## CryptoDB

### Stefan Dziembowski

#### ORCID: 0000-0002-6914-6425

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

From Random Probing to Noisy Leakages Without Field-Size Dependence
Abstract

Side channel attacks are devastating attacks targeting cryptographic implementations. To protect against these attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed -- in particular, the so-called masking scheme. Masking schemes work by hiding sensitive information via secret sharing all intermediate values that occur during the evaluation of a cryptographic implementation. Over the last decade, there has been broad interest in designing and formally analyzing such schemes. The random probing model considers leakage where the value on each wire leaks with some probability $\varepsilon$. This model is important as it implies security in the noisy leakage model via a reduction by Duc et al. (Eurocrypt 2014). Noisy leakages are considered the ``gold-standard'' for analyzing masking schemes as they accurately model many real-world physical leakages. Unfortunately, the reduction of Duc et al. is non-tight, and in particular requires that the amount of noise increases by a factor of $|\mathbb{F}|$ for circuits that operate over $\mathbb{F}$ (where $\mathbb{F}$ is a finite field). In this work, we give a generic transformation from $\varepsilon$-random probing to $\delta$-average probing, with $\delta \approx \varepsilon^2$, which avoids this loss of $|\mathbb{F}|$. Since the average probing is identical to the noisy leakage model (Eurocrypt 2014), this yields for the first time a security analysis of masked circuits where the noise parameter in the noisy leakage model is independent of $|\mathbb{F}|$. The latter is particularly important for cryptographic schemes operating over large fields, e.g., the AES or the recently standardized post-quantum schemes.

2024

ASIACRYPT

Password-Protected Threshold Signatures
Abstract

We witness increase in applications like cryptocurrency wallets, which involve users issuing signatures using private keys. To protect these keys from loss or compromise, users commonly outsource them to a custodial server. This creates a new point of failure, because compromise of such server leaks the user’s key, and if user authentication is implemented with a password then this password becomes open to an offline dictionary attack (ODA). A better solution is to secret-share the key among a set of servers, possibly including user’s own device(s), and implement password authentication and signature computation using threshold cryptography.
We propose a notion of augmented password protected threshold signature scheme (aptSIG) which captures the best possible security level for this setting. Using standard threshold cryptography techniques, i.e. threshold password authentication and threshold signatures, one can guarantee that compromising up to t out of n servers reveals no information on either the key or the password. However, we extend this with a novel property, namely that compromising even all n servers also does not leak any information, except via an unavoidable ODA attack, which reveals the key (and the password) only if the attacker guesses the password.
We define aptSIG in the Universally Composable (UC) framework and show that it can be constructed very efficiently, using a black-box composition of any UC threshold signature [12] and a UC augmented Password-Protected Secret Sharing (aPPSS), which we define as an extension of prior notion of PPSS [26]. As concrete instantiations we obtain secure aptSIG schemes for ECDSA and BLS signatures with very small overhead over the respective respective threshold signature.

2023

CRYPTO

Individual Cryptography
Abstract

We initiate a formal study of \emph{individual cryptography}. Informally speaking, an algorithm $\mathsf{Alg}$ is \emph{individual} if, in every implementation of $\mathsf{Alg}$, there always exists an individual user with full knowledge of the cryptographic data $S$ used by $\mathsf{Alg}$. In particular, it should be infeasible to design implementations of this algorithm that would hide $S$ by distributing it between a group of parties using an MPC protocol or outsourcing it to a trusted execution environment.
We define and construct two primitives in this model. The first one, called \emph{proofs of individual knowledge}, is a tool for proving that a given message is fully known to a single (``individual'') machine on the Internet, i.e., it cannot be shared between a group of parties. The second one, dubbed \emph{individual secret sharing}, is a scheme for sharing a secret $S$ between a group of parties so that the parties have no knowledge of $S$ as long as they do not reconstruct it. The reconstruction ensures that if the shareholders attempt to collude, one of them will learn the secret entirely. Individual secret sharing has applications for preventing collusion in secret sharing. A central technique for constructing individual cryptographic primitives is the concept of MPC hardness. MPC hardness precludes an adversary from completing a cryptographic task in a distributed fashion within a specific time frame.

