## CryptoDB

### Peter Scholl

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-7937-8422

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Succinct Homomorphic Secret Sharing
Abstract

This work introduces homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) with succinct share size. In HSS, private inputs are shared between parties, who can then homomorphically evaluate a function on their shares, obtaining a share of the function output. In succinct HSS, a portion of the inputs can be distributed using shares whose size is sublinear in the number of such inputs. The parties can then locally evaluate a function f on the shares, with the restriction that f must be linear in the succinctly shared inputs.
We construct succinct, two-party HSS for branching programs, based on either the decisional composite residuosity assumption, a DDH-like assumption in class groups, or learning with errors with a superpolynomial modulus-to-noise ratio. We then give several applications of succinct HSS, which were only previously known using fully homomorphic encryption, or stronger tools:
1. Succinct vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE): Two parties can obtain secret shares of a long, arbitrary vector x, multiplied by a scalar ∆, with communication sublinear in the size of the vector.
2. Batch, multi-party distributed point functions: A protocol for distributing a batch of secret, random point functions among N parties, for any polynomial N, with communication sublinear in the number of DPFs.
3. Sublinear MPC for any number of parties: Two new constructions of MPC with sublinear communication complexity, with N parties for any polynomial N: (1) For general layered Boolean circuits of size s, with communication O(N s/log log s), and (2) For layered, sufficiently wide Boolean circuits, with communication O(N s/log s).

2024

CRYPTO

Cheater Identification on a Budget: MPC with Identifiable Abort from Pairwise MACs
Abstract

Cheater identification in secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows the honest parties to agree upon the identity of a cheating party, in case the protocol aborts. In the context of a dishonest majority, this becomes especially critical, as it serves to thwart denial-of-service attacks and mitigate known impossibility results on ensuring fairness and guaranteed output delivery.
In this work, we present a new, lightweight approach to achieving identifiable abort in dishonest majority MPC. We avoid all of the heavy machinery used in previous works, instead relying on a careful combination of lightweight detection mechanisms and techniques from state-of-the-art protocols secure with (non-identifiable) abort.
At the core of our construction is a homomorphic, multi-receiver commitment scheme secure with identifiable abort. This commitment scheme can be constructed from cheap vector oblivious linear evaluation protocols based on learning parity with noise. To support cheater identification, we design a general compilation technique, similar to a compiler of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2014), but avoid its requirement for adaptive security of the underlying protocol. Instead, we rely on a different (and seemingly easier to achieve) property we call online extractability, which may be of independent interest. Our MPC protocol can be viewed as a version of the BDOZ MPC scheme (Bendlin et al., Eurocrypt 2011) based on pairwise information-theoretic MACs, enhanced to support cheater identification and a highly efficient preprocessing phase, essentially as efficient as the non-identifiable protocol of Le Mans (Rachuri \& Scholl, Crypto 2022).

2023

EUROCRYPT

Oblivious Transfer with Constant Computational Overhead
Abstract

The computational overhead of a cryptographic task is the asymptotic ratio between the computational cost of securely realizing the task and that of realizing the task with no security at all. Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC 2008) showed that secure two-party computation of Boolean circuits can be realized with constant computational overhead, independent of the desired level of security, assuming the existence of an oblivious transfer (OT) protocol and a local pseudorandom generator (PRG). However, this only applies to the case of semi-honest parties. A central open question in the area is the possibility of a similar result for malicious parties. This question is open even for the simpler task of securely realizing many instances of a constant-size function, such as OT of bits.
We settle the question in the affirmative for the case of OT, assuming: (1) a standard OT protocol, (2) a slightly stronger “correlation-robust” variant of a local PRG, and (3) a standard sparse variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. An optimized version of our construction requires fewer than 100 bit operations per party per bit-OT. For 128-bit security, this improves over the best previous protocols by 1-2 orders of magnitude.
We achieve this by constructing a constant-overhead pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG) for the bit-OT correlation. Such a PCG generates N pseudorandom instances of bit-OT by locally expanding short, correlated seeds. As a result, we get an end-to-end protocol for generating N pseudorandom instances of bit-OT with o(N) communication, O(N) computation, and security that scales sub-exponentially with N.
Finally, we present applications of our main result to realizing other secure computation tasks with constant computational overhead. These include protocols for general circuits with a relaxed notion of security against malicious parties, protocols for realizing N instances of natural constant-size functions, and reducing the main open question to a potentially simpler question about fault-tolerant computation.

