## CryptoDB

### Lisa Kohl

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

CIC

Communication-Efficient Multi-Party Computation for RMS Programs
Abstract

<p> Despite much progress, general-purpose secure multi-party computation (MPC) with active security may still be prohibitively expensive in settings with large input datasets. This particularly applies to the secure evaluation of graph algorithms, where each party holds a subset of a large graph. Recently, Araki et al. (ACM CCS '21) showed that dedicated solutions may provide significantly better efficiency if the input graph is sparse. In particular, they provide an efficient protocol for the secure evaluation of “message passing” algorithms, such as the PageRank algorithm. Their protocol's computation and communication complexity are both $\tilde{O}(M\cdot B)$ instead of the $O(M^2)$ complexity achieved by general-purpose MPC protocols, where $M$ denotes the number of nodes and $B$ the (average) number of incoming edges per node. On the downside, their approach achieves only a relatively weak security notion; $1$-out-of-$3$ malicious security with selective abort.</p><p> In this work, we show that PageRank can instead be captured efficiently as a restricted multiplication straight-line (RMS) program, and present a new actively secure MPC protocol tailored to handle RMS programs. In particular, we show that the local knowledge of the participants can be leveraged towards the first maliciously-secure protocol with communication complexity linear in $M$, independently of the sparsity of the graph. We present two variants of our protocol. In our communication-optimized protocol, going from semi-honest to malicious security only introduces a small communication overhead, but results in quadratic computation complexity $O(M^2)$. In our balanced protocol, we still achieve a linear communication complexity $O(M)$, although with worse constants, but a significantly better computational complexity scaling with $O(M\cdot B)$. Additionally, our protocols achieve security with identifiable abort and can tolerate up to $n-1$ corruptions. </p>

2023

PKC

On Homomorphic Secret Sharing from Polynomial-Modulus LWE
Abstract

Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) is a form of secret sharing that supports the local evaluation of functions on the shares, with applications to multi-server private information retrieval, secure computation, and more.
Insisting on additive reconstruction, all known instantiations of HSS from "Learning with Error (LWE)"-type assumptions either have to rely on LWE with superpolynomial modulus, come with non-negligible error probability, and/or have to perform expensive ciphertext multiplications, resulting in bad concrete efficiency.
In this work, we present a new 2-party local share conversion procedure, which allows to locally convert noise encoded shares to non-noise plaintext shares such that the parties can detect whenever a (potential) error occurs and in that case resort to an alternative conversion procedure.
Building on this technique, we present the first HSS for branching programs from (Ring-)LWE with polynomial input share size which can make use of the efficient multiplication procedure of Boyle et al. (Eurocrypt 2019) and and has no correctness error. Our construction comes at the cost of a - on expectation - slightly increased output share size (which is insignificant compared to the input share size) and a more involved reconstruction procedure.
More concretely, we show that in the setting of 2-server private information retrieval we can choose ciphertext sizes of only a quarter of the size of the scheme of Boyle et al. at essentially no extra cost.

2023

EUROCRYPT

Oblivious Transfer with Constant Computational Overhead
Abstract

The computational overhead of a cryptographic task is the asymptotic ratio between the computational cost of securely realizing the task and that of realizing the task with no security at all. Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC 2008) showed that secure two-party computation of Boolean circuits can be realized with constant computational overhead, independent of the desired level of security, assuming the existence of an oblivious transfer (OT) protocol and a local pseudorandom generator (PRG). However, this only applies to the case of semi-honest parties. A central open question in the area is the possibility of a similar result for malicious parties. This question is open even for the simpler task of securely realizing many instances of a constant-size function, such as OT of bits.
We settle the question in the affirmative for the case of OT, assuming: (1) a standard OT protocol, (2) a slightly stronger “correlation-robust” variant of a local PRG, and (3) a standard sparse variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. An optimized version of our construction requires fewer than 100 bit operations per party per bit-OT. For 128-bit security, this improves over the best previous protocols by 1-2 orders of magnitude.
We achieve this by constructing a constant-overhead pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG) for the bit-OT correlation. Such a PCG generates N pseudorandom instances of bit-OT by locally expanding short, correlated seeds. As a result, we get an end-to-end protocol for generating N pseudorandom instances of bit-OT with o(N) communication, O(N) computation, and security that scales sub-exponentially with N.
Finally, we present applications of our main result to realizing other secure computation tasks with constant computational overhead. These include protocols for general circuits with a relaxed notion of security against malicious parties, protocols for realizing N instances of natural constant-size functions, and reducing the main open question to a potentially simpler question about fault-tolerant computation.

