International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Hong-Sheng Zhou

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
PKC
Let a Non-barking Watchdog Bite: Cliptographic Signatures with an Offline Watchdog
We study how to construct secure digital signature schemes in the presence of kleptographic attacks. Our work utilizes an offline watchdog to clip the power of subversions via only one-time black-box testing of the implementation. Previous results essentially rely on an online watchdog which requires the collection of all communicating transcripts (or active re-randomization of messages).We first give a simple but generic construction, without random oracles, in the partial-subversion model in which key generation and signing algorithms can be subverted. Then, we give the first digital signature scheme in the complete-subversion model in which all cryptographic algorithms can be subverted. This construction is based on the full-domain hash. Along the way, we enhance the recent result of Russell et al.  (CRYPTO 2018) about correcting a subverted random oracle.
2019
JOFC
(Efficient) Universally Composable Oblivious Transfer Using a Minimal Number of Stateless Tokens
We continue the line of work initiated by Katz (Eurocrypt 2007) on using tamper-proof hardware tokens for universally composable secure computation. As our main result, we show an oblivious-transfer (OT) protocol in which two parties each create and transfer a single, stateless token and can then run an unbounded number of OTs. We also show a more efficient protocol, based only on standard symmetric-key primitives (block ciphers and collision-resistant hash functions), that can be used if a bounded number of OTs suffice. Motivated by this result, we investigate the number of stateless tokens needed for universally composable OT. We prove that our protocol is optimal in this regard for constructions making black-box use of the tokens (in a sense we define). We also show that nonblack-box techniques can be used to obtain a construction using only a single stateless token.
2018
CRYPTO
Correcting Subverted Random Oracles 📺
The random oracle methodology has proven to be a powerful tool for designing and reasoning about cryptographic schemes, and can often act as an effective bridge between theory and practice. In this paper, we focus on the basic problem of correcting faulty—or adversarially corrupted—random oracles, so that they can be confidently applied for such cryptographic purposes.We prove that a simple construction can transform a “subverted” random oracle—which disagrees with the original one at a negligible fraction of inputs—into a construction that is indifferentiable from a random function. Our results permit future designers of cryptographic primitives in typical kleptographic settings (i.e., with adversaries who may subvert the implementation of cryptographic algorithms but undetectable via blackbox testing) to use random oracles as a trusted black box, in spite of not trusting the implementation. Our analysis relies on a general rejection re-sampling lemma which is a tool of possible independent interest.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Leakage-Resilient Cryptography from Puncturable Primitives and Obfuscation
Yu Chen Yuyu Wang Hong-Sheng Zhou
In this work, we develop a framework for building leakage-resilient cryptosystems in the bounded leakage model from puncturable primitives and indistinguishability obfuscation ( $$i\mathcal {O}$$ ). The major insight of our work is that various types of puncturable pseudorandom functions (PRFs) can achieve leakage resilience on an obfuscated street.First, we build leakage-resilient weak PRFs from weak puncturable PRFs and $$i\mathcal {O}$$ , which readily imply leakage-resilient secret-key encryption. Then, we build leakage-resilient publicly evaluable PRFs (PEPRFs) from puncturable PEPRFs and $$i\mathcal {O}$$ , which readily imply leakage-resilient key encapsulation mechanism and thus public-key encryption. As a building block of independent interest, we realize puncturable PEPRFs from either newly introduced puncturable objects such as puncturable trapdoor functions and puncturable extractable hash proof systems or existing puncturable PRFs with $$i\mathcal {O}$$ . Finally, we construct the first leakage-resilient public-coin signature from selective puncturable PRFs, leakage-resilient one-way functions and $$i\mathcal {O}$$ . This settles the open problem posed by Boyle, Segev, and Wichs (Eurocrypt 2011).By further assuming the existence of lossy functions, all the above constructions achieve optimal leakage rate of $$1 - o(1)$$ . Such a leakage rate is not known to be achievable for weak PRFs, PEPRFs and public-coin signatures before. This also resolves the open problem posed by Dachman-Soled, Gordon, Liu, O’Neill, and Zhou (PKC 2016, JOC 2018).