2023

CRYPTO

Publicly Verifiable Zero-Knowledge and Post-Quantum Signatures From VOLE-in-the-Head
Abstract

We present a new method for transforming zero-knowledge protocols in the designated verifier setting into public-coin protocols, which can be made non-interactive and publicly verifiable.
Our transformation applies to a large class of ZK protocols based on oblivious transfer.
In particular, we show that it can be applied to recent, fast protocols based on vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE), with a technique we call VOLE-in-the-head, upgrading these protocols to support public verifiability.
Our resulting ZK protocols have linear proof size, and are simpler, smaller and faster than related approaches based on MPC-in-the-head.
To build VOLE-in-the-head while supporting both binary circuits and large finite fields, we develop several new technical tools.
One of these is a new proof of security for the SoftSpokenOT protocol (Crypto 2022), which generalizes it to produce certain types of VOLE correlations over large fields.
Secondly, we present a new ZK protocol that is tailored to take advantage of this form of VOLE, which leads to a publicly verifiable VOLE-in-the-head protocol with only 2x more communication than the best, designated-verifier VOLE-based protocols.
We analyze the soundness of our approach when made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir transform, using round-by-round soundness.
As an application of the resulting NIZK, we present FAEST, a post-quantum signature scheme based on AES.
FAEST is the first AES-based signature scheme to be smaller than SPHINCS+, with signature sizes between 5.6 and 6.6kB at the 128-bit security level.
Compared with the smallest version of SPHINCS+ (7.9kB), FAEST verification is slower, but the signing times are between 8x and 40x faster.

2023

ASIACRYPT

Simple Threshold (Fully Homomorphic) Encryption From LWE With Polynomial Modulus
Abstract

The learning with errors (LWE) assumption is a powerful tool for building encryption schemes with useful properties, such as plausible resistance to quantum computers, or support for homomorphic computations. Despite this, essentially the only method of achieving threshold decryption in schemes based on LWE requires a modulus that is superpolynomial in the security parameter, leading to a large overhead in ciphertext sizes and computation time. In this work, we propose a (fully homomorphic) encryption scheme that supports a simple t-out-of-n threshold decryption protocol while allowing for a polynomial modulus. The main idea is to use the Rényi divergence (as opposed to the statistical distance as in previous works) as a measure of distribution closeness. This comes with some technical obstacles, due to the difficulty of using the Rényi divergence in decisional security notions such as standard semantic security. We overcome this by constructing a threshold scheme with a weaker notion of one-way security and then showing how to transform any one-way (fully homomorphic) threshold scheme into one guaranteeing indistinguishability-based security.

2022

PKC

On the Bottleneck Complexity of MPC with Correlated Randomness
📺
Abstract

At ICALP 2018, Boyle et al. introduced the notion of the \emph{bottleneck complexity} of a secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol. This measures the maximum communication complexity of any one party in the protocol, aiming to improve load-balancing among the parties.
In this work, we study the bottleneck complexity of MPC in the preprocessing model, where parties are given correlated randomness ahead of time.
We present two constructions of \emph{bottleneck-efficient} MPC protocols, whose bottleneck complexity is independent of the number of parties:
1. A protocol for computing abelian programs, based only on one-way functions.
2. A protocol for selection functions, based on any linearly homomorphic encryption scheme.
Compared with previous bottleneck-efficient constructions, our protocols can be based on a wider range of assumptions, and avoid the use of fully homomorphic encryption.

2022

PKC

Low-Communication Multiparty Triple Generation for SPDZ from Ring-LPN
📺
Abstract

The SPDZ protocol for multi-party computation relies on a correlated randomness setup consisting of authenticated, multiplication triples. A recent line of work by Boyle et al. (Crypto 2019, Crypto 2020) has investigated the possibility of producing this correlated randomness in a \emph{silent preprocessing} phase, which involves a ``small'' setup protocol with less communication than the total size of the triples being produced. These works do this using a tool called a \emph{pseudorandom correlation generator} (PCG), which allows a large batch of correlated randomness to be compressed into a set of smaller, correlated seeds. However, existing methods for compressing SPDZ triples only apply to the 2-party setting.
In this work, we construct a PCG for producing SPDZ triples over large prime fields in the multi-party setting. The security of our PCG is based on the ring-LPN assumption over fields, similar to the work of Boyle et al. (Crypto 2020) in the 2-party setting. We also present a corresponding, actively secure setup protocol, which can be used to generate the PCG seeds and instantiate SPDZ with a silent preprocessing phase. As a building block, which may be of independent interest, we construct a new type of 3-party distributed point function supporting outputs over arbitrary groups (including large prime order), as well as an efficient protocol for setting up our DPF keys with active security.

