## CryptoDB

### Benny Applebaum

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

CRYPTO

Verifiable Relation Sharing and Multi-Verifier Zero-Knowledge in Two Rounds: Trading NIZKs with Honest Majority
📺
Abstract

We introduce the problem of Verifiable Relation Sharing (VRS) where a client (prover) wishes to share a vector of secret data items among $k$ servers (the verifiers) while proving in zero-knowledge that the shared data satisfies some properties. This combined task of sharing and proving generalizes notions like verifiable secret sharing and zero-knowledge proofs over secret-shared data. We study VRS from a theoretical perspective and focus on its round complexity.
As our main contribution, we show that every efficiently-computable relation can be realized by a VRS with an optimal round complexity of two rounds where the first round is input-independent (offline round). The protocol achieves full UC-security against an active adversary that is allowed to corrupt any $t$-subset of the parties that may include the client together with some of the verifiers. For a small (logarithmic) number of parties, we achieve an optimal resiliency threshold of $t<0.5(k+1)$, and for a large (polynomial) number of parties, we achieve an almost-optimal resiliency threshold of $t<0.5(k+1)(1-\epsilon)$ for an arbitrarily small constant $\epsilon>0$. Both protocols can be based on sub-exponentially hard injective one-way functions. If the parties have an access to a collision resistance hash function, we can derive statistical everlasting security, i.e., the protocols are secure against adversaries that are computationally bounded during the protocol execution and become computationally unbounded after the protocol execution.
Previous 2-round solutions achieve smaller resiliency thresholds and weaker security notions regardless of the underlying assumptions. As a special case, our protocols give rise to 2-round offline/online constructions of multi-verifier zero-knowledge proofs (MVZK). Such constructions were previously obtained under the same type of assumptions that are needed for NIZK, i.e., public-key assumptions or random-oracle type assumptions (Abe et al., Asiacrypt 2002; Groth and Ostrovsky, Crypto 2007; Boneh et al., Crypto 2019; Yang, and Wang, Eprint 2022). Our work shows, for the first time, that in the presence of an honest majority these assumptions can be replaced with more conservative ``Minicrypt''-type assumptions like injective one-way functions and collision-resistance hash functions. Indeed, our MVZK protocols provide a round-efficient substitute for NIZK in settings where honest-majority is present. Additional applications are also presented.

2022

CRYPTO

Quadratic Multiparty Randomized Encodings Beyond Honest Majority and Their Applications
📺
Abstract

Multiparty randomized encodings (Applebaum, Brakerski, and Tsabary, SICOMP 2021) reduce the task of securely computing a complicated multiparty functionality $f$ to the task of securely computing a simpler functionality $g$. The reduction is non-interactive and preserves information-theoretic security against a passive (semi-honest) adversary, also referred to as {\em privacy}.
The special case of a degree-2 encoding $g$ (2MPRE) has recently found several applications to secure multiparty computation (MPC) with either information-theoretic security or making black-box access to cryptographic primitives. Unfortunately, as all known constructions are based on information-theoretic MPC protocols in the plain model, they can only be private with an honest majority.
In this paper, we break the honest-majority barrier and present the first construction of general 2MPRE that remains secure in the presence of a dishonest majority. Our construction encodes every $n$-party functionality $f$ by a 2MPRE that tolerates at most $t=\lfloor 2n/3\rfloor$ passive corruptions.
We derive several applications including: (1) The first non-interactive client-server MPC protocol with perfect privacy against any coalition of a minority of the servers and up to $t$ of the $n$ clients; (2) Completeness of 3-party functionalities under non-interactive $t$-private reductions; and (3) A single-round $t$-private reduction from general-MPC to an ideal oblivious transfer (OT). These positive results partially resolve open questions that were posed in several previous works. We also show that $t$-private 2MPREs are necessary for solving (2) and (3), thus establishing new equivalence theorems between these three notions.
Finally, we present a new approach for constructing fully-private 2MPREs based on multi-round protocols in the OT-hybrid model that achieve \emph{perfect privacy} against active attacks. Moreover, by slightly restricting the power of the active adversary, we derive an equivalence between these notions. This forms a surprising, and quite unique, connection between a non-interactive passively-private primitive to an interactive actively-private primitive.

