## CryptoDB

### Shi Bai

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2021

CRYPTO

Lattice Reduction with Approximate Enumeration Oracles: Practical Algorithms and Concrete Performance
📺
Abstract

This work provides a systematic investigation of the use of approximate enumeration oracles in BKZ, building on recent technical progress on speeding-up lattice enumeration: relaxing (the search radius of) enumeration and extended preprocessing which preprocesses in a larger rank than the enumeration rank. First, we heuristically justify that relaxing enumeration with certain extreme pruning asymptotically achieves an exponential speed-up for reaching the same root Hermite factor (RHF). Second, we perform simulations/experiments to validate this and the performance for relaxed enumeration with numerically optimised pruning for both regular and extended preprocessing.
Upgrading BKZ with such approximate enumeration oracles gives rise to our main result, namely a practical and faster (compared to previous work) polynomial-space lattice reduction algorithm for reaching the same RHF in practical and cryptographic parameter ranges. We assess its concrete time/quality performance with extensive simulations and experiments. As a consequence, we update the extrapolation of the crossover rank between a square-root cost estimate for quantum enumeration using our algorithm and the Core-SVP cost estimate for quantum sieving to 547.

2020

PKC

MPSign: A Signature from Small-Secret Middle-Product Learning with Errors
📺
Abstract

We describe a digital signature scheme $$mathsf {MPSign}$$ , whose security relies on the conjectured hardness of the Polynomial Learning With Errors problem ( $$mathsf {PLWE}$$ ) for at least one defining polynomial within an exponential-size family (as a function of the security parameter). The proposed signature scheme follows the Fiat-Shamir framework and can be viewed as the Learning With Errors counterpart of the signature scheme described by Lyubashevsky at Asiacrypt 2016, whose security relies on the conjectured hardness of the Polynomial Short Integer Solution ( $$mathsf {PSIS}$$ ) problem for at least one defining polynomial within an exponential-size family. As opposed to the latter, $$mathsf {MPSign}$$ enjoys a security proof from $$mathsf {PLWE}$$ that is tight in the quantum-access random oracle model. The main ingredient is a reduction from $$mathsf {PLWE}$$ for an arbitrary defining polynomial among exponentially many, to a variant of the Middle-Product Learning with Errors problem ( $$mathsf {MPLWE}$$ ) that allows for secrets that are small compared to the working modulus. We present concrete parameters for $$mathsf {MPSign}$$ using such small secrets, and show that they lead to significant savings in signature length over Lyubashevsky’s Asiacrypt 2016 scheme (which uses larger secrets) at typical security levels. As an additional small contribution, and in contrast to $$mathsf {MPSign}$$ (or $$mathsf {MPLWE}$$ ), we present an efficient key-recovery attack against Lyubashevsky’s scheme (or the inhomogeneous $$mathsf {PSIS}$$ problem), when it is used with sufficiently small secrets, showing the necessity of a lower bound on secret size for the security of that scheme.

2020

CRYPTO

Faster Enumeration-based Lattice Reduction: Root Hermite Factor k^(1/(2k)) in Time k^(k/8 + o(k))
📺
Abstract

We give a lattice reduction algorithm that achieves root Hermite factor k^(1/(2k)) in time k^(k/8 + o(k)) and polynomial memory. This improves on the previously best known enumeration-based algorithms which achieve the same quality, but in time k^(k/(2e) + o(k)). A cost of k^(k/8 + o(k)) was previously mentioned as potentially achievable (Hanrot-Stehlé’10) or as a heuristic lower bound (Nguyen’10) for enumeration algorithms. We prove the complexity and quality of our algorithm under a heuristic assumption and provide empirical evidence from simulation and implementation experiments attesting to its performance for practical and cryptographic parameter sizes. Our work also suggests potential avenues for achieving costs below k^(k/8 + o(k)) for the same root Hermite factor, based on the geometry of SDBKZ-reduced bases.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Middle-Product Learning with Rounding Problem and Its Applications
Abstract