2023

TCC

Towards Topology-Hiding Computation from Oblivious Transfer
Abstract

Topology-Hiding Computation (THC) enables parties to securely compute a function on an incomplete network without revealing the network topology. It is known that secure computation on a complete network can be based on oblivious transfer (OT), even if a majority of the participating parties are corrupt. In contrast, THC in the dishonest majority setting is only known from assumptions that imply (additively) homomorphic encryption, such as Quadratic Residuosity, Decisional Diffie-Hellman, or Learning With Errors.
In this work we move towards closing the gap between MPC and THC by presenting a protocol for THC on general graphs secure against all-but-one semi-honest corruptions from constant-round constant-overhead secure two-party computation. Our protocol is therefore the first to achieve THC on arbitrary networks without relying on assumptions with rich algebraic structure. As a technical tool, we introduce the notion of locally simulatable MPC, which we believe to be of independent interest.

2023

JOFC

Topology-Hiding Communication from Minimal Assumptions
Abstract

Topology-hiding broadcast ( THB ) enables parties communicating over an incomplete network to broadcast messages while hiding the topology from within a given class of graphs. THB is a central tool underlying general topology-hiding secure computation ( THC ) (Moran et al. TCC’15). Although broadcast is a privacy-free task, it was recently shown that THB for certain graph classes necessitates computational assumptions, even in the semi-honest setting, and even given a single corrupted party. In this work, we investigate the minimal assumptions required for topology-hiding communication: both Broadcast or Anonymous Broadcast (where the broadcaster’s identity is hidden). We develop new techniques that yield a variety of necessary and sufficient conditions for the feasibility of THB / THAB in different cryptographic settings: information theoretic, given existence of key agreement, and given existence of oblivious transfer. Our results show that feasibility can depend on various properties of the graph class, such as connectivity , and highlight the role of different properties of topology when kept hidden, including direction , distance , and/or distance-of-neighbors to the broadcaster. An interesting corollary of our results is a dichotomy for THC with a public number of at least three parties, secure against one corruption: information-theoretic feasibility if all graphs are 2-connected; necessity and sufficiency of key agreement otherwise.

2022

CRYPTO

Correlated Pseudorandomness from Expand-Accumulate Codes
📺
Abstract

A pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG) is a recent tool for securely generating useful sources of correlated randomness, such as random oblivious transfers (OT) and vector oblivious linear evaluations (VOLE), with low communication cost.
We introduce a simple new design for PCGs based on so-called expand-accumulate codes, which first apply a sparse random expander graph to replicate each message entry, and then accumulate the entries by computing the sum of each prefix. Our design offers the following advantages compared to state-of-the-art PCG constructions:
- Competitive concrete efficiency backed by provable security against relevant classes of attacks;
- An offline-online mode that combines near-optimal cache-friendliness with simple parallelization;
- Concretely efficient extensions to pseudorandom correlation functions, which enable incremental generation of new correlation instances on demand, and to new kinds of correlated randomness that include circuit-dependent correlations.
To further improve the concrete computational cost, we propose a method for speeding up a full-domain evaluation of a puncturable pseudorandom function (PPRF). This is independently motivated by other cryptographic applications of PPRFs.

2021

CRYPTO

A Compressed Sigma-Protocol Theory for Lattices
📺
Abstract

We show a \emph{lattice-based} solution for commit-and-prove transparent circuit zero-knowledge (ZK) with \emph{polylog-communication}, the \emph{first} not depending on PCPs.
We start from \emph{compressed $\Sigma$-protocol theory} (CRYPTO 2020), which is built around basic $\Sigma$-protocols for opening an arbitrary linear form on a long secret vector that is compactly committed to. These protocols are first compressed using a recursive ``folding-technique'' adapted from Bulletproofs, at the expense of logarithmic rounds. Proving in ZK that the secret vector satisfies a given constraint -- captured by a circuit -- is then by (blackbox) reduction to the linear case, via arithmetic secret-sharing techniques adapted from MPC. Commit-and-prove is also facilitated, i.e., when commitment(s) to the secret vector are created ahead of any circuit-ZK proof.
On several platforms (incl.\ DL) this leads to logarithmic communication. Non-interactive versions follow from Fiat-Shamir.
This abstract modular theory strongly suggests that it should somehow be supported by a lattice-platform \emph{as well}. However, when going through the motions and trying to establish low communication (on a SIS-platform), a certain significant lack in current understanding of multi-round protocols is exposed.
Namely, as opposed to the DL-case, the basic $\Sigma$-protocol in question typically has \emph{poly-small challenge} space. Taking into account the compression-step -- which yields \emph{non-constant} rounds -- and the necessity for parallelization to reduce error, there is no known tight result that the compound protocol admits an efficient knowledge extractor. We resolve the state of affairs here by a combination of two novel results which are fully general and of independent interest. The first gives a tight analysis of efficient knowledge extraction in case of non-constant rounds combined with poly-small challenge space, whereas the second shows that parallel repetition indeed forces rapid decrease of knowledge error.
Moreover, in our present context, arithmetic secret sharing is not defined over a large finite field but over a quotient of a number ring and this forces our careful adaptation of how the linearization techniques are deployed.
We develop our protocols in an abstract framework that is conceptually simple and can be flexibly instantiated. In particular, the framework applies to arbitrary rings and norms.