2022

TCC

Round-optimal Honest-majority MPC in Minicrypt and with Everlasting Security
Abstract

We study the round complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC) in the challenging model where full security, including guaranteed output delivery, should be achieved at the presence of an active rushing adversary who corrupts up to half of parties. It is known that 2 rounds are insufficient in this model (Gennaro et al., Crypto 2002), and that 3 round protocols can achieve computational security under public-key assumptions (Gordon et al., Crypto 2015; Ananth et al., Crypto 2018; and Badrinarayanan et al., Asiacrypt 2020). However, despite much effort, it is unknown whether public-key assumptions are inherently needed for such protocols, and whether one can achieve similar results with security against computationally-unbounded adversaries.
In this paper, we use Minicrypt-type assumptions to realize 3-round MPC with full and active security. Our protocols come in two flavors: for a small (logarithmic) number of parties $n$, we achieve an optimal resiliency threshold of $t\leq \lfloor (n-1)/2\rfloor$, and for a large (polynomial) number of parties we achieve an almost-optimal resiliency threshold of $t\leq 0.5n(1-\epsilon)$ for an arbitrarily small constant $\epsilon > 0$. Both protocols can be based on sub-exponentially hard injective one-way functions in the plain model.
If the parties have an access to a collision resistance hash function, we can derive \emph{statistical everlasting security} for every NC1 functionality, i.e., the protocol is secure against adversaries that are computationally bounded during the execution of the protocol and become computationally unlimited after the protocol execution.
As a secondary contribution, we show that in the strong honest-majority setting ($t<n/3$), every NC1 functionality can be computed in 3 rounds with everlasting security and complexity polynomial in $n$ based on one-way functions. Previously, such a result was only known based on collision-resistance hash function.

2021

CRYPTO

Upslices, Downslices, and Secret-Sharing with Complexity of $1.5^n$
📺
Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret $s$ among $n$ parties such that only some predefined ``authorized'' sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other ``unauthorized'' sets learn nothing about $s$. The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets is be captured by a monotone function $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}$. In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size $a$, and on their duals -- monotone functions whose max-terms are of size $b$. We refer to these classes as $(a,n)$-\emph{upslices} and $(b,n)$-\emph{downslices}, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone $a$-regular DNFs and monotone $(n-b)$-regular CNFs. We derive the following results.
\begin{enumerate}
\item (General downslices) Every downslice can be realized with total share size of $1.5^{n+o(n)}<2^{0.585 n}$. Since every monotone function can be cheaply decomposed into $n$ downslices, we obtain a similar result for general access structures improving the previously known $2^{0.637n+o(n)}$ complexity of Applebaum, Beimel, Nir and Peter (STOC 2020). We also achieve a minor improvement in the exponent of linear secrets sharing schemes.
\item (Random mixture of upslices) Following, Beimel and Farr{\`{a}}s (TCC 2020) who studied the complexity of random DNFs with constant-size terms, we consider the following general distribution $F$ over monotone DNFs: For each width value $a\in [n]$, uniformly sample $k_a$ monotone terms of size $a$, where $\vec{k}=(k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ is an arbitrary vector of non-negative integers. We show that, except with exponentially small probability, $F$ can be realized with share size of $2^{0.5 n+o(n)}$ and can be linearly realized with an exponent strictly smaller than $2/3$. Our proof also provides a candidate distribution for the ``exponentially-hard'' access structure.
\end{enumerate}
We use our results to explore connections between several seemingly unrelated questions about the complexity of secret-sharing schemes such as worst-case vs. average-case, linear vs. non-linear, and primal vs. dual access structures. We prove that, in at least one of these settings, there is a significant gap in secret-sharing complexity.

