## CryptoDB

### Oded Nir

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

TCC

Secret-Sharing Schemes for High Slices
Abstract

In a secret-sharing scheme, a secret is shared among $n$ parties such that the secret can be recovered by authorized coalitions, while it should be kept hidden from unauthorized coalitions. In this work we study secret-sharing for $k$-slice access structures, in which coalitions of size $k$ are either authorized or not, larger coalitions are authorized and smaller are unauthorized. Known schemes for these access structures had smaller shares for small $k$'s than for large ones; hence our focus is on ``high'' $(n-k)$-slices where $k$ is small.
Our work is inspired by several motivations: 1) Obtaining efficient schemes (with perfect or computational security) for natural families of access structures; 2) Making progress in the search for better schemes for general access structures, which are often based on schemes for slice access structures; 3) Proving or disproving the conjecture by Csirmaz (J. Math. Cryptol., 2020) that an access structures and its dual can be realized by secret-sharing schemes with the same share size.
The main results of this work are:
1) Perfect schemes for high slices. We present a scheme for $(n-k)$-slices with information-theoretic security and share size $kn\cdot 2^{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{k \log n})}$.
Using a different scheme with slightly larger shares, we prove that the ratio between the optimal share size of $k$-slices and that of their dual $(n-k)$-slices is bounded by $n$.
2) Computational schemes for high slices. We present a scheme for $(n-k)$-slices with computational security and share size $O(k^2 \lambda \log n)$ based on the existence of one-way functions. Our scheme makes use of a non-standard view point on Shamir secret-sharing schemes that allows to share many secrets with different thresholds with low cost.
3) Multislice access structures. \emph{$(a:b)$-multislices} are access structures that behave similarly to slices, but are unconstrained on coalitions in a wider range of cardinalities between $a$ and $b$. We use our new schemes for high slices to realize multislices with the same share sizes that their duals have today. This solves an open question raised by Applebaum and Nir (Crypto, 2021), and allows to realize hypergraph access structures that are chosen uniformly at random under a natural set of distributions with share size $2^{0.491n+o(n)}$ compared to the previous result of $2^{0.5n+o(n)}$.

2023

CRYPTO

How to Recover a Secret with O(n) Additions
Abstract

Motivated by applications in threshold cryptography, we initiate the study of secret-sharing schemes that distribute a secret from a large field $F_p$ among $n$ parties such that the recovery algorithm makes a minimal number of \emph{additions}. Existing schemes achieve either $O(n\log p)$ additions (e.g., Shamir, Comm. of ACM, 1979) or at least $\Omega(n^2)$ operations independently of the field size (e.g., Cramer-Xing, EUROCRYPT, 2020). This leaves open the existence of a secret sharing whose recovery algorithm can be computed by performing only $O(n)$ additions.
We resolve the question in the affirmative and present such a near-threshold secret sharing scheme that provides privacy against unauthorized sets of density at most $\tau_p$, and correctness for authorized sets of density at least $\tau_c$, for any given arbitrarily close constants $\tau_p<\tau_c$. Reconstruction can be computed by making at most $O(n)$ additions and in addition, (1) the share size is constant, (2) the sharing also makes $O(n)$ additions, and (3) the scheme is a blackbox secret-sharing scheme, i.e., the sharing and reconstruction algorithms work universally for all finite abelian groups $\mathbb{G}$. Prior to our work, no such scheme was known even without features (1)--(3) and even for the ramp setting where $\tau_p$ and $\tau_c$ are far-apart. As a by-product we derive the first blackbox near-treshosld secret-sharing scheme with linear-time sharing. We also present several concrete instantiations of our approach that seems practically efficient (e.g., for threshold discrete-log based signatures).
Our constructions are combinatorial in nature. We combine graph-based erasure codes that support ``peeling-based'' decoding with a new randomness extraction for low dimensional sub-space that is based on inner-product with a small-integer vector. Based on these tools, we derive efficient secret sharing scheme via the blueprint of Cramer et al. (EUROCRYPT 2015) with far-apart thresholds. We then introduce a general concatenation-like transform for secret sharing schemes that allows us to arbitrarily shrink the privacy-correctness gap with a minor overhead. Our techniques enrich the secret-sharing toolbox and, in the context of blackbox secrete sharing, provide a new alternative to existing number-theoretic approaches. We believe that our tools are likely to lead to other applications.