2022

EUROCRYPT

Distributed (Correlation) Samplers: How to Remove a Trusted Dealer in One Round
📺
Abstract

Structured random strings (SRSs) and correlated randomness are important for many cryptographic protocols. In settings where interaction is expensive, it is desirable to obtain such randomness in as few rounds of communication as possible; ideally, simply by exchanging one reusable round of messages which can be considered public keys.
In this paper, we describe how to generate any SRS or correlated randomness in such a single round of communication, using, among other things, indistinguishable obfuscation. We introduce what we call a distributed sampler, which enables n parties to sample a single public value (SRS) from any distribution. We construct a semi-malicious distributed sampler in the plain model, and use it to build a semi-malicious public- key PCF (Boyle et al., FOCS 2020) in the plain model. A public-key PCF can be thought of as a distributed correlation sampler; instead of producing a public SRS, it gives each party a private random value (where the values satisfy some correlation).
We introduce a general technique called an anti-rusher which compiles any one-round protocol with semi-malicious security without inputs to a similar one-round protocol with active security by making use of a programmable random oracle. This gets us actively secure distributed samplers and public-key PCFs in the random oracle model.
Finally, we explore some tradeoffs. Our first PCF construction is limited to reverse-sampleable correlations (where the random outputs of honest parties must be simulatable given the random outputs of corrupt parties); we additionally show a different construction without this limitation, but which does not allow parties to hold secret parameters of the correlation. We also describe how to avoid the use of a random oracle at the cost of relying on sub-exponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation.

2022

CRYPTO

An Algebraic Framework for Silent Preprocessing with Trustless Setup and Active Security
📺
Abstract

Recently, number-theoretic assumptions including DDH, DCR and QR have been used to build powerful tools for secure computation, in the form of homomorphic secret-sharing (HSS), which leads to secure two-party computation protocols with succinct communication, and pseudorandom correlation functions (PCFs), which allow non-interactive generation of a large quantity of correlated randomness.
In this work, we present a group-theoretic framework for these classes of constructions, which unifies their approach to computing distributed discrete logarithms in various groups. We cast existing constructions in our framework, and also present new constructions, including one based on class groups of imaginary quadratic fields. This leads to the first construction of two-party homomorphic secret sharing for branching programs from class group assumptions.
Using our framework, we also obtain pseudorandom correlation functions for generating oblivious transfer and vector-OLE correlations from number-theoretic assumptions. These have a trustless, public-key setup when instantiating our framework using class groups. Previously, such constructions either needed a trusted setup in the form of an RSA modulus with unknown factorisation, or relied on multi-key fully homomorphic encryption from the learning with errors assumption.
We also show how to upgrade our constructions to achieve active security using appropriate zero-knowledge proofs. In the random oracle model, this leads to a one-round, actively secure protocol for setting up the PCF, as well as a 3-round, actively secure HSS-based protocol for secure two-party computation of branching programs with succinct communication.

2022

CRYPTO

Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$zarella: Efficient Vector-OLE and Zero-Knowledge Proofs Over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$
📺
Abstract

Zero-knowledge proof systems are usually designed to support computations for circuits over $\mathbb{F}_2$ or $\mathbb{F}_p$ for large $p$, but not for computations over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$, which all modern CPUs operate on. Although $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$-arithmetic can be emulated using prime moduli, this comes with an unavoidable overhead. Recently, Baum et al. (CCS 2021) suggested a candidate construction for a designated-verifier zero-knowledge proof system that natively runs over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Unfortunately, their construction requires preprocessed random vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE) to be instantiated over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Currently, it is not known how to efficiently generate such random VOLE in large quantities.
In this work, we present a maliciously secure, VOLE extension protocol that can turn a short seed-VOLE over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ into a much longer, pseudorandom VOLE over the same ring. Our construction borrows ideas from recent protocols over finite fields, which we non-trivially adapt to work over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Moreover, we show that the approach taken by the QuickSilver zero-knowledge proof system (Yang et al. CCS 2021) can be generalized to support computations over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. This new VOLE-based proof system, which we call QuarkSilver, yields better efficiency than the previous zero-knowledge protocols suggested by Baum et al. Furthermore, we implement both our VOLE extension and our zero-knowledge proof system, and show that they can generate 13-50 million VOLEs per second for 64 to 256 bit rings, and evaluate 1.3 million 64 bit multiplications per second in zero-knowledge.

2022

CRYPTO

Le Mans: Dynamic and Fluid MPC for Dishonest Majority
📺
Abstract

Most MPC protocols require the set of parties to be active for the entire duration of the computation. Deploying MPC for use cases such as complex and resource-intensive scientific computations increases the barrier of entry for potential participants. The model of Fluid MPC (Crypto 2021) tackles this issue by giving parties the flexibility to participate in the protocol only when their resources are free. As such, the set of parties is dynamically changing over time.
In this work, we extend Fluid MPC, which only considered an honest majority, to the setting where the majority of participants at any point in the computation may be corrupt. We do this by presenting variants of the SPDZ protocol, which support dynamic participants. Firstly, we describe a \emph{universal preprocessing} for SPDZ, which allows a set of $n$ parties to compute some correlated randomness, such that later on, any subset of the parties can use this to take part in an online secure computation. We complement this with a \emph{Dynamic SPDZ} online phase, designed to work with our universal preprocessing, as well as a protocol for securely realising the preprocessing. Our preprocessing protocol is designed to efficiently use pseudorandom correlation generators, thus, the parties' storage and communication costs can be almost independent of the function being evaluated.
We then extend this to support a \emph{fluid online phase}, where the set of parties can dynamically evolve during the online phase. Our protocol achieves \emph{maximal fluidity} and security with abort, similarly to the previous, honest majority construction. Achieving this requires a careful design and techniques to guarantee a small state complexity, allowing us to switch between committees efficiently.

