International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Tomasz Lizurej

ORCID: 0000-0001-8563-4325


Individual Cryptography
We initiate a formal study of \emph{individual cryptography}. Informally speaking, an algorithm $\mathsf{Alg}$ is \emph{individual} if, in every implementation of $\mathsf{Alg}$, there always exists an individual user with full knowledge of the cryptographic data $S$ used by $\mathsf{Alg}$. In particular, it should be infeasible to design implementations of this algorithm that would hide $S$ by distributing it between a group of parties using an MPC protocol or outsourcing it to a trusted execution environment. We define and construct two primitives in this model. The first one, called \emph{proofs of individual knowledge}, is a tool for proving that a given message is fully known to a single (``individual'') machine on the Internet, i.e., it cannot be shared between a group of parties. The second one, dubbed \emph{individual secret sharing}, is a scheme for sharing a secret $S$ between a group of parties so that the parties have no knowledge of $S$ as long as they do not reconstruct it. The reconstruction ensures that if the shareholders attempt to collude, one of them will learn the secret entirely. Individual secret sharing has applications for preventing collusion in secret sharing. A central technique for constructing individual cryptographic primitives is the concept of MPC hardness. MPC hardness precludes an adversary from completing a cryptographic task in a distributed fashion within a specific time frame.
Efficiently Testable Circuits without Conductivity
The notion of “efficiently testable circuits” (ETC) was recently put forward by Baig et al. (ITCS’23). Informally, an ETC compiler takes as input any Boolean circuit C and outputs a circuit/inputs tuple (C′, T) where (completeness) C′ is functionally equivalent to C and (security) if C′ is tampered in some restricted way, then this can be detected as C′ will err on at least one input in the small test set T. The compiler of Baig et al. detects tampering even if the adversary can tamper with all wires in the compiled circuit. Unfortunately, the model requires a strong “conductivity” restriction: the compiled circuit has gates with fan-out up to 3, but wires can only be tampered in one way even if the have fan-out greater than one. In this paper, we solve the main open question from their work and construct an ETC compiler without this conductivity restriction. While Baig et al. use gadgets computing the AND and OR of particular subsets of the wires, our compiler computes inner products with random vectors. We slightly relax their security notion and only require that tampering is detected with high probability over the choice of the randomness. Our compiler increases the size of the circuit by only a small constant factor. For a parameter λ (think λ ≤ 5), the number of additional input and output wires is |C|1/λ, while the number of test queries to detect an error with constant probability is around 22λ.
Trojan-Resilience without Cryptography 📺
Digital hardware Trojans are integrated circuits whose implementation differ from the specification in an arbitrary and malicious way. For example, the circuit can differ from its specified input/output behavior after some fixed number of queries (known as ``time bombs'') or on some particular input (known as ``cheat codes''). To detect such Trojans, countermeasures using multiparty computation (MPC) or verifiable computation (VC), have been proposed. On a high level, to realize a circuit with specification $\cF$ one has more sophisticated circuits $\cF^\diamond$ manufactured (where $\cF^\diamond$ specifies a MPC or VC of $\cF$), and then embeds these $\cF^\diamond$'s into a \emph{master circuit} which must be trusted but is relatively simple compared to $\cF$. Those solutions have a significant overhead as $\cF^\diamond$ is significantly more complex than $\cF$ and also the master circuits are not exactly trivial either. In this work, we show that in restricted settings, where $\cF$ has no evolving state and is queried on independent inputs, we can achieve a relaxed security notion using very simple constructions. In particular, we do not change the specification of the circuit at all (i.e., $\cF=\cF^\diamond$). Moreover the master circuit basically just queries a subset of its manufactured circuits and checks if they're all the same. The security we achieve guarantees that, if the manufactured circuits are initially tested on up to $T$ inputs, the master circuit will catch Trojans that try to deviate on significantly more than a $1/T$ fraction of the inputs. This bound is optimal for the type of construction considered, and we provably achieve it using a construction where $12$ instantiations of $\cF$ need to be embedded into the master. We also discuss an extremely simple construction with just $2$ instantiations for which we conjecture that it already achieves the optimal bound.