2021

CRYPTO

Upslices, Downslices, and Secret-Sharing with Complexity of $1.5^n$
📺
Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret $s$ among $n$ parties such that only some predefined ``authorized'' sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other ``unauthorized'' sets learn nothing about $s$. The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets is be captured by a monotone function $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}$. In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size $a$, and on their duals -- monotone functions whose max-terms are of size $b$. We refer to these classes as $(a,n)$-\emph{upslices} and $(b,n)$-\emph{downslices}, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone $a$-regular DNFs and monotone $(n-b)$-regular CNFs. We derive the following results.
\begin{enumerate}
\item (General downslices) Every downslice can be realized with total share size of $1.5^{n+o(n)}<2^{0.585 n}$. Since every monotone function can be cheaply decomposed into $n$ downslices, we obtain a similar result for general access structures improving the previously known $2^{0.637n+o(n)}$ complexity of Applebaum, Beimel, Nir and Peter (STOC 2020). We also achieve a minor improvement in the exponent of linear secrets sharing schemes.
\item (Random mixture of upslices) Following, Beimel and Farr{\`{a}}s (TCC 2020) who studied the complexity of random DNFs with constant-size terms, we consider the following general distribution $F$ over monotone DNFs: For each width value $a\in [n]$, uniformly sample $k_a$ monotone terms of size $a$, where $\vec{k}=(k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ is an arbitrary vector of non-negative integers. We show that, except with exponentially small probability, $F$ can be realized with share size of $2^{0.5 n+o(n)}$ and can be linearly realized with an exponent strictly smaller than $2/3$. Our proof also provides a candidate distribution for the ``exponentially-hard'' access structure.
\end{enumerate}
We use our results to explore connections between several seemingly unrelated questions about the complexity of secret-sharing schemes such as worst-case vs. average-case, linear vs. non-linear, and primal vs. dual access structures. We prove that, in at least one of these settings, there is a significant gap in secret-sharing complexity.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Secret-Sharing Schemes for General and Uniform Access Structures
📺
Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows some authorized sets of parties to reconstruct a secret; the collection of authorized sets is called the access structure. For over 30 years, it was known that any (monotone) collection of authorized sets can be realized by a secret-sharing scheme whose shares are of size $$2^{n-o(n)}$$ and until recently no better scheme was known. In a recent breakthrough, Liu and Vaikuntanathan (STOC 2018) have reduced the share size to $$O(2^{0.994n})$$. Our first contribution is improving the exponent of secret sharing down to 0.892. For the special case of linear secret-sharing schemes, we get an exponent of 0.942 (compared to 0.999 of Liu and Vaikuntanathan).Motivated by the construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan, we study secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. An access structure is k-uniform if all sets of size larger than k are authorized, all sets of size smaller than k are unauthorized, and each set of size k can be either authorized or unauthorized. The construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan starts from protocols for conditional disclosure of secrets, constructs secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures from them, and combines these schemes in order to obtain secret-sharing schemes for general access structures. Our second contribution in this paper is constructions of secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. We achieve the following results:A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for large secrets in which the share size is $$O(k^2)$$ times the size of the secret.A linear secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$\tilde{O}(2^{h(k/n)n/2})$$ (where h is the binary entropy function). By counting arguments, this construction is optimal (up to polynomial factors).A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$2^{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{k \log n})}$$.
Our third contribution is a construction of ad-hoc PSM protocols, i.e., PSM protocols in which only a subset of the parties will compute a function on their inputs. This result is based on ideas we used in the construction of secret-sharing schemes for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret.

#### Coauthors

- Benny Applebaum (3)
- Amos Beimel (2)
- Or Lasri (1)
- Oriol Farràs (2)
- Oded Nir (4)
- Naty Peter (1)
- Benny Pinkas (1)