2022

CRYPTO

Correlated Pseudorandomness from Expand-Accumulate Codes
📺
Abstract

A pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG) is a recent tool for securely generating useful sources of correlated randomness, such as random oblivious transfers (OT) and vector oblivious linear evaluations (VOLE), with low communication cost.
We introduce a simple new design for PCGs based on so-called expand-accumulate codes, which first apply a sparse random expander graph to replicate each message entry, and then accumulate the entries by computing the sum of each prefix. Our design offers the following advantages compared to state-of-the-art PCG constructions:
- Competitive concrete efficiency backed by provable security against relevant classes of attacks;
- An offline-online mode that combines near-optimal cache-friendliness with simple parallelization;
- Concretely efficient extensions to pseudorandom correlation functions, which enable incremental generation of new correlation instances on demand, and to new kinds of correlated randomness that include circuit-dependent correlations.
To further improve the concrete computational cost, we propose a method for speeding up a full-domain evaluation of a puncturable pseudorandom function (PPRF). This is independently motivated by other cryptographic applications of PPRFs.

2022

JOFC

TinyKeys: A New Approach to Efficient Multi-Party Computation
Abstract

We present a new approach to designing concretely efficient MPC protocols with semi-honest security in the dishonest majority setting. Motivated by the fact that within the dishonest majority setting the efficiency of most practical protocols does not depend on the number of honest parties , we investigate how to construct protocols which improve in efficiency as the number of honest parties increases. Our central idea is to take a protocol which is secure for $$n-1$$ n - 1 corruptions and modify it to use short symmetric keys, with the aim of basing security on the concatenation of all honest parties’ keys. This results in a more efficient protocol tolerating fewer corruptions, whilst also introducing an LPN-style syndrome decoding assumption. We first apply this technique to a modified version of the semi-honest GMW protocol, using OT extension with short keys, to improve the efficiency of standard GMW with fewer corruptions. We also obtain more efficient constant-round MPC, using BMR-style garbled circuits with short keys, and present an implementation of the online phase of this protocol. Our techniques start to improve upon existing protocols when there are around $$n=10$$ n = 10 parties with $$h=4$$ h = 4 honest parties, and as these increase we obtain up to a 13 times reduction (for $$n=400,h=120$$ n = 400 , h = 120 ) in communication complexity for our GMW variant, compared with the best-known GMW-based protocol modified to use the same threshold.

2021

JOFC

High-Performance Multi-party Computation for Binary Circuits Based on Oblivious Transfer
Abstract

We present a unified view of the two-party and multi-party computation protocols based on oblivious transfer first outlined in Nielsen et al. (CRYPTO 2012) and Larraia et al. (CRYPTO 2014). We present a number of modifications and improvements to these earlier presentations, as well as full proofs of the entire protocol. Improvements include a unified pre-processing and online MAC methodology, mechanisms to pass between different MAC variants and fixing a minor bug in the protocol of Larraia et al. in relation to a selective failure attack. It also fixes a minor bug in Nielsen et al. resulting from using Jensen’s inequality in the wrong direction in an analysis.

2021

EUROCRYPT

The Rise of Paillier: Homomorphic Secret Sharing and Public-Key Silent OT
📺
Abstract

We describe a simple method for solving the distributed discrete logarithm problem in Paillier groups, allowing two parties to locally convert multiplicative shares of a secret (in the exponent) into additive shares. Our algorithm is perfectly correct, unlike previous methods with an inverse polynomial error probability. We obtain the following applications and further results.
– Homomorphic secret sharing:
We construct homomorphic secret sharing for branching programs with negligible correctness error and supporting exponentially large plaintexts, with security based on the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption.
– Correlated pseudorandomness:
Pseudorandom correlation functions (PCFs), recently introduced by Boyle et al. (FOCS 2020), allow two parties to obtain a practically unbounded quantity of correlated randomness, given a pair of short, correlated keys. We construct PCFs for the oblivious transfer (OT) and vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE) correlations, based on the quadratic residuosity (QR) or DCR assumptions, respectively. We also construct a pseudorandom correlation generator (for producing a bounded number of samples, all at once) for OLE, based on a combination of the DCR and learning parity with noise assumptions.
– Public-keysilentOT/VOLE:
We upgrade our PCF constructions to have a public-key setup, where after independently posting a public key, each party can locally derive its PCF key. This allows completely silent generation of an arbitrary amount of OTs or VOLEs, without any interaction beyond a PKI, based on QR and DCR. The public-key setup is based on a novel non-interactive vector OLE protocol which can be seen as a variant of the Bellare-Micali oblivious transfer protocol.