2021

CRYPTO

Low-Complexity Weak Pseudorandom Functions in AC0[MOD2]
📺
Abstract

A *weak pseudorandom function* (WPRF) is a keyed function $f_k:\{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}$ such that, for a random key $k$, a collection of samples $(x, f_k(x))$, for {\em uniformly random} inputs $x$, cannot be efficiently distinguished from totally random input-output pairs $(x,y)$. We study WPRFs in AC0[MOD2], the class of functions computable by AC0 circuits with parity gates, making the following contributions.
- *Between Lapland and Cryptomania.* We show that WPRFs in AC0[MOD2] imply a variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. This gives an unconditional version of an earlier conditional result of Akavia et al. (ITCS 2014). We further show that WPRFs in a subclass of AC0[mod 2] that includes a recent WPRF candidate by Boyle et al. (FOCS 2020) imply, under a seemingly weak additional conjecture, public-key encryption.
- *WPRF by sparse polynomials.* We propose the first WPRF candidate that can be computed by sparse multivariate polynomials over $\F_2$. We prove that it has subexponential security against linear and algebraic attacks.
- *WPRF in AC0 ◦ MOD2.* We study the existence of WPRFs computed by AC0 circuits \emph{over} parity gates. We propose a modified version of a previous WPRF candidate of Akavia et al., and prove that it resists the algebraic attacks that were used by Bogdanov and Rosen (ECCC 2017) to break the original candidate in quasipolynomial time. We give evidence against the possibility of using {\em public} parity gates and relate this question to other conjectures.

2021

TCC

Towards Tight Adaptive Security of Non-Interactive Key Exchange
📺
Abstract

We investigate the quality of security reductions for non-interactive key
exchange (NIKE) schemes. Unlike for many other cryptographic building blocks
(like public-key encryption, signatures, or zero-knowledge proofs), all known
NIKE security reductions to date are non-tight, i.e., lose a factor of at least
the number of users in the system. In that sense, NIKE forms a particularly
elusive target for tight security reductions.
The main technical obstacle in achieving tightly secure NIKE schemes are
adaptive corruptions. Hence, in this work, we explore security notions and
schemes that lie between selective security and fully adaptive security.
Concretely:
- We exhibit a tradeoff between key size and reduction loss.
We show that a tighter reduction can be bought by larger public and secret NIKE
keys. Concretely, we present a simple NIKE scheme with a reduction loss of
O(N^2 log(\nu)/\nu^2), and public and secret keys of O(\nu) group
elements, where N denotes the overall number of users in the system, and
\nu is a freely adjustable scheme parameter.
Our scheme achieves full adaptive security even against multiple "test
queries" (i.e., adversarial challenges), but requires keys of size O(N) to
achieve (almost) tight security under the matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption.
Still, already this simple scheme circumvents existing lower bounds.
- We show that this tradeoff is inherent.
We contrast the security of our simple scheme with a lower bound for all NIKE
schemes in which shared keys can be expressed as an ``inner product in the
exponent''. This result covers the original Diffie-Hellman NIKE scheme, as well
as a large class of its variants, and in particular our simple scheme. Our
lower bound gives a tradeoff between the ``dimension'' of any such scheme
(which directly corresponds to key sizes in existing schemes), and the
reduction quality. For \nu = O(N), this shows our simple scheme and reduction
optimal (up to a logarithmic factor).
- We exhibit a tradeoff between security and key size for tight reductions.
We show that it is possible to circumvent the inherent tradeoff above by
relaxing the desired security notion. Concretely, we consider the natural
notion of semi-adaptive security, where the adversary has to commit to a single
test query after seeing all public keys. As a feasibility result, we bring
forward the first scheme that enjoys compact public keys and tight
semi-adaptive security under the conjunction of the matrix Diffie-Hellman and
learning with errors assumptions.
We believe that our results shed a new light on the role of adaptivity in NIKE
security, and also illustrate the special role of NIKE when it comes to tight
security reductions.

