International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

David Wagner

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2011
JOFC
2008
FSE
2007
TCC
2007
EPRINT
Algebraic and Slide Attacks on KeeLoq
KeeLoq is a block cipher used in wireless devices that unlock doors in cars manufactured by Chrysler, Daewoo, Fiat, GM, Honda, Jaguar, Toyota, Volvo, Volkswagen, etc. It was designed in the 80's by Willem Smit from South Africa and in 1995 was sold to Microchip Technology Inc for more than 10 million USD. Though no attack on this cipher have been found thus far, the 64-bit key size makes it no longer secure. Hackers and car thieves exploit this, to recover the key by brute force with FPGA's. From our point of view however, this cipher is interesting for other reasons. Compared to typical block ciphers that have a few carefully designed rounds, this cipher has 528 extremely simple rounds with extremely few intermediate variables (one per round). This seems a perfect target to study algebraic attacks on block ciphers. The cipher also has a periodic structure with period of 64 rounds, and an unusually small block size of 32 bits. We present several slide-algebraic attacks on KeeLoq, the best of which allows one to recover the full key for the full cipher within 2^48 CPU clocks. Until now algebraic attacks didn't give interesting results on block ciphers and most researchers seriously doubted if any block cipher will EVER be broken by such attacks. In this paper however, we show that, for the first time in history, a full round real-life block cipher is broken by an algebraic attack. Moreover, our attacks are easy to implement, have been tested experimentally, and the full key can be recovered in practice on a PC.
2006
CRYPTO
2006
EUROCRYPT
2006
PKC
2006
EPRINT
Cryptanalysis of a Cognitive Authentication Scheme
Philippe Golle David Wagner
We present attacks against two cognitive authentication schemes [W06] recently proposed at the 2006 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. These authentication schemes are designed to be secure against eavesdropping attacks while relying only on human cognitive skills. They achieve authentication via challenge response protocols based on a shared secret set of pictures. Our attacks use a SAT solver to recover a user's key in a few seconds, after observing only a small number of successful logins. These attacks demonstrate that the authentication schemes of [W06] are not secure against an eavesdropping adversary.
2006
EPRINT
Tamper-Evident, History-Independent, Subliminal-Free Data Structures on PROM Storage -or- How to Store Ballots on a Voting Machine
We enumerate requirements and give constructions for the vote storage unit of an electronic voting machine. In this application, the record of votes must survive even an unexpected failure of the machine; hence the data structure should be durable. At the same time, the order in which votes are cast must be hidden to protect the privacy of voters, so the data structure should be history-independent. Adversaries may try to surreptitiously add or delete votes from the storage unit after the election has concluded, so the storage should be tamper-evident. Finally, we must guard against an adversarial voting machine's attempts to mark ballots through the representation of the data structure, so we desire a subliminal-free representation. We leverage the properties of Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM), a special kind of write-once storage medium, to meet these requirements. We give constructions for data structures on PROM storage that simultaneously satisfy all our desired properties. Our techniques can significantly reduce the need to verify code running on a voting machine.
2006
EPRINT
From Weak to Strong Watermarking
The informal goal of a watermarking scheme is to ``mark'' a digital object, such as a picture or video, in such a way that it is difficult for an adversary to remove the mark without destroying the content of the object. Although there has been considerable work proposing and breaking watermarking schemes, there has been little attention given to the formal security goals of such a scheme. In this work, we provide a new complexity-theoretic definition of security for watermarking schemes. We describe some shortcomings of previous attempts at defining watermarking security, and show that security under our definition also implies security under previous definitions. We also propose two weaker security conditions that seem to capture the security goals of practice-oriented work on watermarking and show how schemes satisfying these weaker goals can be strengthened to satisfy our definition.
2005
EPRINT
Security and Privacy Issues in E-passports
Ari Juels David Molnar David Wagner
Within the next year, travelers from dozens of nations may be carrying a new form of passport in response to a mandate by the United States government. The e-passport, as it is sometimes called, represents a bold initiative in the deployment of two new technologies: Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and biometrics. Important in their own right, e-passports are also the harbinger of a wave of next-generation ID cards: several national governments plan to deploy identity cards integrating RFID and biometrics for domestic use. We explore the privacy and security implications of this impending worldwide experiment in next-generation authentication technology. We describe privacy and security issues that apply to e-passports, then analyze these issues in the context of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standard for e-passports.
2005
EPRINT
A Scalable, Delegatable Pseudonym Protocol Enabling Ownership Transfer of RFID Tags
The ability to link two different sightings of the same Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag enables invasions of privacy. The problem is aggravated when an item, and the tag attached to it, changes hands during the course of its lifetime. After such an ownership transfer, the new owner should be able to read the tag but the old owner should not. We address these issues through an RFID pseudonym protocol. Each time it is queried, the RFID tag emits a different pseudonym using a pseudo-random function. Without consent of a special Trusted Center that shares secrets with the tag, it is infeasible to map the pseudonym to the tag's real identity. We present a scheme for RFID pseudonyms that works with legacy, untrusted readers, requires only one message from tag to reader, and is scalable: decoding tag pseudonyms takes work logarithmic in the number of tags. Our scheme further allows for time-limited delegation, so that we can give an RFID reader the power to disambiguate a limited number of pseudonyms without further help from the Trusted Center. We show how RFID pseudonyms facilitate the transfer of ownership of RFID tags between mutually distrustful parties. Our scheme requires only limited cryptographic functionality from the tag: we need a pseudo-random function (PRF) and the ability to update tag state or to generate random numbers. Tag storage and communication requirements are modest: we give example parameters for a deployment of one million tags in which each tag stores only $128$ bits, makes $6$ PRF evaluations, and sends $158$ bits each time it is read.