2021

PKC

Banquet: Short and Fast Signatures from AES
📺
Abstract

In this work we introduce Banquet, a digital signature scheme with post-quantum security, constructed using only symmetric-key primitives. The design is based on the MPC-in-head paradigm also used by Picnic (CCS 2017) and BBQ (SAC 2019). Like BBQ, Banquet uses only standardized primitives, namely AES and SHA-3, but signatures are more than 50\% shorter, making them competitive with Picnic (which uses a non-standard block cipher to improve performance). The MPC protocol in Banquet uses a new technique to verify correctness of the AES S-box computations, which is efficient because the cost is amortized with a batch verification strategy.
Our implementation and benchmarks also show that both signing and verification can be done in under 10ms on a current x64 CPU. We also explore the parameter space to show the range of trade-offs that are possible with the Banquet design, and show that Banquet can nearly match the signature sizes possible with Picnic (albeit with slower, but still practical run times) or have speed within a factor of two of Picnic (at the cost of larger signatures).

2021

CRYPTO

Low-Complexity Weak Pseudorandom Functions in AC0[MOD2]
📺
Abstract

A *weak pseudorandom function* (WPRF) is a keyed function $f_k:\{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}$ such that, for a random key $k$, a collection of samples $(x, f_k(x))$, for {\em uniformly random} inputs $x$, cannot be efficiently distinguished from totally random input-output pairs $(x,y)$. We study WPRFs in AC0[MOD2], the class of functions computable by AC0 circuits with parity gates, making the following contributions.
- *Between Lapland and Cryptomania.* We show that WPRFs in AC0[MOD2] imply a variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. This gives an unconditional version of an earlier conditional result of Akavia et al. (ITCS 2014). We further show that WPRFs in a subclass of AC0[mod 2] that includes a recent WPRF candidate by Boyle et al. (FOCS 2020) imply, under a seemingly weak additional conjecture, public-key encryption.
- *WPRF by sparse polynomials.* We propose the first WPRF candidate that can be computed by sparse multivariate polynomials over $\F_2$. We prove that it has subexponential security against linear and algebraic attacks.
- *WPRF in AC0 ◦ MOD2.* We study the existence of WPRFs computed by AC0 circuits \emph{over} parity gates. We propose a modified version of a previous WPRF candidate of Akavia et al., and prove that it resists the algebraic attacks that were used by Bogdanov and Rosen (ECCC 2017) to break the original candidate in quasipolynomial time. We give evidence against the possibility of using {\em public} parity gates and relate this question to other conjectures.

2021

CRYPTO

Mac'n'Cheese: Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Boolean and Arithmetic Circuits with Nested Disjunctions
📺
Abstract

Zero knowledge proofs are an important building block in many cryptographic applications.
Unfortunately, when the proof statements become very large, existing
zero-knowledge proof systems easily reach their limits: either the computational
overhead, the memory footprint, or the required bandwidth exceed levels that
would be tolerable in practice.
We present an interactive zero-knowledge proof system for boolean and
arithmetic circuits, called Mac'n'Cheese, with a focus on supporting large
circuits. Our work follows the commit-and-prove paradigm instantiated using
information-theoretic MACs based on vector oblivious linear evaluation to
achieve high efficiency. We additionally show how to optimize disjunctions,
with a general OR transformation for proving the disjunction of $m$
statements that has communication complexity proportional to the longest
statement (plus an additive term logarithmic in $m$). These disjunctions can
further be \emph{nested}, allowing efficient proofs about complex statements
with many levels of disjunctions. We also show how to make Mac'n'Cheese
non-interactive (after a preprocessing phase) using the Fiat-Shamir
transform, and with only a small degradation in soundness.
We have implemented the online phase of Mac'n'Cheese and achieve a runtime of 144~ns per AND
gate and 1.5~$\mu$s per multiplication gate in $\mathbb{F}_{2^{61}-1}$ when run over a network
with a 95~ms latency and a bandwidth of 31.5~Mbps. In addition, we show that
the disjunction optimization improves communication as expected: when
proving a boolean circuit with eight branches and each branch containing
roughly 1 billion multiplications, Mac'n'Cheese requires only 75 more bytes to
communicate than in the single branch case.

2020

CRYPTO

Efficient Constant-Round MPC with Identifiable Abort and Public Verifiability
📺
Abstract

