International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Guru Vamsi Policharla


Improved Alternating-Moduli PRFs and Post-Quantum Signatures
We revisit the alternating moduli paradigm for constructing symmetric key primitives with a focus on constructing highly efficient protocols to evaluate them using secure multi-party computation (MPC). The alternating moduli paradigm of Boneh et al. (TCC 2018) enables the construction of various symmetric key primitives with the common characteristic that the inputs are multiplied by two linear maps over different moduli, first over F_2 and then over F_3. The first contribution focuses on efficient two-party evaluation of alternating moduli PRFs, effectively building an oblivious pseudorandom function. We present a generalization of the PRF proposed by Boneh et al. (TCC 18) along with methods to lower the communication and computation. We then provide several variants of our protocols, with different computation and communication tradeoffs, for evaluating the PRF. Most are in the OT/VOLE hybrid model while one is based on specialized garbling. Our most efficient protocol effectively is about 3x faster and requires 1.3x lesser communication. Our next contribution is the efficient evaluation of the OWF f(x) = B *_3 (A *_2 x) proposed by Dinur et al. (CRYPTO 21) where A \in F^{m x n}_2, B \in F^{t x m}_3 and *_p is multiplication mod p. This surprisingly simple OWF can be evaluated within MPC by secret sharing [x] over F_2, locally computing [v] = A *_2 [x], performing a modulus switching protocol to F_3 shares, followed by locally computing the output shares [y] = B *_3 [v]. We design a bespoke MPC-in-the-Head (MPCitH) signature scheme that evaluates the OWF, achieving state of art performance. The resulting signature has a size ranging from 4.0-5.5 KB, achieving between 2-3x reduction compared to Dinur et al. To the best of our knowledge, this is only 5% larger than the smallest signature based on symmetric key primitives, including the latest NIST PQC competition submissions. We additionally show that our core techniques can be extended to build very small post-quantum ring signatures for small-medium sized rings that are competitive with state-of-the-art lattice based schemes. Our techniques are in fact more generally applicable to set membership in MPCitH.
Threshold Encryption with Silent Setup
We build a concretely efficient threshold encryption scheme where the joint public key of a set of parties is computed as a \emph{deterministic} function of their locally computed public keys, enabling a \emph{silent} setup phase. By eliminating interaction from the setup phase, our scheme immediately enjoys several highly desirable features such as asynchronous setup, multiverse support, and dynamic threshold. Prior to our work, the only known constructions of threshold encryption with silent setup relied on heavy cryptographic machinery such as indistinguishability Obfuscation or witness encryption for all of $\mathsf{NP}$. Our core technical innovation lies in building a special purpose witness encryption scheme for the statement ``at least $t$ parties have signed a given message''. Our construction relies on pairings and is proved secure in the Generic Group Model. Notably, our construction, restricted to the special case of threshold $\thres=1$, gives an alternative construction of the (flexible) distributed broadcast encryption from pairings, which has been the central focus of several recent works. We implement and evaluate our scheme to demonstrate its concrete efficiency. Both encryption and partial decryption are constant time, taking $<7\,$ms and $<1\,$ms, respectively. For a committee of $1024$ parties, the aggregation of partial decryptions takes $<200\,$ms, when all parties provide partial decryptions. The size of each ciphertext is $\approx 8\times$ larger than an ElGamal ciphertext.
End to End Secure Messaging with Traceability Only for Illegal Content
James Bartusek Sanjam Garg Abhishek Jain Guru-Vamsi Policharla
As end-to-end encrypted messaging services become widely adopted, law enforcement agencies have increasingly expressed concern that such services interfere with their ability to maintain public safety. Indeed, there is a direct tension between preserving user privacy and enabling content moderation on these platforms. Recent research has begun to address this tension, proposing systems that purport to strike a balance between the privacy of ``honest’’ users and traceability of ``malicious’’ users. Unfortunately, these systems suffer from a lack of protection against malicious or coerced service providers. In this work, we address the privacy vs. content moderation question through the lens of pre-constrained cryptography [Ananth et al., ITCS 2022]. We introduce the notion of {\em set pre-constrained} (SPC) {\em group signatures} that guarantees security against \emph{malicious key generators}. SPC group signatures offer the ability to trace users in messaging systems who originate pre-defined illegal content (such as child sexual abuse material), while providing security against malicious service providers. We construct concretely efficient protocols for SPC group signatures, and demonstrate the real-world feasibility of our approach via an implementation. The starting point for our solution is the recently introduced Apple PSI system, which we significantly modify to improve security and expand functionality.