International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Mihir Bellare

Affiliation: University of California, San Diego, USA

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2020
EUROCRYPT
Security under Message-Derived Keys: Signcryption in iMessage 📺
Mihir Bellare Igors Stepanovs
At the core of Apple's iMessage is a SignCryption scheme that involves symmetric encryption of a message under a key that is derived from the message itself. To capture this, we formalize a primitive we call Encryption under Message-Derived Keys (EMDK). We prove security of the EMDK scheme underlying iMessage. We use this to prove security of the SignCryption scheme itself, with respect to definitions of SignCryption we give that enhance prior ones to cover issues peculiar to messaging protocols. Our provable-security results are quantitative, and we discuss the practical implications for iMessage.
2020
EUROCRYPT
Separate Your Domains: NIST PQC KEMs, Oracle Cloning and Read-Only Indifferentiability 📺
It is convenient and common for schemes in the random oracle model to assume access to multiple random oracles (ROs), leaving to implementations the task --we call it oracle cloning-- of constructing them from a single RO. The first part of the paper is a case study of oracle cloning in KEM submissions to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography standardization process. We give key-recovery attacks on some submissions arising from mistakes in oracle cloning, and find other submissions using oracle cloning methods whose validity is unclear. Motivated by this, the second part of the paper gives a theoretical treatment of oracle cloning. We give a definition of what is an "oracle cloning method" and what it means for such a method to "work," in a framework we call read-only indifferentiability, a simple variant of classical indifferentiability that yields security not only for usage in single-stage games but also in multi-stage ones. We formalize domain separation, and specify and study many oracle cloning methods, including common domain-separating ones, giving some general results to justify (prove read-only indifferentiability of) certain classes of methods. We are not only able to validate the oracle cloning methods used in many of the unbroken NIST PQC KEMs, but also able to specify and validate oracle cloning methods that may be useful beyond that.
2019
CRYPTO
Nonces Are Noticed: AEAD Revisited 📺
Mihir Bellare Ruth Ng Björn Tackmann
We draw attention to a gap between theory and usage of nonce-based symmetric encryption, under which the way the former treats nonces can result in violation of privacy in the latter. We bridge the gap with a new treatment of nonce-based symmetric encryption that modifies the syntax (decryption no longer takes a nonce), upgrades the security goal (asking that not just messages, but also nonces, be hidden) and gives simple, efficient schemes conforming to the new definitions. We investigate both basic security (holding when nonces are not reused) and advanced security (misuse resistance, providing best-possible guarantees when nonces are reused).
2019
ASIACRYPT
The Local Forking Lemma and Its Application to Deterministic Encryption
Mihir Bellare Wei Dai Lucy Li
We bypass impossibility results for the deterministic encryption of public-key-dependent messages, showing that, in this setting, the classical Encrypt-with-Hash scheme provides message-recovery security, across a broad range of message distributions. The proof relies on a new variant of the forking lemma in which the random oracle is reprogrammed on just a single fork point rather than on all points past the fork.
2018
JOFC
2018
PKC
Public-Key Encryption Resistant to Parameter Subversion and Its Realization from Efficiently-Embeddable Groups
We initiate the study of public-key encryption (PKE) schemes and key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) that retain security even when public parameters (primes, curves) they use may be untrusted and subverted. We define a strong security goal that we call ciphertext pseudo-randomness under parameter subversion attack (CPR-PSA). We also define indistinguishability (of ciphertexts for PKE, and of encapsulated keys from random ones for KEMs) and public-key hiding (also called anonymity) under parameter subversion attack, and show they are implied by CPR-PSA, for both PKE and KEMs. We show that hybrid encryption continues to work in the parameter subversion setting to reduce the design of CPR-PSA PKE to CPR-PSA KEMs and an appropriate form of symmetric encryption. To obtain efficient, elliptic-curve-based KEMs achieving CPR-PSA, we introduce efficiently-embeddable group families and give several constructions from elliptic-curves.