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
PKC
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
TCC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
TCC
2015
TCC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
CRYPTO
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
TCC
2014
EPRINT
2013
PKC
2013
TCC
2013
ASIACRYPT
2012
TCC
2009
PKC
2009
CRYPTO
2008
TCC
2008
EPRINT
Sound and Fine-grain Specification of Cryptographic Tasks
Juan A. Garay Aggelos Kiayias Hong-Sheng Zhou
The Universal Composability (UC) framework, introduced by Canetti, allows for the design of cryptographic protocols satisfying strong security properties, such as non-malleability and preservation of security under (concurrent) composition. In the UC framework (as in several other frameworks), the security of a protocol carrying out a given task is formulated via the ``trusted-party paradigm,'' where the protocol execution is compared with an ideal process where the outputs are computed by a trusted party that sees all the inputs. A protocol is said to securely carry out a given task if running the protocol with a realistic adversary amounts to ``emulating'' the ideal process with the appropriate trusted party. In the UC framework the program run by the trusted party is called an {\em ideal functionality}. However, while this simulation-based security formulation provides strong security guarantees, its usefulness is contingent on the properties and correct specification of the realized ideal functionality, which, as demonstrated in recent years by the coexistence of complex, multiple functionalities for the same task as well as by their ``unstable'' nature, does not seem to be an easy task. On the other hand, the more traditional, {\em gamed-based} definitions of cryptographic tasks, although providing a less satisfying level of security (stand-alone executions, or executions in very controlled settings), have been successful in terms of formalizing as well as capturing the underlying task's natural properties. In this paper we address this gap in the security modeling of cryptographic properties, and introduce a general methodology for translating game-based definitions of properties of cryptographic tasks to syntactically concise ideal functionality programs. Moreover, taking advantage of a suitable algebraic structure of the space of our ideal functionality programs, we are able to ``accumulate'' ideal functionalities based on many different game-based security notions. In this way, we can obtain a well-defined mapping of all the game-based security properties of a cryptographic task to its corresponding UC counterpart. In addition, the methodology allows us to ``debug'' existing ideal functionalities, establish relations between them, and make some critical observations about the modeling of the ideal process in the UC framework. We demonstrate the power of our approach by applying our methodology to a variety of basic cryptographic tasks, including commitments, digital signatures, public-key encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, and oblivious transfer. Instrumental in our translation methodology is the new notion of a {\em canonical functionality class} for a cryptographic task which is endowed with a bounded semilattice structure. This structure allows the grading of ideal functionalities according to the level of security they offer as well as their natural joining, enabling the modular combination of security properties.
2008
EPRINT
Somewhat Non-Committing Encryption and Efficient Adaptively Secure Oblivious Transfer
Juan Garay Daniel Wichs Hong-Sheng Zhou
Designing efficient cryptographic protocols tolerating adaptive adversaries, who are able to corrupt parties on the fly as the computation proceeds, has been an elusive task. Indeed, thus far no \emph{efficient} protocols achieve adaptive security for general multi-party computation, or even for many specific two-party tasks such as oblivious transfer (OT). In fact, it is difficult and expensive to achieve adaptive security even for the task of \emph{secure communication}, which is arguably the most basic task in cryptography. In this paper we make progress in this area. First, we introduce a new notion called \emph{semi-adaptive} security which is slightly stronger than static security but \emph{significantly weaker than fully adaptive security}. The main difference between adaptive and semi-adaptive security is that, for semi-adaptive security, the simulator is not required to handle the case where \emph{both} parties start out honest and one becomes corrupted later on during the protocol execution. As such, semi-adaptive security is much easier to achieve than fully adaptive security. We then give a simple, generic protocol compiler which transforms any semi-adaptively secure protocol into a fully adaptively secure one. The compilation effectively decomposes the problem of adaptive security into two (simpler) problems which can be tackled separately: the problem of semi-adaptive security and the problem of realizing a weaker variant of secure channels. We solve the latter problem by means of a new primitive that we call {\em somewhat non-committing encryption} resulting in significant efficiency improvements over the standard method for realizing (fully) secure channels using (fully) non-committing encryption. Somewhat non-committing encryption has two parameters: an equivocality parameter $\ell$ (measuring the number of ways that a ciphertext can be ``opened'') and the message sizes $k$. Our implementation is very efficient for small values $\ell$, \emph{even} when $k$ is large. This translates into a very efficient compilation of many semi-adaptively secure protocols (in particular, for a task with small input/output domains such as bit-OT) into a fully adaptively secure protocol. Finally, we showcase our methodology by applying it to the recent Oblivious Transfer protocol by Peikert \etal\ [Crypto 2008], which is only secure against static corruptions, to obtain the first efficient (expected-constant round, expected-constant number of public-key operations), adaptively secure and composable bit-OT protocol.