2005
EPRINT
The Program Counter Security Model: Automatic Detection and Removal of Control-Flow Side Channel Attacks
We introduce new methods for detecting control-flow side channel attacks, transforming C source code to eliminate such attacks, and checking that the transformed code is free of control-flow side channels. We model control-flow side channels with a program counter transcript, in which the value of the program counter at each step is leaked to an adversary. The program counter transcript model captures a class of side channel attacks that includes timing attacks and error disclosure attacks. We further show that the model formalizes previous ad hoc approaches to preventing side channel attacks. We then give a dynamic testing procedure for finding code fragments that may reveal sensitive information by key-dependent behavior, and we show our method finds side channel vulnerabilities in real implementations of IDEA and RC5, in binary modular exponentiation, and in the lsh implementation of the ssh protocol. Further, we propose a generic source-to-source transformation that produces programs provably secure against control-flow side channel attacks. We implemented this transform for C together with a static checker that conservatively checks x86 assembly for violations of program counter security; our checker allows us to compile with optimizations while retaining assurance the resulting code is secure. We then measured our technique's effect on the performance of binary modular exponentiation and real-world implementations in C of RC5 and IDEA: we found it has a performance overhead of at most 5X and a stack space overhead of at most 2X. Our approach to side channel security is practical, generally applicable, and provably secure against an interesting class of side channel attacks.
2005
EPRINT
Generic On-Line/Off-Line Threshold Signatures
We propose on-line/off-line threshold signature schemes, in which the bulk of signature computation can take place ``off-line" during lulls in service requests. Such precomputation can help systems using threshold signatures quickly respond to requests. For example, tests of the Pond distributed file system showed that computation of a threshold RSA signature consumes roughly 86% of the time required to service writes to small files. Because a large number of writes in file systems are for small files, threshold signatures form a performance bottleneck in Pond and similar systems. We apply the ``hash-sign-switch" paradigm of Shamir and Tauman and the distributed key generation protocol of Gennaro et al. to convert any existing secure threshold digital signature scheme into a threshold on-line/off-line signature scheme. Our construction is fully distributed and requires no trusted dealers. We show that the straightforward attempt at proving security of the resulting construction runs into a subtlety that does not arise for Shamir and Tauman's construction. We resolve the subtlety and prove our signature scheme secure against a static adversary in the partially synchronous communication model under the one-more-discrete-logarithm assumption. The on-line phase of our scheme is efficient: computing a signature takes one round of communication and a few modular multiplications in the common case.
2004
CHES
2004
FSE
2004
FSE
2004
TCC
2003
CHES
2003
CRYPTO
2003
EPRINT
EAX: A Conventional Authenticated-Encryption Mode
We propose a block-cipher mode of operation, called EAX, for authenticated-encryption with associated-data (AEAD). Given a nonce N, a message M, and a header H, the mode protects the privacy of M and the authenticity of both M and H. Strings N,M,H$ are arbitrary, and the mode uses $2\lceil |M|/n \rceil + \lceil |H|/n\rceil + \lceil |N|/n\rceil$ block-cipher calls when these strings are nonempty and n is the block length of the underlying block cipher. Among EAX's characteristics are that it is on-line (the length of a message isn't needed to begin processing it) and a fixed header can be pre-processed, effectively removing the per-message cost of binding it to the ciphertext. EAX is obtained by instantiating a simple generic-composition method, and then collapsing its two keys into one. EAX is provably secure under a standard complexity-theoretic assumption. EAX was designed in response to the expressed need of several standardization bodies, including NIST, IETF and IEEE 802.11, for a patent-free AEAD scheme. Such a scheme would have to be conventional, meaning it would make two passes, one aimed at achieving privacy and one aimed at achieving authenticity. EAX aims to fill this need by doing as well as possible within the space of conventional schemes with regard to issues of efficiency, simplicity, elegance, ease of correct use, and provable-security guarantees. EAX is an alternative to CCM.
2003
EPRINT
A Critique of CCM
P. Rogaway D. Wagner
CCM is a conventional authenticated-encryption scheme obtained from a 128-bit block cipher. The mechanism has been adopted as the mandatory encryption algorithm in an IEEE 802.11 draft standard [15], and its use has been proposed more broadly [16,17]. In this note we point out a number of limitations of CCM. A related note provides an alternative to CCM [5].
2003
EPRINT
A Security Evaluation of Whitenoise
David Wagner
This report studies the security of Whitenoise, a stream cipher invented by BSB Utilities Inc. http://bsbutil.com "Even if we hypothesized the existence of some magic computer that could test a trillion trillion key trials per second (very unlikely!), and even if we could place a trillion trillion such computers somewhere throughout the universe (even more unlikely!), and even if we were willing to wait a trillion trillion years (not a chance!), then the probability that we would discover the correct key would be negligible (about (1/2)^1340, which is unimaginably small)."
2002
CRYPTO
2002
CRYPTO
2002
FSE
2002
FSE
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
FSE
2000
FSE
1999
CRYPTO
1999
FSE
1999
FSE
1999
FSE
The Boomerang Attack
David Wagner
1998
CRYPTO
1998
FSE
1998
FSE
1998
FSE
1998
FSE
1997
CRYPTO
1996
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Crypto 2008 (Program chair)
Crypto 2004
FSE 2003
Eurocrypt 2001
Crypto 2000