2017
PKC
2017
CRYPTO
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2016
CRYPTO
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
ASIACRYPT
2015
JOFC
2015
JOFC
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
PKC
2015
PKC
2015
PKC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2014
CRYPTO
2014
CRYPTO
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
PKC
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2014
JOFC
2014
CRYPTO
2014
ASIACRYPT
2013
CRYPTO
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2012
ASIACRYPT
2012
ASIACRYPT
2012
JOFC
On-line Ciphers and the Hash-CBC Constructions
We initiate a study of on-line ciphers. These are ciphers that can take input plaintexts of large and varying lengths and will output the i th block of the ciphertext after having processed only the first i blocks of the plaintext. Such ciphers permit length-preserving encryption of a data stream with only a single pass through the data. We provide security definitions for this primitive and study its basic properties. We then provide attacks on some possible candidates, including CBC with fixed IV. We then provide two constructions, HCBC1 and HCBC2, based on a given block cipher E and a family of computationally AXU functions. HCBC1 is proven secure against chosen-plaintext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-plaintext attacks, while HCBC2 is proven secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks.
2011
TCC
2011
CRYPTO
2011
ASIACRYPT
2010
TCC
2010
CRYPTO
2010
EUROCRYPT
2010
EPRINT
Cryptographic Agility and its Relation to Circular Encryption
We initiate a provable-security treatment of cryptographic \emph{agility}. A primitive (for example PRFs, authenticated encryption schemes or digital signatures) is agile when multiple, individually secure schemes can securely share the same key. We provide a surprising connection between two seemingly unrelated but challenging questions. The first, new to this paper, is whether wPRFs (weak-PRFs) are agile. The second, already posed several times in the literature, is whether every secure (IND-R) encryption scheme is secure when encrypting cycles. We resolve the second question in the negative and thereby the first as well. We go on to provide a comprehensive treatment of agility, with definitions for various different primitives. We explain the practical motivations for agility. We provide foundational results that show to what extent it is achievable and practical constructions to achieve it to the best extent possible. On the theoretical side our work uncovers new notions and relations and settles stated open questions, and on the practical side it serves to guide developers.
2010
EPRINT
Identity-Based Encryption Secure under Selective Opening Attack
Mihir Bellare Brent Waters Scott Yilek
We present the first Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that is proven secure against selective opening attack (SOA). This means that if an adversary, given a vector of ciphertexts, adaptively corrupts some fraction of the senders, exposing not only their messages but also their coins, the privacy of the unopened messages is guaranteed. Achieving security against such attacks is well-known to be challenging and was only recently solved in the PKE case via lossy encryption. We explain why those methods won’t work for IBE and instead rely on an approach based on encryption schemes that have a property we call one-sided public openability. Our SOA-secure IBE scheme is quite efficient and proven secure without random oracles based on the Decision Linear assumption.
2010
EPRINT
Pseudorandom Functions and Permutations Provably Secure Against Related-Key Attacks
Mihir Bellare David Cash
This paper fills an important foundational gap with the first proofs, under standard assumptions and in the standard model, of the existence of pseudorandom functions (PRFs) and pseudorandom permutations (PRPs) resisting rich and relevant forms of related-key attacks (RKA). An RKA allows the adversary to query the function not only under the target key but under other keys derived from it in adversary-specified ways. Based on the Naor-Reingold PRF we obtain an RKA-PRF whose keyspace is a group and that is proven, under DDH, to resist attacks in which the key may be operated on by arbitrary adversary-specified group elements. Previous work was able only to provide schemes in idealized models (ideal cipher, random oracle), under new, non-standard assumptions, or for limited classes of attacks. The reason was technical difficulties that we resolve via a new approach and framework that, in addition to the above, yields other RKA-PRFs including a DLIN-based one derived from the Lewko-Waters PRF. Over the last 15 years cryptanalysts and blockcipher designers have routinely and consistently targeted RKA-security; it is visibly important for abuse-resistant cryptography; and it helps protect against fault-injection sidechannel attacks. Yet ours are the first significant proofs of existence of secure constructs. We warn that our constructs are proofs-of-concept in the foundational style and not practical.