2007
EPRINT
Equivocal Blind Signatures and Adaptive UC-Security
Aggelos Kiayias Hong-Sheng Zhou
We study the design of practical blind signatures in the universal composability (UC) setting against adaptive adversaries. We introduce a new property for blind signature schemes that is fundamental for managing adaptive adversaries: an {\em equivocal blind signature} is a blind signature protocol where a simulator can construct the internal state of the client so that it matches a simulated transcript even after a signature was released. % We present a general construction methodology for building practical adaptively secure blind signatures: the starting point is a 2-move ``lite blind signature'', a lightweight 2-party signature protocol that we formalize and implement both generically as well as number theoretically: formalizing a primitive as ``lite'' means that the adversary is required to show all private tapes of adversarially controlled parties; this enables us to conveniently separate zero-knowledge (ZK) related security requirements from the remaining security properties in the primitive's design methodology. % We then focus on the exact ZK requirements for building blind signatures. To this effect, we formalize two special ZK ideal functionalities, single-verifier-ZK (SVZK) and single-prover-ZK (SPZK) and we investigate the requirements for realizing them in a commit-and-prove fashion as building blocks for adaptively secure UC blind signatures. SVZK can be realized without relying on a multi-session UC commitment; as a result, we realize SVZK in a very efficient manner using number theoretic mixed commitments while employing a constant size common reference string and without the need to satisfy non-malleability. Regarding SPZK we find the rather surprising result that realizing it only for static adversaries is sufficient to obtain adaptive security for UC blind signatures. This important observation simplifies blind signature design substantially as one can realize SPZK very efficiently in a commit-and-prove fashion using merely an extractable commitment. We instantiate all the building blocks of our design methodology efficiently thus presenting the first practical UC blind signature that is secure against adaptive adversaries in the common reference string model. In particular, we present (1) a lite equivocal blind signature protocol that is based on elliptic curves and the 2SDH assumption of Okamoto, (2) efficient implementations of SPZK, SVZK for the required relations. % Our construction also takes advantage of a round optimization method we discuss and it results in a protocol that has an overall communication overhead of as little as 3Kbytes, employing six communication moves and a constant length common reference string. We also present alternative implementations for our equivocal lite blind signature thus demonstrating the generality of our approach. Finally we count the exact cost of realizing blind signatures with our protocol design by presenting the distance between the $\Fbsig$-hybrid world and the $\Fcrs$-hybrid world as a function of environment parameters. The distance calculation is facilitated by a basic lemma we prove about structuring UC proofs that may be of independent interest.
2007
EPRINT
Hidden Identity-Based Signatures
Aggelos Kiayias Hong-Sheng Zhou
This paper introduces Hidden Identity-based Signatures (Hidden-IBS), a type of digital signatures that provide mediated signer-anonymity on top of Shamir's Identity-based signatures. The motivation of our new signature primitive is to resolve an important issue with the kind of anonymity offered by ``group signatures'' where it is required that either the group membership list is {\em public} or that the opening authority is {\em dependent} on the group manager for its operation. Contrary to this, Hidden-IBS do not require the maintenance of a group membership list and they enable an opening authority that is totally independent of the group manager. As we argue this makes Hidden-IBS much more attractive than group signatures for a number of applications. In this paper, we provide a formal model of Hidden-IBS as well as two efficient constructions that realize the new primitive. Our elliptic curve construction that is based on the SDH/DLDH assumptions produces signatures that are merely half a Kbyte long and can be implemented very efficiently. To demonstrate the power of the new primitive, we apply it to solve a problem of current onion-routing systems focusing on the Tor system in particular. Posting through Tor is currently blocked by sites such as Wikipedia due to the real concern that anonymous channels can be used to vandalize online content. By injecting a Hidden-IBS inside the header of an HTTP POST request and requiring the exit-policy of Tor to forward only properly signed POST requests, we demonstrate how sites like Wikipedia may allow anonymous posting while being ensured that the recovery of (say) the IP address of a vandal would be still possible through a dispute resolution system. Using our new Hidden-IBS primitive in this scenario allows to keep the listing of identities (e.g., IP addresses) of Tor users computationally hidden while maintaining an independent Opening Authority which would not have been possible with previous approaches.
2005
EPRINT
Concurrent Blind Signatures without Random Oracles
Aggelos Kiayias Hong-Sheng Zhou
We present a blind signature scheme that is efficient and provably secure without random oracles under concurrent attacks utilizing only four moves of short communication. The scheme is based on elliptic curve groups for which a bilinear map exists and on extractable and equivocable commitments. The unforgeability of the employed signature scheme is guaranteed by the LRSW assumption while the blindness property of our scheme is guaranteed by the Decisional Linear Diffie-Hellman assumption. We prove our construction secure under the above assumptions as well as Paillier's DCR assumption in the concurrent attack model of Juels, Luby and Ostrovsky from Crypto '97 using a common reference string. Our construction is the first efficient construction for blind signatures in such a concurrent model without random oracles. We present two variants of our basic protocol: first, a blind signature scheme where blindness still holds even if the public-key generation is maliciously controlled; second, a blind signature scheme that incorporates a ``public-tagging'' mechanism. This latter variant of our scheme gives rise to a partially blind signature with essentially the same efficiency and security properties as our basic scheme.

Program Committees

TCC 2017
Asiacrypt 2014
Asiacrypt 2010