2021

TCC

On Actively-Secure Elementary MPC Reductions
📺
Abstract

We introduce the notion of \emph{elementary MPC} reductions that allow us to securely compute a functionality $f$ by making a single call to a constant-degree ``non-cryptographic'' functionality $g$ without requiring any additional interaction. Roughly speaking, ``non-cryptographic'' means that $g$ does not make use of cryptographic primitives, though the parties can locally call such primitives.
Classical MPC results yield such elementary reductions in various cases including the setting of passive security with full corruption threshold $t<n$ (Yao, FOCS'86; Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90), the setting of full active security against a corrupted minority $t<n/2$ (Damg{\aa}rd and Ishai, Crypto'05), and, for NC1 functionalities, even for the setting of full active (information-theoretic) security with full corruption threshold of $t<n$ (Ishai and Kushilevitz, FOCS'00). This leaves open the existence of an elementary reduction that achieves full active security in the dishonest majority setting for all efficiently computable functions.
Our main result shows that such a reduction is unlikely to exist. Specifically, the existence of a computationally secure elementary reduction that makes black-box use of a PRG and achieves a very weak form of partial fairness (e.g., that holds only when the first party is not corrupted) would allow us to realize any efficiently-computable function by a \emph{constant-round} protocol that achieves a non-trivial notion of information-theoretic passive security. The existence of the latter is a well-known 3-decade old open problem in information-theoretic cryptography (Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90).
On the positive side, we observe that this barrier can be bypassed under any of the following relaxations: (1) non-black-box use of a pseudorandom generator; (2) weaker security guarantees such as security with identifiable abort; or (3) an additional round of communication with the functionality $g$.

2021

JOFC

Obfuscating Circuits Via Composite-Order Graded Encoding
Abstract

We present a candidate obfuscator based on composite-order graded encoding schemes (GES), which are a generalization of multilinear maps. Our obfuscator operates on circuits directly without converting them into formulas or branching programs as was done in previous solutions. As a result, the time and size complexity of the obfuscated program, measured by the number of GES elements, is directly proportional to the circuit complexity of the program being obfuscated. This improves upon previous constructions whose complexity was related to the formula or branching program size. Known instantiations of Graded Encoding Schemes allow us to obfuscate circuit classes of polynomial degree, which include for example families of circuits of logarithmic depth. We prove that our obfuscator is secure against a class of generic algebraic attacks, formulated by a generic graded encoding model. We further consider a more robust model which provides more power to the adversary and extend our results to this setting as well. As a secondary contribution, we define a new simple notion of algebraic security (which was implicit in previous works) and show that it captures standard security relative to an ideal GES oracle.

2021

JOFC

Placing Conditional Disclosure of Secrets in the Communication Complexity Universe
Abstract

In the conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) problem (Gertner et al. in J Comput Syst Sci, 2000) Alice and Bob, who hold n -bit inputs x and y respectively, wish to release a common secret z to Carol, who knows both x and y , if and only if the input ( x , y ) satisfies some predefined predicate f . Alice and Bob are allowed to send a single message to Carol which may depend on their inputs and some shared randomness, and the goal is to minimize the communication complexity while providing information-theoretic security. Despite the growing interest in this model, very few lower-bounds are known. In this paper, we relate the CDS complexity of a predicate f to its communication complexity under various communication games. For several basic predicates our results yield tight, or almost tight, lower-bounds of $$\Omega (n)$$ Ω ( n ) or $$\Omega (n^{1-\epsilon })$$ Ω ( n 1 - ϵ ) , providing an exponential improvement over previous logarithmic lower-bounds. We also define new communication complexity classes that correspond to different variants of the CDS model and study the relations between them and their complements. Notably, we show that allowing for imperfect correctness can significantly reduce communication—a seemingly new phenomenon in the context of information-theoretic cryptography. Finally, our results show that proving explicit super-logarithmic lower-bounds for imperfect CDS protocols is a necessary step towards proving explicit lower-bounds against the communication complexity class $$\text {AM}^{\text {cc}}$$ AM cc , or even $$\text {AM}^{\text {cc}}\cap \text {co-AM}^{\text {cc}}$$ AM cc ∩ co-AM cc —a well known open problem in the theory of communication complexity. Thus imperfect CDS forms a new minimal class which is placed just beyond the boundaries of the “civilized” part of the communication complexity world for which explicit lower-bounds are known.