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
JOFC
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
EUROCRYPT
2009
EPRINT
Encryption Schemes Secure under Selective Opening Attack
Mihir Bellare Scott Yilek
The existence of encryption schemes secure under selective opening attack (SOA) has remained open despite considerable interest and attention. We provide the first public key encryption schemes secure against sender corruptions in this setting. The underlying tool is lossy encryption. The schemes have short keys. (Public and secret keys of a fixed length suffice for encrypting an arbitrary number of messages.) The schemes are stateless and noninteractive, and security does not rely on erasures. The schemes are without random oracles, proven secure under standard assumptions (DDH, Paillier’s DCR, QR, lattices), and even efficient. We are able to meet both an indistinguishability (IND-SO-ENC) and a simulation-style, semantic security (SEM-SO-ENC) definition.
2009
EPRINT
Simulation without the Artificial Abort: Simplified Proof and Improved Concrete Security for Waters' IBE Scheme
Mihir Bellare Thomas Ristenpart
Waters' variant of the Boneh-Boyen IBE scheme is attractive because of its efficency, applications, and security attributes,but suffers from a relatively complex proof with poor concrete security. This is due in part to the proof's ``artificial abort'' step, which has then been inherited by numerous derivative works. It has often been asked whether this step is necessary. We show that it is not, providing a new proof that eliminates this step. The new proof is not only simpler than the original one but offers better concrete security for important ranges of the parameters. As a result, one can securely use smaller groups, resulting in significant efficiency improvements.
2009
EPRINT
Key Insulation and Intrusion Resilience Over a Public Channel
Key insulation (KI) and Intrusion resilience (IR) are methods to protect a user's key against exposure by utilizing periodic communications with an auxiliary helper. But existing work assumes a secure channel between user and helper. If we want to realize KI or IR in practice we must realize this secure channel. This paper looks at the question of how to do this when the communication is over what we are more likely to have in practice, namely a public channel such as the Internet or a wireless network. We explain why this problem is not trivial, introduce models and definitions that capture the desired security in a public channel setting, and provide a complete (and surprising) answer to the question of when KI and IR are possible over a public channel. The information we provide is important to guide practitioners with regard to the usage of KI and IR and also to guide future research in this area.
2008
ASIACRYPT
2008
JOFC
2008
JOFC
2008
CRYPTO
2008
EPRINT
Deterministic Encryption: Definitional Equivalences and Constructions without Random Oracles
We strengthen the foundations of deterministic public-key encryption via definitional equivalences and standard-model constructs based on general assumptions. Specifically we consider seven notions of privacy for deterministic encryption, including six forms of semantic security and an indistinguishability notion, and show them all equivalent. We then present a deterministic scheme for the secure encryption of uniformly and independently distributed messages based solely on the existence of trapdoor one-way permutations. We show a generalization of the construction that allows secure deterministic encryption of independent high-entropy messages. Finally we show relations between deterministic and standard (randomized) encryption.
2008
EPRINT
Hash Functions from Sigma Protocols and Improvements to VSH
Mihir Bellare Todor Ristov
We present a general way to get a provably collision-resistant hash function from any (suitable) $\Sigma$-protocol. This enables us to both get new designs and to unify and improve previous work. In the first category, we obtain, via a modified version of the Fiat-Shamir protocol, the fastest known hash function that is provably collision-resistant based on the \textit{standard} factoring assumption. In the second category, we provide a modified version VSH^* of VSH which is faster when hashing short messages. (Most Internet packets are short.) We also show that $\Sigma$-hash functions are chameleon, thereby obtaining several new and efficient chameleon hash functions with applications to on-line/off-line signing, chameleon signatures and designated-verifier signatures.
2007
CRYPTO
2007
PKC
2007
EPRINT
On-Line Ciphers and the Hash-CBC Constructions
We initiate a study of on-line ciphers. These are ciphers that can take input plaintexts of large and varying lengths and will output the i-th block of the ciphertext after having processed only the first i blocks of the plaintext. Such ciphers permit length-preserving encryption of a data stream with only a single pass through the data. We provide security definitions for this primitive and study its basic properties. We then provide attacks on some possible candidates, including CBC with fixed IV. We then provide two constructions, HCBC1 and HCBC2, based on a given block cipher E and a family of computationally AXU functions. HCBC1 is proven secure against chosen-plaintext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-plaintext attacks, while HCBC2 is proven secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks.