2023

TCC

Efficiently Testable Circuits without Conductivity
Abstract

The notion of “efficiently testable circuits” (ETC) was recently put forward by Baig et al. (ITCS’23). Informally, an ETC compiler takes as input any Boolean circuit C and outputs a circuit/inputs
tuple (C′, T) where (completeness) C′ is functionally equivalent to C and (security) if C′ is tampered in some restricted way, then this can be detected as C′ will err on at least one input in the small test set T. The compiler of Baig et al. detects tampering even if the adversary can tamper with all wires in the compiled circuit. Unfortunately, the model requires a strong “conductivity” restriction: the compiled circuit has gates with fan-out up to 3, but wires can only be tampered in one way even if the have fan-out greater than one. In this paper, we solve the main open question from their work and construct an ETC compiler without this conductivity restriction. While Baig et al. use gadgets computing the AND and OR of particular subsets of the wires, our compiler computes inner products with random vectors. We slightly relax their security notion and only require that tampering
is detected with high probability over the choice of the randomness. Our compiler increases the size of the circuit by only a small constant factor. For a parameter λ (think λ ≤ 5), the number of additional input and output wires is |C|1/λ, while the number of test queries to detect an error
with constant probability is around 22λ.

2021

TCC

Trojan-Resilience without Cryptography
📺
Abstract

Digital hardware Trojans are integrated circuits whose implementation differ from the specification in an arbitrary and malicious way. For example, the circuit can differ from its specified input/output behavior after some fixed number of queries (known as ``time bombs'') or on some particular input (known as ``cheat codes'').
To detect such Trojans, countermeasures using multiparty computation (MPC) or verifiable computation (VC), have been proposed. On a high level, to realize a circuit with specification $\cF$ one has more sophisticated circuits $\cF^\diamond$ manufactured (where $\cF^\diamond$ specifies a MPC or VC of $\cF$), and then embeds these $\cF^\diamond$'s into a \emph{master circuit} which must be trusted but is relatively simple compared to $\cF$. Those solutions have a significant overhead as $\cF^\diamond$ is significantly more complex than $\cF$ and also the master circuits are not exactly trivial either.
In this work, we show that in restricted settings, where $\cF$ has no evolving state and is queried on independent inputs, we can achieve a relaxed security notion using very simple constructions. In particular, we do not change the specification of the circuit at all (i.e., $\cF=\cF^\diamond$). Moreover the master circuit basically just queries a subset of its manufactured circuits and checks if they're all the same.
The security we achieve guarantees that, if the manufactured circuits are initially tested on up to $T$ inputs, the master circuit will catch Trojans that try to deviate on significantly more than a $1/T$ fraction of the inputs. This bound is optimal for the type of construction considered, and we provably achieve it using a construction where $12$ instantiations of $\cF$ need to be embedded into the master. We also discuss an extremely simple construction with just $2$ instantiations for which we conjecture that it already achieves the optimal bound.

2020

CRYPTO

Reverse Firewalls for Actively Secure MPCs
📺
Abstract

Reverse firewalls were introduced at Eurocrypt 2015 by Miro-nov and Stephens-Davidowitz, as a method for protecting cryptographic protocols against attacks on the devices of the honest parties. In a nutshell: a reverse firewall is placed outside of a device and its goal is to ``sanitize'' the messages sent by it, in such a way that a malicious device cannot leak its secrets to the outside world. It is typically assumed that the cryptographic devices are attacked in a ``functionality-preserving way'' (i.e.~informally speaking, the functionality of the protocol remains unchanged under this attacks).
In their paper, Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz construct a protocol for passively-secure two-party computations with firewalls, leaving extension of this result to stronger models as an open question.
In this paper, we address this problem by constructing a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that has two main advantages over the original protocol from Eurocrypt 2015. Firstly, it is a \emph{multi}party computation protocol (i.e.~it works for an arbitrary number $n$ of the parties, and not just for $2$). Secondly, it is secure in much stronger corruption settings, namely in the \emph{actively corruption model}. More precisely: we consider an adversary that can fully corrupt up to $n-1$ parties, while the remaining parties are corrupt in a functionality-preserving way.
Our core techniques are: malleable commitments and malleable non-interactive zero-knowledge, which in particular allow us to create a novel protocol for multiparty augmented coin-tossing into the well with reverse firewalls (that is based on a protocol of Lindell from Crypto 2001).

2019

EUROCRYPT

Multi-party Virtual State Channels
📺
Abstract

Smart contracts are self-executing agreements written in program code and are envisioned to be one of the main applications of blockchain technology. While they are supported by prominent cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum, their further adoption is hindered by fundamental scalability challenges. For instance, in Ethereum contract execution suffers from a latency of more than 15 s, and the total number of contracts that can be executed per second is very limited. State channel networks are one of the core primitives aiming to address these challenges. They form a second layer over the slow and expensive blockchain, thereby enabling instantaneous contract processing at negligible costs.In this work we present the first complete description of a state channel network that exhibits the following key features. First, it supports virtual multi-party state channels, i.e. state channels that can be created and closed without blockchain interaction and that allow contracts with any number of parties. Second, the worst case time complexity of our protocol is constant for arbitrary complex channels. This is in contrast to the existing virtual state channel construction that has worst case time complexity linear in the number of involved parties. In addition to our new construction, we provide a comprehensive model for the modular design and security analysis of our construction.