2020

TCC

The Resiliency of MPC with Low Interaction: The Benefit of Making Errors
📺
Abstract

We study information-theoretic secure multiparty protocols that achieve full security, including guaranteed output delivery, at the presence of an active adversary that corrupts a constant fraction of the parties. It is known that 2 rounds are insufficient for such protocols even when the adversary corrupts only two parties (Gennaro, Ishai, Kushilevitz, and Rabin; Crypto 2002), and that perfect protocols can be implemented in three rounds as long as the adversary corrupts less than a quarter of the parties (Applebaum , Brakerski, and Tsabary; Eurocrypt, 2019). Furthermore, it was recently shown that the quarter threshold is tight for any 3-round \emph{perfectly-secure} protocol (Applebaum, Kachlon, and Patra; FOCS 2020). Nevertheless, one may still hope to achieve a better-than-quarter threshold at the expense of allowing some negligible correctness errors and/or statistical deviations in the security.
Our main results show that this is indeed the case. Every function can be computed by 3-round protocols with \emph{statistical} security as long as the adversary corrupts less than third of the parties. Moreover, we show that any better resiliency threshold requires four rounds. Our protocol is computationally inefficient and has an exponential dependency in the circuit's depth $d$ and in the number of parties $n$. We show that this overhead can be avoided by relaxing security to computational, assuming the existence of a non-interactive commitment (NICOM). Previous 3-round computational protocols were based on stronger public-key assumptions. When instantiated with statistically-hiding NICOM, our protocol provides \emph{everlasting statistical} security, i.e., it is secure against adversaries that are computationally unlimited \emph{after} the protocol execution.
To prove these results, we introduce a new hybrid model that allows for 2-round protocols with linear resliency threshold. Here too we prove that, for perfect protocols, the best achievable resiliency is $n/4$, whereas statistical protocols can achieve a threshold of $n/3$. We also construct the first 2-round $n/3$-statistical verifiable secret sharing that supports second-level sharing and prove a matching lower-bound, extending the results of Patra, Choudhary, Rabin, and Rangan (Crypto 2009). Overall, our results refines the differences between statistical and perfect models of security, and show that there are efficiency gaps even in the regime of realizable thresholds.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Degree 2 is Complete for the Round-Complexity of Malicious MPC
📺
Abstract