2007
EPRINT
Hash Functions in the Dedicated-Key Setting: Design Choices and MPP Transforms
Mihir Bellare Thomas Ristenpart
In the dedicated-key setting, one starts with a compression function f:{0,1}^k x {0,1}^{n+d} -> {0,1}^n and builds a family of hash functions H^f:K x M -> {0,1}^n indexed by a key space K. This is different from the more traditional design approach used to build hash functions such as MD5 or SHA-1, in which compression functions and hash functions do not have dedicated key inputs. We explore the benefits and drawbacks of building hash functions in the dedicated-key setting (as compared to the more traditional approach), highlighting several unique features of the former. Should one choose to build hash functions in the dedicated-key setting, we suggest utilizing multi-property-preserving (MPP) domain extension transforms. We analyze seven existing dedicated-key transforms with regard to the MPP goal and propose two simple new MPP transforms.
2007
EPRINT
Two-Tier Signatures, Strongly Unforgeable Signatures, and Fiat-Shamir without Random Oracles
Mihir Bellare Sarah Shoup
We provide a positive result about the Fiat-Shamir (FS) transform in the standard model, showing how to use it to convert three-move identification protocols into two-tier signature schemes with a proof of security that makes a standard assumption on the hash function rather than modeling it as a random oracle. The result requires security of the starting protocol against concurrent attacks. We can show that numerous protocols have the required properties and so obtain numerous efficient two-tier schemes. Our first application is a two-tier scheme based efficient transform of any unforgeable signature scheme into a strongly unforgeable one. (This extends Boneh, Shen and Waters [BSW06] whose transform only applies to a limited class of schemes.) The second application is new one-time signature schemes that, compared to one-way function based ones of the same computational cost, have smaller key and signature sizes.
2006
ASIACRYPT
2006
CRYPTO
2006
EUROCRYPT
2006
EPRINT
On Probabilistic versus Deterministic Provers in the Definition of Proofs Of Knowledge
Mihir Bellare Oded Goldreich
This note points out a gap between two natural formulations of the concept of a proof of knowledge, and shows that in all natural cases (e.g., NP-statements) this gap can be closed. The aforementioned formulations differ by whether they refer to (all possible) probabilistic or deterministic prover strategies. Unlike in the rest of cryptography, in the current context, the obvious transformation of probabilistic strategies to deterministic strategies does not seem to suffice per se.
2006
EPRINT
New Proofs for NMAC and HMAC: Security Without Collision-Resistance
Mihir Bellare
HMAC was proved by Bellare, Canetti and Krawczyk [2] to be a PRF assuming that (1) the underlying compression function is a PRF, and (2) the iterated hash function is weakly collision-resistant. However, recent attacks show that assumption (2) is false for MD5 and SHA-1, removing the proof-based support for HMAC in these cases. This paper proves that HMAC is a PRF under the sole assumption that the compression function is a PRF. This recovers a proof based guarantee since no known attacks compromise the pseudorandomness of the compression function, and it also helps explain the resistance-to-attack that HMAC has shown even when implemented with hash functions whose (weak) collision resistance is compromised. We also show that an even weaker-than-PRF condition on the compression function, namely that it is a privacy-preserving MAC, suffices to establish HMAC is a MAC as long as the hash function meets the very weak requirement of being computationally almost universal, where again the value lies in the fact that known attacks do not invalidate the assumptions made.
2006
EPRINT
Deterministic and Efficiently Searchable Encryption
We present as-strong-as-possible definitions of privacy, and constructions achieving them, for public-key encryption schemes where the encryption algorithm is \textit{deterministic}. We obtain as a consequence database encryption methods that permit fast (i.e.~sub-linear, and in fact logarithmic, time) search while provably providing privacy that is as strong as possible subject to this fast search constraint. One of our constructs, called RSA-DOAEP, has the added feature of being length preserving, so that it is the first example of a public-key cipher. We generalize this to obtain a notion of efficiently-searchable encryption schemes which permit more flexible privacy to search-time trade-offs via a technique called bucketization. Our results answer much-asked questions in the database community and provide foundations for work done there.