Recent years have seen a tremendous growth in the interest in se-
cure multiparty computation (MPC) and its applications. While much progress
has been made concerning its efficiency, many current, state-of-the-art protocols
are vulnerable to Denial of Service attacks, where a cheating party may prevent
the honest parties from learning the output of the computation, whilst remaining
anonymous. The security model of identifiable abort aims to prevent these at-
tacks, by allowing honest parties to agree upon the identity of a cheating party,
who can then be excluded in the future. Several existing MPC protocols offer
security with identifiable abort against a dishonest majority of corrupted parties.
However, all of these protocols have a round complexity that scales linearly with
the depth of the circuit (and are therefore unsuitable for use in high latency net-
works) or use cryptographic primitives or techniques that have a high computa-
tional overhead.
In this work, we present the first efficient MPC protocols with identifiable abort
in the dishonest majority setting, which run in a constant number of rounds and
make only black-box use of cryptographic primitives. Our main construction is
built from highly efficient primitives in a careful way to achieve identifiability
at a low cost. In particular, we avoid the use of public-key operations outside of
a setup phase, incurring a relatively low overhead on top of the fastest currently
known constant-round MPC protocols based on garbled circuits. Our construction
also avoids the use of adaptively secure primitives and heavy zero-knowledge
machinery, which was inherent in previous works. In addition, we show how to
upgrade our protocol to achieve public verifiability using a public bulletin board,
allowing any external party to verify correctness of the computation or identify a
cheating party.

2020

CRYPTO

Improved Primitives for MPC over Mixed Arithmetic-Binary Circuits
📺
Abstract

This work introduces novel techniques to improve the translation between arithmetic and binary data types in multi-party computation.
To this end, we introduce a new approach to performing these conversions, using what we call \emph{extended doubly-authenticated bits} (edaBits), which correspond to shared integers in the arithmetic domain whose bit decomposition is shared in the binary domain.
These can be used to considerably increase the efficiency of non-linear operations such as truncation, secure comparison and bit-decomposition.
Our eDaBits are similar to the \emph{daBits} technique introduced by Rotaru et al.~(Indocrypt 2019).
However, our main observations are that (1) applications that benefit from daBits can also benefit from edaBits in the same way, and (2) we can generate edaBits directly in a much more efficeint way than computing them directly from a set of DaBits.
Technically, the second contribution is much more challenging, and involves a novel cut and choose technique that may be of independent interest, and requires taking advantage of natural tamper-resilient properties of binary circuits that occur in our construction to obtain the best level of efficiency.
Finally, we show how our eDaBits can be applied to efficiently implement various non-linear protocols of interest, and we thoroughly analyze their correctness for both signed and unsigned integers.
The results of this work can be applied to any corruption threshold, although they seem best suited to dishonest majority protocols such as SPDZ.
We implement and benchmark our constructions, and experimentally verify that our technique yield a substantial increase in effiency.
Our eDaBits save in communication by a factor that lies between $2$ and $170$ for
secure comparisons with respect to a purely arithmetic approach, and between $2$ and $60$ with respect to using daBits.
Improvements in throughput per second are more subdued but still as high as a factor of $47$.
We also apply our novel machinery to the tasks of biometric matching and convolutional neural networks, obtaining a noticeable improvement as well.

2020

CRYPTO

Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators from Ring-LPN
📺
Abstract

Secure multiparty computation can often utilize a trusted source of correlated randomness to achieve better efficiency. A recent line of work, initiated by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018, Crypto 2019), showed how useful forms of correlated randomness can be generated using a cheap, one-time interaction, followed by only ``silent'' local computation. This is achieved via a \emph{pseudorandom correlation generator} (PCG), a deterministic function that stretches short correlated seeds into long instances of a target correlation. Previous works constructed concretely efficient PCGs for simple but useful correlations, including random oblivious transfer and vector-OLE, together with efficient protocols to distribute the PCG seed generation. Most of these constructions were based on variants of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. PCGs for other useful correlations had poor asymptotic and concrete efficiency.
In this work, we design a new class of efficient PCGs based on different flavors of the {\em ring-LPN} assumption. Our new PCGs can generate OLE correlations, authenticated multiplication triples, matrix product correlations, and other types of useful correlations over large fields. These PCGs are more efficient by orders of magnitude than the previous constructions and can be used to improve the preprocessing phase of many existing MPC protocols.

2020

JOFC

Low Cost Constant Round MPC Combining BMR and Oblivious Transfer
Abstract

In this work, we present two new actively secure, constant-round multi-party computation (MPC) protocols with security against all-but-one corruptions. Our protocols both start with an actively secure MPC protocol, which may have linear round complexity in the depth of the circuit, and compile it into a constant-round protocol based on garbled circuits, with very low overhead. 1. Our first protocol takes a generic approach using any secret-sharing-based MPC protocol for binary circuits, and a correlated oblivious transfer functionality. 2. Our second protocol builds on secret-sharing-based MPC with information-theoretic MACs. This approach is less flexible, being based on a specific form of MPC, but requires no additional oblivious transfers to compute the garbled circuit. In both approaches, the underlying secret-sharing-based protocol is only used for one actively secure $$\mathbb {F}_2$$ F 2 multiplication per AND gate . An interesting consequence of this is that, with current techniques, constant-round MPC for binary circuits is not much more expensive than practical, non-constant-round protocols. We demonstrate the practicality of our second protocol with an implementation and perform experiments with up to 9 parties securely computing the AES and SHA-256 circuits. Our running times improve upon the best possible performance with previous protocols in this setting by 60 times.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Homomorphic Secret Sharing from Lattices Without FHE
📺
Abstract

Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) is an analog of somewhat- or fully homomorphic encryption (S/FHE) to the setting of secret sharing, with applications including succinct secure computation, private manipulation of remote databases, and more. While HSS can be viewed as a relaxation of S/FHE, the only constructions from lattice-based assumptions to date build atop specific forms of threshold or multi-key S/FHE. In this work, we present new techniques directly yielding efficient 2-party HSS for polynomial-size branching programs from a range of lattice-based encryption schemes, without S/FHE. More concretely, we avoid the costly key-switching and modulus-reduction steps used in S/FHE ciphertext multiplication, replacing them with a new distributed decryption procedure for performing “restricted” multiplications of an input with a partial computation value. Doing so requires new methods for handling the blowup of “noise” in ciphertexts in a distributed setting, and leverages several properties of lattice-based encryption schemes together with new tricks in share conversion.The resulting schemes support a superpolynomial-size plaintext space and negligible correctness error, with share sizes comparable to SHE ciphertexts, but cost of homomorphic multiplication roughly one order of magnitude faster. Over certain rings, our HSS can further support some level of packed SIMD homomorphic operations. We demonstrate the practical efficiency of our schemes within two application settings, where we compare favorably with current best approaches: 2-server private database pattern-match queries, and secure 2-party computation of low-degree polynomials.

2019

CRYPTO

Efficient Pseudorandom Correlation Generators: Silent OT Extension and More
📺
Abstract

Secure multiparty computation (MPC) often relies on correlated randomness for better efficiency and simplicity. This is particularly useful for MPC with no honest majority, where input-independent correlated randomness enables a lightweight “non-cryptographic” online phase once the inputs are known. However, since the amount of randomness typically scales with the circuit size of the function being computed, securely generating correlated randomness forms an efficiency bottleneck, involving a large amount of communication and storage.A natural tool for addressing the above limitations is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG). A PCG allows two or more parties to securely generate long sources of useful correlated randomness via a local expansion of correlated short seeds and no interaction. PCGs enable MPC with silent preprocessing, where a small amount of interaction used for securely sampling the seeds is followed by silent local generation of correlated pseudorandomness.A concretely efficient PCG for Vector-OLE correlations was recently obtained by Boyle et al. (CCS 2018) based on variants of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption over large fields. In this work, we initiate a systematic study of PCGs and present concretely efficient constructions for several types of useful MPC correlations. We obtain the following main contributions:PCG foundations. We give a general security definition for PCGs. Our definition suffices for any MPC protocol satisfying a stronger security requirement that is met by existing protocols. We prove that a stronger security requirement is indeed necessary, and justify our PCG definition by ruling out a stronger and more natural definition.Silent OT extension. We present the first concretely efficient PCG for oblivious transfer correlations. Its security is based on a variant of the binary LPN assumption and any correlation-robust hash function. We expect it to provide a faster alternative to the IKNP OT extension protocol (Crypto 2003) when communication is the bottleneck. We present several applications, including protocols for non-interactive zero-knowledge with bounded-reusable preprocessing from binary LPN, and concretely efficient related-key oblivious pseudorandom functions.PCGs for simple 2-party correlations. We obtain PCGs for several other types of useful 2-party correlations, including (authenticated) one-time truth-tables and Beaver triples. While the latter PCGs are slower than our PCG for OT, they are still practically feasible. These PCGs are based on a host of assumptions and techniques, including specialized homomorphic secret sharing schemes and pseudorandom generators tailored to their structure.Multiparty correlations. We obtain PCGs for multiparty correlations that can be used to make the (input-dependent) online communication of MPC protocols scale linearly with the number of parties, instead of quadratically.

2018

CRYPTO

TinyKeys: A New Approach to Efficient Multi-Party Computation
📺
Abstract

We present a new approach to designing concretely efficient MPC protocols with semi-honest security in the dishonest majority setting. Motivated by the fact that within the dishonest majority setting the efficiency of most practical protocols does not depend on the number of honest parties, we investigate how to construct protocols which improve in efficiency as the number of honest parties increases. Our central idea is to take a protocol which is secure for
$$n-1$$
n-1 corruptions and modify it to use short symmetric keys, with the aim of basing security on the concatenation of all honest parties’ keys. This results in a more efficient protocol tolerating fewer corruptions, whilst also introducing an LPN-style syndrome decoding assumption.We first apply this technique to a modified version of the semi-honest GMW protocol, using OT extension with short keys, to improve the efficiency of standard GMW with fewer corruptions. We also obtain more efficient constant-round MPC, using BMR-style garbled circuits with short keys, and present an implementation of the online phase of this protocol. Our techniques start to improve upon existing protocols when there are around
$$n=20$$
n=20 parties with
$$h=6$$
h=6 honest parties, and as these increase we obtain up to a 13 times reduction (for
$$n=400, h=120$$
n=400,h=120) in communication complexity for our GMW variant, compared with the best-known GMW-based protocol modified to use the same threshold.