We show, via a non-interactive reduction, that the existence of a secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for degree-2 functions implies the existence of a protocol with the same round complexity for general functions. Thus showing that when considering the round complexity of MPC, it is sufficient to consider very simple functions.Our completeness theorem applies in various settings: information theoretic and computational, fully malicious and malicious with various types of aborts. In fact, we give a master theorem from which all individual settings follow as direct corollaries. Our basic transformation does not require any additional assumptions and incurs communication and computation blow-up which is polynomial in the number of players and in $$S,2^D$$S,2D, where S, D are the circuit size and depth of the function to be computed. Using one-way functions as an additional assumption, the exponential dependence on the depth can be removed.As a consequence, we are able to push the envelope on the state of the art in various settings of MPC, including the following cases.
3-round perfectly-secure protocol (with guaranteed output delivery) against an active adversary that corrupts less than 1/4 of the parties.2-round statistically-secure protocol that achieves security with “selective abort” against an active adversary that corrupts less than half of the parties.Assuming one-way functions, 2-round computationally-secure protocol that achieves security with (standard) abort against an active adversary that corrupts less than half of the parties. This gives a new and conceptually simpler proof to the recent result of Ananth et al. (Crypto 2018).
Technically, our non-interactive reduction draws from the encoding method of Applebaum, Brakerski and Tsabary (TCC 2018). We extend these methods to ones that can be meaningfully analyzed even in the presence of malicious adversaries.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Secret-Sharing Schemes for General and Uniform Access Structures
📺
Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows some authorized sets of parties to reconstruct a secret; the collection of authorized sets is called the access structure. For over 30 years, it was known that any (monotone) collection of authorized sets can be realized by a secret-sharing scheme whose shares are of size $$2^{n-o(n)}$$ and until recently no better scheme was known. In a recent breakthrough, Liu and Vaikuntanathan (STOC 2018) have reduced the share size to $$O(2^{0.994n})$$. Our first contribution is improving the exponent of secret sharing down to 0.892. For the special case of linear secret-sharing schemes, we get an exponent of 0.942 (compared to 0.999 of Liu and Vaikuntanathan).Motivated by the construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan, we study secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. An access structure is k-uniform if all sets of size larger than k are authorized, all sets of size smaller than k are unauthorized, and each set of size k can be either authorized or unauthorized. The construction of Liu and Vaikuntanathan starts from protocols for conditional disclosure of secrets, constructs secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures from them, and combines these schemes in order to obtain secret-sharing schemes for general access structures. Our second contribution in this paper is constructions of secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures. We achieve the following results:A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for large secrets in which the share size is $$O(k^2)$$ times the size of the secret.A linear secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$\tilde{O}(2^{h(k/n)n/2})$$ (where h is the binary entropy function). By counting arguments, this construction is optimal (up to polynomial factors).A secret-sharing scheme for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret in which the share size is $$2^{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{k \log n})}$$.
Our third contribution is a construction of ad-hoc PSM protocols, i.e., PSM protocols in which only a subset of the parties will compute a function on their inputs. This result is based on ideas we used in the construction of secret-sharing schemes for k-uniform access structures for a binary secret.

2019

JOFC

The Communication Complexity of Private Simultaneous Messages, Revisited
Abstract

Private simultaneous message (PSM) protocols were introduced by Feige, Kilian, and Naor (STOC ’94) as a minimal non-interactive model for information theoretic three-party secure computation. While it is known that every function $$f:\{0,1\}^k\times \{0,1\}^k \rightarrow \{0,1\}$$ f : { 0 , 1 } k × { 0 , 1 } k → { 0 , 1 } admits a PSM protocol with exponential communication of $$2^{k/2}$$ 2 k / 2 (Beimel et al., TCC ’14), the best known (non-explicit) lower-bound is $$3k-O(1)$$ 3 k - O ( 1 ) bits. To prove this lower-bound, FKN identified a set of simple requirements, showed that any function that satisfies these requirements is subject to the $$3k-O(1)$$ 3 k - O ( 1 ) lower-bound, and proved that a random function is likely to satisfy the requirements. We revisit the FKN lower-bound and prove the following results: (Counterexample) We construct a function that satisfies the FKN requirements but has a PSM protocol with communication of $$2k+O(1)$$ 2 k + O ( 1 ) bits, revealing a gap in the FKN proof. (PSM lower-bounds) We show that by imposing additional requirements, the FKN argument can be fixed leading to a $$3k-O(\log k)$$ 3 k - O ( log k ) lower-bound for a random function. We also get a similar lower-bound for a function that can be computed by a polynomial-size circuit (or even polynomial-time Turing machine under standard complexity-theoretic assumptions). This yields the first non-trivial lower-bound for an explicit Boolean function partially resolving an open problem of Data, Prabhakaran, and Prabhakaran (Crypto ’14, IEEE Information Theory ’16). We further extend these results to the setting of imperfect PSM protocols which may have small correctness or privacy error. (CDS lower-bounds) We show that the original FKN argument applies (as is) to some weak form of PSM protocols which are strongly related to the setting of Conditional Disclosure of Secrets (CDS). This connection yields a simple combinatorial criterion for establishing linear $$\varOmega (k)$$ Ω ( k ) -bit CDS lower-bounds. As a corollary, we settle the complexity of the inner-product predicate resolving an open problem of Gay, Kerenidis, and Wee (Crypto ’15).