2006
EPRINT
Non-Malleable Encryption: Equivalence between Two Notions, and an Indistinguishability-based Characterization
Mihir Bellare Amit Sahai
We prove the equivalence of two definitions of non-malleable encryption, one based on the simulation approach of Dolev, Dwork and Naor and the other based on the comparison approach of Bellare, Desai, Pointcheval and Rogaway. Our definitions are slightly stronger than the original ones. The equivalence relies on a new characterization of non-malleable encryption in terms of the standard notion of indistinguishability of Goldwasser and Micali. We show that non-malleability is equivalent to indistinguishability under a ``parallel chosen ciphertext attack,'' this being a new kind of chosen ciphertext attack we introduce, in which the adversary's decryption queries are not allowed to depend on answers to previous queries, but must be made all at once. This characterization simplifies both the notion of non-malleable encryption and its usage, and enables one to see more easily how it compares with other notions of encryption. The results here apply to non-malleable encryption under any form of attack, whether chosen-plaintext, chosen-ciphertext, or adaptive chosen-ciphertext.
2006
EPRINT
Stateful Public-Key Cryptosystems: How to Encrypt with One 160-bit Exponentiation
We show how to significantly speed-up the encryption portion of some public-key cryptosystems by the simple expedient of allowing a sender to maintain state that is re-used across different encryptions. In particular we present stateful versions of the DHIES and Kurosawa-Desmedt schemes that each use only one exponentiation to encrypt, as opposed to two and three respectively in the original schemes, yielding the fastest discrete-log based public-key encryption schemes known in the random-oracle and standard models respectively. The schemes are proven to meet an appropriate extension of the standard definition of IND-CCA security that takes into account novel types of attacks possible in the stateful setting.
2006
EPRINT
Unrestricted Aggregate Signatures
Secure use of the BGLS aggregate signature schemes is restricted to the aggregation of distinct messages (for the basic scheme) or per-signer distinct messages (for the enhanced, prepend-public-key version of the scheme). We argue that these restrictions preclude interesting applications, make usage of the schemes error-prone and are generally undesirable in practice. Via a new analysis and proof, we show how the restrictions can be lifted, yielding the first truly unrestricted aggregate signature scheme. Via another new analysis and proof, we show that the distinct signer restriction on the sequential aggregate signature schemes of Lysyanskaya et al. can also be dropped, yielding an unrestricted sequential aggregate signature scheme. Finally, we present variants of these schemes with tight security reductions.
2006
EPRINT
Multi-Property-Preserving Hash Domain Extension and the EMD Transform
Mihir Bellare Thomas Ristenpart
We point out that the seemingly strong pseudorandom oracle preserving (PRO-Pr) property of hash function domain-extension transforms defined and implemented by Coron et. al. [12] can actually weaken our guarantees on the hash function, in particular producing a hash function that fails to be even collision-resistant (CR) even though the compression function to which the transform is applied is CR. Not only is this true in general, but we show that all the transforms presented in [12] have this weakness. We suggest that the appropriate goal of a domain extension transform for the next generation of hash functions is to be multi-property preserving, namely that one should have a single transform that is simultaneously at least collision-resistance preserving, pseudorandom function preserving and PRO-Pr. We present an efficient new transform that is proven to be multi-property preserving in this sense.
2006
EPRINT
Robust Computational Secret Sharing and a Unified Account of Classical Secret-Sharing Goals
Mihir Bellare Phillip Rogaway
We give a unified account of classical secret-sharing goals from a modern cryptographic vantage. Our treatment encompasses perfect, statistical, and computational secret sharing; static and dynamic adversaries; schemes with or without robustness; schemes where a participant recovers the secret and those where an external party does so. We then show that Krawczyk's 1993 protocol for robust computational secret sharing (RCSS) need not be secure, even in the random-oracle model and for threshold schemes, if the encryption primitive it uses satisfies only one-query indistinguishability (ind1), the only notion Krawczyk defines. Nonetheless, we show that the protocol is secure (in the random-oracle model, for threshold schemes) if the encryption scheme also satisfies one-query key-unrecoverability (key1). Since practical encryption schemes are ind1+key1 secure, our result effectively shows that Krawczyk's RCSS protocol is sound (in the random-oracle model, for threshold schemes). Finally, we prove the security for a variant of Krawczyk's protocol, in the standard model and for arbitrary access structures, assuming ind1 encryption and a statistically-hiding, weakly-binding commitment scheme.
