## CryptoDB

### Naty Peter

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2021

CRYPTO

Quadratic Secret Sharing and Conditional Disclosure of Secrets
📺
Abstract

There is a huge gap between the upper and lower bounds on the share size of secret-sharing schemes for arbitrary $n$-party access structures, and consistent with our current knowledge the optimal share size can be anywhere between polynomial in $n$ and exponential in $n$. For linear secret-sharing schemes, we know that the share size for almost all $n$-party access structures must be exponential in $n$. Furthermore, most constructions of efficient secret-sharing schemes are linear. We would like to study larger classes of secret-sharing schemes with two goals. On one hand, we want to prove lower bounds for larger classes of secret-sharing schemes, possibly shedding some light on the share size of general secret-sharing schemes. On the other hand, we want to construct efficient secret-sharing schemes for access structures that do not have efficient linear secret-sharing schemes. Given this motivation, Paskin-Cherniavsky and Radune (ITC'20) defined and studied a new class of secret-sharing schemes in which the shares are generated by applying degree-$d$ polynomials to the secret and some random field elements. The special case $d=1$ corresponds to linear and multi-linear secret-sharing schemes.
We define and study two additional classes of polynomial secret-sharing schemes: (1) schemes in which for every authorized set the reconstruction of the secret is done using polynomials and (2) schemes in which both sharing and reconstruction are done by polynomials. For linear secret-sharing schemes, schemes with linear sharing and schemes with linear reconstruction are equivalent. We give evidence that for polynomial secret-sharing schemes, schemes with polynomial sharing are probably stronger than schemes with polynomial reconstruction. We also prove lower bounds on the share size for schemes with polynomial reconstruction. On the positive side, we provide constructions of secret-sharing schemes and conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) protocols with quadratic sharing and reconstruction. We extend a construction of Liu et al. (CRYPTO'17) and construct optimal quadratic $k$-server CDS protocols for functions $f:[N]^k\rightarrow \set{0,1}$ with message size $O(N^{(k-1)/3})$. We show how to transform our quadratic $k$-server CDS protocol to a robust CDS protocol, and use the robust CDS protocol to construct quadratic secret-sharing schemes for arbitrary access structures with share size $O(2^{0.705n})$; this is better than the best known share size of $O(2^{0.7576n})$ for linear secret-sharing schemes and worse than the best known share size of $O(2^{0.585n})$ for general secret-sharing schemes.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Secret-Sharing Schemes for General and Uniform Access Structures
📺
Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows some authorized sets of parties to reconstruct a secret; the collection of authorized sets is called the access structure. For over 30 years, it was known that any (monotone) collection of authorized sets can be realized by a secret-sharing scheme whose shares are of size $$2^{n-o(n)}$$ and until recently no better scheme was known. In a recent breakthrough, Liu and Vaikuntanathan (STOC 2018) have reduced the share size to $$O(2^{0.994n})$$. Our first contribution is improving the exponent of secret sharing down to 0.892. For the special case of linear secret-sharing schemes, we get an exponent of 0.942 (compared to 0.999 of Liu and Vaikuntanathan).Motivated by the construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan, we study secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. An access structure is k-uniform if all sets of size larger than k are authorized, all sets of size smaller than k are unauthorized, and each set of size k can be either authorized or unauthorized. The construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan starts from protocols for conditional disclosure of secrets, constructs secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures from them, and combines these schemes in order to obtain secret-sharing schemes for general access structures. Our second contribution in this paper is constructions of secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. We achieve the following results:A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for large secrets in which the share size is $$O(k^2)$$ times the size of the secret.A linear secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$\tilde{O}(2^{h(k/n)n/2})$$ (where h is the binary entropy function). By counting arguments, this construction is optimal (up to polynomial factors).A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$2^{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{k \log n})}$$.
Our third contribution is a construction of ad-hoc PSM protocols, i.e., PSM protocols in which only a subset of the parties will compute a function on their inputs. This result is based on ideas we used in the construction of secret-sharing schemes for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret.

2018

ASIACRYPT

Optimal Linear Multiparty Conditional Disclosure of Secrets Protocols
Abstract

In a k-party CDS protocol, each party sends one message to a referee (without seeing the other messages) such that the referee will learn a secret held by the parties if and only if the inputs of the parties satisfy some condition (e.g., if the inputs are all equal). This simple primitive is used to construct attribute based encryption, symmetrically-private information retrieval, priced oblivious transfer, and secret-sharing schemes for any access structure. Motivated by these applications, CDS protocols have been recently studied in many papers.In this work, we study linear CDS protocols, where each of the messages of the parties is a linear function of the secret and random elements taken from some finite field. Linearity is an important property of CDS protocols as many applications of CDS protocols required it.Our main result is a construction of linear k-party CDS protocols for an arbitrary function $$f:[N]^{k}\rightarrow \left\{ 0,1 \right\} $$ with messages of size $$O(N^{(k-1)/2})$$ (a similar result was independently and in parallel proven by Liu et al. [27]). By a lower bound of Beimel et al. [TCC 2017], this message size is optimal. We also consider functions with few inputs that return 1, and design more efficient CDS protocols for them.CDS protocols can be used to construct secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures, where for some k all sets of size less than k are unauthorized, all sets of size greater than k are authorized, and each set of size k can be either authorized or unauthorized. We show that our results imply that every k-uniform access structure with n parties can be realized by a linear secret-sharing scheme with share size $$\min \left\{ (O(n/k))^{(k-1)/2},O(n \cdot 2^{n/2}) \right\} $$. Furthermore, the linear k-party CDS protocol with messages of size $$O(N^{(k-1)/2})$$ was recently used by Liu and Vaikuntanathan [STOC 2018] to construct a linear secret-sharing scheme with share size $$O(2^{0.999n})$$ for any n-party access structure.

#### Coauthors

- Benny Applebaum (1)
- Amos Beimel (4)
- Oriol Farràs (2)
- Yuval Mintz (1)
- Oded Nir (1)
- Hussien Othman (1)
- Naty Peter (4)