2020

CRYPTO

Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators from Ring-LPN
📺
Abstract

Secure multiparty computation can often utilize a trusted source of correlated randomness to achieve better efficiency. A recent line of work, initiated by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018, Crypto 2019), showed how useful forms of correlated randomness can be generated using a cheap, one-time interaction, followed by only ``silent'' local computation. This is achieved via a \emph{pseudorandom correlation generator} (PCG), a deterministic function that stretches short correlated seeds into long instances of a target correlation. Previous works constructed concretely efficient PCGs for simple but useful correlations, including random oblivious transfer and vector-OLE, together with efficient protocols to distribute the PCG seed generation. Most of these constructions were based on variants of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. PCGs for other useful correlations had poor asymptotic and concrete efficiency.
In this work, we design a new class of efficient PCGs based on different flavors of the {\em ring-LPN} assumption. Our new PCGs can generate OLE correlations, authenticated multiplication triples, matrix product correlations, and other types of useful correlations over large fields. These PCGs are more efficient by orders of magnitude than the previous constructions and can be used to improve the preprocessing phase of many existing MPC protocols.

2020

TCC

Topology-Hiding Communication from Minimal Assumptions.
📺
Abstract

Topology-hiding broadcast (THB) enables parties communicating over an incomplete network to broadcast messages while hiding the topology from within a given class of graphs. THB is a central tool underlying general topology-hiding secure computation (THC) (Moran et al. TCC’15). Although broadcast is a privacy-free task, it was recently shown that THB for certain graph classes necessitates computational assumptions, even in the semi-honest setting, and even given a single corrupted party.
In this work we investigate the minimal assumptions required for topology-hiding communication—both Broadcast or Anonymous Broadcast (where the broadcaster’s identity is hidden). We develop new techniques that yield a variety of necessary and sufficient conditions for the feasibility of THB/THAB in different cryptographic settings: information theoretic, given existence of key agreement, and given existence of oblivious transfer. Our results show that feasibility can depend on various properties of the graph class, such as connectivity, and highlight the role of different properties of topology when kept hidden, including direction, distance, and/or distance-of-neighbors to the broadcaster. An interesting corollary of our results is a dichotomy for THC with a public number of at least three parties, secure against one corruption: information-theoretic feasibility if all graphs are 2-connected; necessity and sufficiency of key agreement otherwise.

2019

PKC

Hunting and Gathering – Verifiable Random Functions from Standard Assumptions with Short Proofs
Abstract

A verifiable random function (VRF) is a pseudorandom function, where outputs can be publicly verified. That is, given an output value together with a proof, one can check that the function was indeed correctly evaluated on the corresponding input. At the same time, the output of the function is computationally indistinguishable from random for all non-queried inputs.We present the first construction of a VRF which meets the following properties at once: It supports an exponential-sized input space, it achieves full adaptive security based on a non-interactive constant-size assumption and its proofs consist of only a logarithmic number of group elements for inputs of arbitrary polynomial length.Our construction can be instantiated in symmetric bilinear groups with security based on the decision linear assumption. We build on the work of Hofheinz and Jager (TCC 2016), who were the first to construct a verifiable random function with security based on a non-interactive constant-size assumption. Basically, their VRF is a matrix product in the exponent, where each matrix is chosen according to one bit of the input. In order to allow verification given a symmetric bilinear map, a proof consists of all intermediary results. This entails a proof size of $$\varOmega (L)$$ group elements, where L is the bit-length of the input.Our key technique, which we call hunting and gathering, allows us to break this barrier by rearranging the function, which – combined with the partitioning techniques of Bitansky (TCC 2017) – results in a proof size of $$\ell $$ group elements for arbitrary $$\ell \in \omega (1)$$.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Homomorphic Secret Sharing from Lattices Without FHE
📺
Abstract

Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) is an analog of somewhat- or fully homomorphic encryption (S/FHE) to the setting of secret sharing, with applications including succinct secure computation, private manipulation of remote databases, and more. While HSS can be viewed as a relaxation of S/FHE, the only constructions from lattice-based assumptions to date build atop specific forms of threshold or multi-key S/FHE. In this work, we present new techniques directly yielding efficient 2-party HSS for polynomial-size branching programs from a range of lattice-based encryption schemes, without S/FHE. More concretely, we avoid the costly key-switching and modulus-reduction steps used in S/FHE ciphertext multiplication, replacing them with a new distributed decryption procedure for performing “restricted” multiplications of an input with a partial computation value. Doing so requires new methods for handling the blowup of “noise” in ciphertexts in a distributed setting, and leverages several properties of lattice-based encryption schemes together with new tricks in share conversion.The resulting schemes support a superpolynomial-size plaintext space and negligible correctness error, with share sizes comparable to SHE ciphertexts, but cost of homomorphic multiplication roughly one order of magnitude faster. Over certain rings, our HSS can further support some level of packed SIMD homomorphic operations. We demonstrate the practical efficiency of our schemes within two application settings, where we compare favorably with current best approaches: 2-server private database pattern-match queries, and secure 2-party computation of low-degree polynomials.