2019

ASIACRYPT

Simple Refreshing in the Noisy Leakage Model
Abstract

Masking schemes are a prominent countermeasure against power analysis and work by concealing the values that are produced during the computation through randomness. The randomness is typically injected into the masked algorithm using a so-called refreshing scheme, which is placed after each masked operation, and hence is one of the main bottlenecks for designing efficient masking schemes. The main contribution of our work is to investigate the security of a very simple and efficient refreshing scheme and prove its security in the noisy leakage model (EUROCRYPT’13). Compared to earlier constructions our refreshing is significantly more efficient and uses only n random values and $${<}2n$$ operations, where n is the security parameter. In addition we show how our refreshing can be used in more complex masked computation in the presence of noisy leakage. Our results are established using a new methodology for analyzing masking schemes in the noisy leakage model, which may be of independent interest.

2019

JOFC

Unifying Leakage Models: From Probing Attacks to Noisy Leakage
Abstract

A recent trend in cryptography is to formally show the leakage resilience of cryptographic implementations in a given leakage model. One of the most prominent leakage model—the so-called bounded leakage model—assumes that the amount of leakage that an adversary receives is a-priori bounded. Unfortunately, it has been pointed out by several works that the assumption of bounded leakages is hard to verify in practice. A more realistic assumption is to consider that leakages are sufficiently noisy, following the engineering observation that real-world physical leakages are inherently perturbed by physical noise. While already the seminal work of Chari et al. (in: CRYPTO, pp 398–412, 1999 ) study security of side-channel countermeasures in the noisy model, only recently Prouff and Rivain (in: Johansson T, Nguyen PQ (eds) EUROCRYPT, volume 7881 of lecture notes in 931 computer science, pp 142–159, Springer, 2013 ) offer a full formal analysis of the masking countermeasure in a physically motivated noise model. In particular, the authors show that a block-cipher implementation that uses the Boolean masking scheme is secure against a very general class of noisy leakage functions. While this is an important step toward better understanding the security of masking schemes, the analysis of Prouff and Rivain has several shortcomings including in particular requiring leak-free gates. In this work, we provide an alternative security proof in the same noise model that overcomes these challenges. We achieve this goal by a new reduction from noisy leakage to the important model of probing adversaries (Ishai et al. in: CRYPTO, pp 463–481, 2003 ). This reduction is the main technical contribution of our work that significantly simplifies the formal security analysis of masking schemes against realistic side-channel leakages.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2022 (Program chair)
- CHES 2021
- Eurocrypt 2021
- TCC 2020
- Eurocrypt 2019
- TCC 2018
- TCC 2018 (Program chair)
- Eurocrypt 2017
- TCC 2017
- PKC 2013
- Crypto 2013
- PKC 2011
- TCC 2009
- Asiacrypt 2009
- Asiacrypt 2008
- Eurocrypt 2007
- TCC 2006
- Asiacrypt 2003

#### Coauthors

- Divesh Aggarwal (1)
- Marcin Andrychowicz (2)
- Mirza Ahad Baig (1)
- Gianluca Brian (1)
- Joshua Brody (1)
- Ran Canetti (2)
- Suvradip Chakraborty (3)
- Ronald Cramer (1)
- Ivan Damgård (3)
- Alexandre Duc (2)
- Stefan Dziembowski (30)
- Lisa Eckey (1)
- Sebastian Faust (14)
- Malgorzata Galazka (1)
- Małgorzata Gałązka (1)
- Gottfried Herold (1)
- Julia Hesse (1)
- Martin Hirt (1)
- Kristina Hostáková (1)
- Yuval Ishai (2)
- Stanislaw Jarecki (1)
- Anthony Journault (1)
- Tomasz Kazana (4)
- Paweł Kędzior (1)
- Vladimir Kolmogorov (1)
- Hugo Krawczyk (1)
- Tomasz Lizurej (3)
- Tal Malkin (2)
- Daniel Masny (1)
- Ueli Maurer (2)
- Chan Nam Ngo (1)
- Jesper Buus Nielsen (1)
- Maciej Obremski (2)
- Krzysztof Pietrzak (4)
- Tal Rabin (1)
- Maciej Skórski (2)
- François-Xavier Standaert (1)
- Daniel Wichs (2)
- Jiayu Xu (1)
- Michelle Yeo (1)
- Karol Zebrowski (1)