2018

TCC

On the Power of Amortization in Secret Sharing: d-Uniform Secret Sharing and CDS with Constant Information Rate
Abstract

Consider the following secret-sharing problem. Your goal is to distribute a long file s between n servers such that
$$(d-1)$$
(d-1)-subsets cannot recover the file,
$$(d+1)$$
(d+1)-subsets can recover the file, and d-subsets should be able to recover s if and only if they appear in some predefined list L. How small can the information ratio (i.e., the number of bits stored on a server per each bit of the secret) be?We advocate the study of such d-uniform access structures as a useful scaled-down version of general access structures. Our main result shows that, for constant d, any d-uniform access structure admits a secret sharing scheme with a constant asymptotic information ratio of
$$c_d$$
cd that does not grow with the number of servers n. This result is based on a new construction of d-party Conditional Disclosure of Secrets (CDS) for arbitrary predicates over n-size domain in which each party communicates at most four bits per secret bit.In both settings, previous results achieved a non-constant information ratio that grows asymptotically with n, even for the simpler (and widely studied) special case of
$$d=2$$
d=2. Moreover, our multiparty CDS construction yields the first example of an access structure whose amortized information ratio is constant, whereas its best-known non-amortized information ratio is sub-exponential, thus providing a unique evidence for the potential power of amortization in the context of secret sharing.Our main result applies to exponentially long secrets, and so it should be mainly viewed as a barrier against amortizable lower-bound techniques. We also show that in some natural simple cases (e.g., low-degree predicates), amortization kicks in even for quasi-polynomially long secrets. Finally, we prove some limited lower-bounds, point out some limitations of existing lower-bound techniques, and describe some applications to the setting of private simultaneous messages.

2018

TCC

Perfect Secure Computation in Two Rounds
Abstract

We show that any multi-party functionality can be evaluated using a two-round protocol with perfect correctness and perfect semi-honest security, provided that the majority of parties are honest. This settles the round complexity of information-theoretic semi-honest MPC, resolving a longstanding open question (cf. Ishai and Kushilevitz, FOCS 2000). The protocol is efficient for $${\mathrm {NC}}^1$$NC1 functionalities. Furthermore, given black-box access to a one-way function, the protocol can be made efficient for any polynomial functionality, at the cost of only guaranteeing computational security.Technically, we extend and relax the notion of randomized encoding to specifically address multi-party functionalities. The property of a multi-party randomized encoding (MPRE) is that if the functionality g is an encoding of the functionality f, then for any (permitted) coalition of players, their respective outputs and inputs in g allow them to simulate their respective inputs and outputs in f, without learning anything else, including the other outputs of f.

2017

CRYPTO

2016

CRYPTO

2009

CRYPTO

#### Program Committees

- TCC 2021
- Eurocrypt 2020
- TCC 2019
- Crypto 2018
- TCC 2017
- TCC 2015
- Crypto 2012
- TCC 2011

#### Coauthors

- Barak Arkis (2)
- Amos Beimel (1)
- Andrey Bogdanov (1)
- Andrej Bogdanov (1)
- Zvika Brakerski (4)
- David Cash (1)
- Ivan Damgård (1)
- Oriol Farràs (1)
- Aarushi Goel (1)
- Thomas Holenstein (2)
- Yuval Ishai (6)
- Eliran Kachlon (3)
- Or Karni (1)
- Eyal Kushilevitz (4)
- Manoj Mishra (2)
- Yoni Moses (2)
- Michael Nielsen (1)
- Oded Nir (2)
- Arpita Patra (4)
- Chris Peikert (1)
- Naty Peter (1)
- Pavel Raykov (5)
- Alon Rosen (2)
- Amit Sahai (1)
- Ofer Shayevitz (2)
- Rotem Tsabary (2)
- Prashant Nalini Vasudevan (2)
- Brent Waters (1)
- Lior Zichron (1)