2018

CRYPTO

SPD$\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}$: Efficient MPC mod $2^k$ for Dishonest Majority
📺
Abstract

Most multi-party computation protocols allow secure computation of arithmetic circuits over a finite field, such as the integers modulo a prime. In the more natural setting of integer computations modulo $$2^{k}$$, which are useful for simplifying implementations and applications, no solutions with active security are known unless the majority of the participants are honest.We present a new scheme for information-theoretic MACs that are homomorphic modulo $$2^k$$, and are as efficient as the well-known standard solutions that are homomorphic over fields. We apply this to construct an MPC protocol for dishonest majority in the preprocessing model that has efficiency comparable to the well-known SPDZ protocol (Damgård et al., CRYPTO 2012), with operations modulo $$2^k$$ instead of over a field. We also construct a matching preprocessing protocol based on oblivious transfer, which is in the style of the MASCOT protocol (Keller et al., CCS 2016) and almost as efficient.

2018

PKC

Extending Oblivious Transfer with Low Communication via Key-Homomorphic PRFs
Abstract

We present a new approach to extending oblivious transfer with communication complexity that is logarithmic in the security parameter. Our method only makes black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives, and can achieve security against an active adversary with almost no overhead on top of passive security. This results in the first oblivious transfer protocol with sublinear communication and active security, which does not require any non-black-box use of cryptographic primitives.Our main technique is a novel twist on the classic OT extension of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2003), using an additively key-homomorphic PRF to reduce interaction. We first use this to construct a protocol for a large batch of 1-out-of-n OTs on random inputs, with amortized o(1) communication. Converting these to 1-out-of-2 OTs on chosen strings requires logarithmic communication. The key-homomorphic PRF used in the protocol can be instantiated under the learning with errors assumption with exponential modulus-to-noise ratio.

2018

PKC

Compact Zero-Knowledge Proofs of Small Hamming Weight
Abstract

We introduce a new technique that allows to give a zero-knowledge proof that a committed vector has Hamming weight bounded by a given constant. The proof has unconditional soundness and is very compact: It has size independent of the length of the committed string, and for large fields, it has size corresponding to a constant number of commitments. We show five applications of the technique that play on a common theme, namely that our proof allows us to get malicious security at small overhead compared to semi-honest security: (1) actively secure k-out-of-n OT from black-box use of 1-out-of-2 OT, (2) separable accountable ring signatures, (3) more efficient preprocessing for the TinyTable secure two-party computation protocol, (4) mixing with public verifiability, and (5) PIR with security against a malicious client.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Concretely Efficient Large-Scale MPC with Active Security (or, TinyKeys for TinyOT)
Abstract

In this work we develop a new theory for concretely efficient, large-scale MPC with active security. Current practical techniques are mostly in the strong setting of all-but-one corruptions, which leads to protocols that scale badly with the number of parties. To work around this issue, we consider a large-scale scenario where a small minority out of many parties is honest and design scalable, more efficient MPC protocols for this setting. Our results are achieved by introducing new techniques for information-theoretic MACs with short keys and extending the work of Hazay et al. (CRYPTO 2018), which developed new passively secure MPC protocols in the same context. We further demonstrate the usefulness of this theory in practice by analyzing the concrete communication overhead of our protocols, which improve upon the most efficient previous works.

#### Program Committees

- PKC 2023
- TCC 2022
- TCC 2021
- Crypto 2019

#### Coauthors

- Damiano Abram (4)
- Carsten Baum (7)
- Katharina Boudgoust (1)
- Elette Boyle (6)
- Lennart Braun (2)
- Sai Sheshank Burra (1)
- Geoffroy Couteau (5)
- Ronald Cramer (1)
- Ivan Damgård (3)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Daniel Escudero (2)
- Tore Kasper Frederiksen (1)
- Satrajit Ghosh (1)
- Niv Gilboa (5)
- Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem (1)
- Carmit Hazay (5)
- Yuval Ishai (5)
- Daniel Kales (1)
- Marcel Keller (4)
- Michael Klooß (1)
- Lisa Kohl (6)
- Enrique Larraia (1)
- Ji Luo (1)
- Alex J. Malozemoff (1)
- Nikolas Melissaris (1)
- Alexander Munch-Hansen (1)
- Jesper Buus Nielsen (1)
- Peter Sebastian Nordholt (1)
- Sabine Oechsner (1)
- Claudio Orlandi (4)
- Emmanuela Orsini (10)
- Rahul Rachuri (3)
- Divya Ravi (1)
- Nicolas Resch (2)
- Marc B. Rosen (1)
- Lawrence Roy (2)
- Peter Scholl (34)
- Mark Simkin (1)
- Nigel P. Smart (1)
- Eduardo Soria-Vazquez (6)
- Chaoping Xing (1)
- Sophia Yakoubov (2)
- Greg Zaverucha (1)