At CRYPTO 2017, Roşca et al. introduce a new variant of the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, called the Middle-Product LWE (
$${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$
). The hardness of this new assumption is based on the hardness of the Polynomial LWE (P-LWE) problem parameterized by a set of polynomials, making it more secure against the possible weakness of a single defining polynomial. As a cryptographic application, they also provide an encryption scheme based on the
$${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$
problem. In this paper, we propose a deterministic variant of their encryption scheme, which does not need Gaussian sampling and is thus simpler than the original one. Still, it has the same quasi-optimal asymptotic key and ciphertext sizes. The main ingredient for this purpose is the Learning With Rounding (LWR) problem which has already been used to derandomize LWE type encryption. The hardness of our scheme is based on a new assumption called Middle-Product Computational Learning With Rounding, an adaption of the computational LWR problem over rings, introduced by Chen et al. at ASIACRYPT 2018. We prove that this new assumption is as hard as the decisional version of MP-LWE and thus benefits from worst-case to average-case hardness guarantees.

2019

JOFC

Improved Combinatorial Algorithms for the Inhomogeneous Short Integer Solution Problem
Abstract

The paper is about algorithms for the inhomogeneous short integer solution problem: given $$(\mathbf A , \mathbf s )$$ ( A , s ) to find a short vector $$\mathbf{x }$$ x such that $$\mathbf A \mathbf{x }\equiv \mathbf s \pmod {q}$$ A x ≡ s ( mod q ) . We consider algorithms for this problem due to Camion and Patarin; Wagner; Schroeppel and Shamir; Minder and Sinclair; Howgrave–Graham and Joux (HGJ); Becker, Coron and Joux (BCJ). Our main results include: applying the Hermite normal form (HNF) to get faster algorithms; a heuristic analysis of the HGJ and BCJ algorithms in the case of density greater than one; an improved cryptanalysis of the SWIFFT hash function; a new method that exploits symmetries to speed up algorithms for Ring-SIS in some cases.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Measuring, Simulating and Exploiting the Head Concavity Phenomenon in BKZ
Abstract

The Blockwise-Korkine-Zolotarev (BKZ) lattice reduction algorithm is central in cryptanalysis, in particular for lattice-based cryptography. A precise understanding of its practical behavior in terms of run-time and output quality is necessary for parameter selection in cryptographic design. As the provable worst-case bounds poorly reflect the practical behavior, cryptanalysts rely instead on the heuristic BKZ simulator of Chen and Nguyen (Asiacrypt’11). It fits better with practical experiments, but not entirely. In particular, it over-estimates the norm of the first few vectors in the output basis. Put differently, BKZ performs better than its Chen–Nguyen simulation.In this work, we first report experiments providing more insight on this shorter-than-expected phenomenon. We then propose a refined BKZ simulator by taking the distribution of short vectors in random lattices into consideration. We report experiments suggesting that this refined simulator more accurately predicts the concrete behavior of BKZ. Furthermore, we design a new BKZ variant that exploits the shorter-than-expected phenomenon. For the same cost assigned to the underlying SVP-solver, the new BKZ variant produces bases of better quality. We further illustrate its potential impact by testing it on the SVP-120 instance of the Darmstadt lattice challenge.

2016

CRYPTO

2015

ASIACRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2020
- Asiacrypt 2019

#### Coauthors

- Martin R. Albrecht (3)
- Katharina Boudgoust (1)
- Dipayan Das (2)
- Léo Ducas (1)
- Pierre-Alain Fouque (1)
- Steven D. Galbraith (1)
- Ryo Hiromasa (1)
- Paul Kirchner (1)
- Tancrède Lepoint (2)
- Liangze Li (1)
- Jianwei Li (1)
- Miruna Rosca (1)
- Adeline Roux-Langlois (3)
- Joe Rowell (1)
- Amin Sakzad (2)
- Daniel Sheffield (1)
- Damien Stehlé (5)
- Ron Steinfeld (3)
- Weiqiang Wen (3)
- Zhenfei Zhang (2)