2019

CRYPTO

Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators: Silent OT Extension and More
📺
Abstract

Secure multiparty computation (MPC) often relies on correlated randomness for better efficiency and simplicity. This is particularly useful for MPC with no honest majority, where input-independent correlated randomness enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known. However, since the amount of randomness typically scales with the circuit size of the function being computed, securely generating correlated randomness forms an efficiency bottleneck, involving a large amount of communication and storage.A natural tool for addressing the above limitations is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG). A PCG allows two or more parties to securely generate long sources of useful correlated randomness via a local expansion of correlated short seeds and no interaction. PCGs enable MPC with silent preprocessing, where a small amount of interaction used for securely sampling the seeds is followed by silent local generation of correlated pseudorandomness.A concretely efficient PCG for Vector-OLE correlations was recently obtained by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018) based on variants of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption over large fields. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of PCGs and present concretely efficient constructions for several types of useful MPC correlations. We obtain the following main contributions:PCG foundations. We give a general security definition for PCGs. Our definition suffices for any MPC protocol satisfying a stronger security requirement that is met by existing protocols. We prove that a stronger security requirement is indeed necessary, and justify our PCG definition by ruling out a stronger and more natural definition.Silent OT extension. We present the first concretely efficient PCG for oblivious transfer correlations. Its security is based on a variant of the binary LPN assumption and any correlation-robust hash function. We expect it to provide a faster alternative to the IKNP OT extension protocol (Crypto 2003) when communication is the bottleneck. We present several applications, including protocols for non-interactive zero-knowledge with bounded-reusable preprocessing from binary LPN, and concretely efficient related-key oblivious pseudorandom functions.PCGs for simple 2-party correlations. We obtain PCGs for several other types of useful 2-party correlations, including (authenticated) one-time truth-tables and Beaver triples. While the latter PCGs are slower than our PCG for OT, they are still practically feasible. These PCGs are based on a host of assumptions and techniques, including specialized homomorphic secret sharing schemes and pseudorandom generators tailored to their structure.Multiparty correlations. We obtain PCGs for multiparty correlations that can be used to make the (input-dependent) online communication of MPC protocols scale linearly with the number of parties, instead of quadratically.

2018

CRYPTO

On Tightly Secure Non-Interactive Key Exchange
📺
Abstract

We consider the reduction loss of security reductions for non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) schemes. Currently, no tightly secure NIKE schemes exist, and in fact Bader et al. (EUROCRYPT 2016) provide a lower bound (of $$\varOmega (n^2)$$, where $$n$$ is the number of parties an adversary interacts with) on the reduction loss for a large class of NIKE schemes.We offer two results: the first NIKE scheme with a reduction loss of $$n/2$$ that circumvents the lower bound of Bader et al., but is of course still far from tightly secure. Second, we provide a generalization of Bader et al.’s lower bound to a larger class of NIKE schemes (that also covers our NIKE scheme), with an adapted lower bound of $$n/2$$ on the reduction loss. Hence, in that sense, the reduction for our NIKE scheme is optimal.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2023
- Crypto 2021
- PKC 2021
- TCC 2021

#### Coauthors

- Thomas Attema (3)
- Marshall Ball (3)
- Alexander Bienstock (1)
- Elette Boyle (8)
- Pedro Capitão (2)
- Ran Cohen (2)
- Geoffroy Couteau (5)
- Ronald Cramer (1)
- Vincent Dunning (1)
- Romain Gay (2)
- Niv Gilboa (5)
- Julia Hesse (2)
- Dennis Hofheinz (4)
- Yuval Ishai (5)
- Lisa Kohl (17)
- Roman Langrehr (1)
- Tal Malkin (2)
- Pierre Meyer (3)
- Tal Moran (2)
- Jiaxin Pan (1)
- Nicolas Resch (2)
- Peter Scholl (6)
- Aron van Baarsen (1)
- Stefan van den Berg (1)