International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Dimitris Kolonelos


Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Subverted RSA Groups
Dimitris Kolonelos Mary Maller Mikhail Volkhov
This work investigates zero-knowledge protocols in subverted RSA groups where the prover can choose the modulus and where the verifier does not know the group order. We introduce a novel technique for extracting the witness from a general homomorphism over a group of unknown order that does not require parallel repetitions. We then present a NIZK range proof for general homomorphisms as Paillier encryptions in the designated verifier model that works under a subverted setup. The key ingredient of our proof is a constant sized NIZK proof of knowledge for a plaintext. Security is proven in the ROM assuming an IND-CPA additively homomorphic encryption scheme. The verifier's public key can be maliciously generated and is reusable and linear in the number of proofs to be verified.
Efficient Laconic Cryptography from Learning With Errors
Laconic cryptography is an emerging paradigm that enables cryptographic primitives with sublinear communication complexity in just two messages. In particular, a two-message protocol between Alice and Bob is called \emph{laconic} if its communication and computation complexity are essentially independent of the size of Alice's input. This can be thought of as a dual notion of fully-homomorphic encryption, as it enables ``Bob-optimized'' protocols. This paradigm has led to tremendous progress in recent years. However, all existing constructions of laconic primitives are considered only of \emph{theoretical interest}: They all rely on non-black-box cryptographic techniques, which are highly impractical. This work shows that non-black-box techniques are not necessary for basic laconic cryptography primitives. We propose a \emph{completely algebraic} construction of laconic encryption, a notion that we introduce in this work, which serves as the cornerstone of our framework. We prove that the scheme is secure under the standard Learning With Errors assumption (with polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio). We provide proof-of-concept implementations for the first time for laconic primitives, demonstrating the construction is indeed practical: For a database size of $2^{50}$, encryption and decryption are in the order of single digit \emph{milliseconds}. Laconic encryption can be used as a black box to construct other laconic primitives. Specifically, we show how to construct: \begin{itemize} \item Laconic oblivious transfer \item Registration-based encryption scheme \item Laconic private-set intersection protocol \end{itemize} All of the above have essentially optimal parameters and similar practical efficiency. Furthermore, our laconic encryption can be preprocessed such that the online encryption step is entirely combinatorial and therefore much more efficient. Using similar techniques, we also obtain identity-based encryption with an unbounded identity space and tight security proof (in the standard model).
Incrementally Aggregatable Vector Commitments and Applications to Verifiable Decentralized Storage 📺
Vector commitments with subvector openings (SVC) [Lai-Malavolta, Boneh-Bunz-Fisch; CRYPTO'19] allow one to open a committed vector at a set of positions with an opening of size independent of both the vector's length and the number of opened positions. We continue the study of SVC with two goals in mind: improving their efficiency and making them more suitable to decentralized settings. We address both problems by proposing a new notion for VC that we call \emph{incremental aggregation} and that allows one to merge openings in a succinct way an \emph{unbounded} number of times. We show two applications of this property. The first one is immediate and is a method to generate openings in a distributed way. The second application is an algorithm for faster generation of openings via preprocessing. We then proceed to realize SVC with incremental aggregation. We provide two constructions in groups of unknown order that, similarly to that of Boneh et al. (which supports aggregating only once), have constant-size public parameters, commitments and openings. As an additional feature, for the first construction we propose efficient arguments of knowledge of subvector openings which immediately yields a keyless proof of storage with compact proofs. Finally, we address a problem closely related to that of SVC: storing a file efficiently in completely decentralized networks. We introduce and construct \emph{verifiable decentralized storage} (VDS), a cryptographic primitive that allows to check the integrity of a file stored by a network of nodes in a distributed and decentralized way. Our VDS constructions rely on our new vector commitment techniques.