof size to 2404 group and field elements. In application to anonymous credentials, our techniques result in 8 times fewer exponentiations for the prover at the cost of increasing the proof size to 298 elements.

2018

TCC

Impossibility of Simulation Secure Functional Encryption Even with Random Oracles
Abstract

In this work we study the feasibility of achieving simulation security in functional encryption (FE) in the random oracle model. Our main result is negative in that we give a functionality for which it is impossible to achieve simulation security even with the aid of random oracles.We begin by giving a formal definition of simulation security that explicitly incorporates the random oracles. Next, we show a particular functionality for which it is impossible to achieve simulation security. Here messages are interpreted as seeds to a (weak) pseudorandom function family F and private keys are ascribed to points in the domain of the function. On a message s and private key x one can learn F(s, x). We show that there exists an attacker that makes a polynomial number of private key queries followed by a single ciphertext query for which there exists no simulator.Our functionality and attacker access pattern closely matches the standard model impossibility result of Agrawal, Gorbunov, Vaikuntanathan and Wee (CRYPTO 2013). The crux of their argument is that no simulator can succinctly program in the outputs of an unbounded number of evaluations of a pseudorandom function family into a fixed size ciphertext. However, their argument does not apply in the random oracle setting since the oracle acts as an additional conduit of information which the simulator can program. We overcome this barrier by proposing an attacker who decrypts the challenge ciphertext with the secret keys issued earlier without using the random oracle, even though the decryption algorithm may require it. This involves collecting most of the useful random oracle queries in advance, without giving the simulator too many opportunities to program.On the flip side, we demonstrate the utility of the random oracle in simulation security. Given only public key encryption and low-depth PRGs we show how to build an FE system that is simulation secure for any poly-time attacker that makes an unbounded number of message queries, but an a-priori bounded number of key queries. This bests what is possible in the standard model where it is only feasible to achieve security for an attacker that is bounded both in the number of key and message queries it makes. We achieve this by creating a system that leverages the random oracle to get one-key security and then adapt previously known techniques to boost the system to resist up to q queries.Finally, we ask whether it is possible to achieve simulation security for an unbounded number of messages and keys, but where all key queries are made after the message queries. We show this too is impossible to achieve using a different twist on our first impossibility result.

2017

EUROCRYPT

2016

TCC

2015

TCC

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2022

#### Coauthors

- Divesh Aggarwal (1)
- Shweta Agrawal (3)
- Shashank Agrawal (16)
- Prabhanjan Ananth (1)
- Saikrishna Badrinarayanan (2)
- Melissa Chase (2)
- Chaya Ganesh (1)
- Vipul Goyal (1)
- Divya Gupta (3)
- Venkata Koppula (1)
- Abishek Kumarasubramanian (1)
- Hemanta K. Maji (3)
- Payman Mohassel (2)
- Pratyay Mukherjee (1)
- Omkant Pandey (3)
- Sikhar Patranabis (1)
- Manoj Prabhakaran (9)
- Rajeev Raghunath (1)
- Srinivasan Raghuraman (1)
- Alon Rosen (1)
- Amit Sahai (1)
- Jayesh Singla (1)
- Brent Waters (1)
- David J. Wu (1)
- Ching-Hua Yu (1)