2005
CRYPTO
2005
CRYPTO
2005
EPRINT
Searchable Encryption Revisited: Consistency Properties, Relation to Anonymous IBE, and Extensions
We identify and fill some gaps with regard to consistency (the extent to which false positives are produced) for public-key encryption with keyword search (PEKS). We define computational and statistical relaxations of the existing notion of perfect consistency, show that the scheme of Boneh et al. in Eurocrypt 2004 is computationally consistent, and provide a new scheme that is statistically consistent. We also provide a transform of an anonymous IBE scheme to a secure PEKS scheme that, unlike the previous one, guarantees consistency. Finally, we suggest three extensions of the basic notions considered here, namely anonymous HIBE, public-key encryption with temporary keyword search, and identity-based encryption with keyword search.
2004
ASIACRYPT
2004
CRYPTO
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
EUROCRYPT
2004
FSE
2004
EPRINT
The Knowledge-of-Exponent Assumptions and 3-Round Zero-Knowledge Protocols
Mihir Bellare Adriana Palacio
Hada and Tanaka showed the existence of 3-round, negligible-error zero-knowledge arguments for NP based on a pair of non-standard assumptions, here called KEA1 and KEA2. In this paper we show that KEA2 is false. This renders vacuous the results of Hada and Tanaka. We recover these results, however, under a suitably modified new assumption called KEA3. What we believe is most interesting is that we show that it is possible to ``falsify'' assumptions like KEA2 that, due to their nature and quantifier-structure, do not lend themselves easily to ``efficient falsification'' (Naor).
2004
EPRINT
Towards Plaintext-Aware Public-Key Encryption without Random Oracles
Mihir Bellare Adriana Palacio
We consider the problem of defining and achieving plaintext-aware encryption without random oracles in the classical public-key model. We provide definitions for a hierarchy of notions of increasing strength: PA0, PA1 and PA2, chosen so that PA1+IND-CPA => IND-CCA1 and PA2+IND-CPA => IND-CCA2. Towards achieving the new notions of plaintext awareness, we show that a scheme due to Damgard, denoted DEG, and the ``lite'' version of the Cramer-Shoup scheme, denoted CSL, are both PA0 under the KEA0 assumption of Damgard, and PA1 under an extension of this assumption called KEA1. As a result, DEG is the most efficient proven IND-CCA1 scheme known.
2004
EPRINT
Foundations of Group Signatures: The Case of Dynamic Groups
Mihir Bellare Haixia Shi Chong Zhang
A first step toward establishing foundations for group signatures was taken by Bellare, Micciancio and Warinschi (Eurocrypt 2003) with a treatment of the case where the group is static. However the bulk of existing practical schemes and applications are for dynamic groups, and these involve important new elements and security issues. This paper treats this case, providing foundations for dynamic group signatures, in the form of a model, strong formal definitions of security, and a construction proven secure under general assumptions. We believe this is an important and useful step because it helps bridge the gap between Bellare Micciancio and Warinschi and the previous practical work, and delivers a basis on which existing practical schemes may in future be evaluated or proven secure.
2004
EPRINT
The Power of Verification Queries in Message Authentication and Authenticated Encryption
This paper points out that, contrary to popular belief, allowing a message authentication adversary multiple verification attempts towards forgery is NOT equivalent to allowing it a single one, so that the notion of security that most message authentication schemes are proven to meet does not guarantee their security in practice. We then show, however, that the equivalence does hold for STRONG unforgeability. Based on this we recover security of popular classes of message authentication schemes such as MACs (including HMAC and PRF-based MACs) and CW-schemes. Furthermore, in many cases we do so with a TIGHT security reduction, so that in the end the news we bring is surprisingly positive given the initial negative result. Finally, we show analogous results for authenticated encryption.
2004
EPRINT
Code-Based Game-Playing Proofs and the Security of Triple Encryption
Mihir Bellare Phillip Rogaway
The game-playing technique is a powerful tool for analyzing cryptographic constructions. We illustrate this by using games as the central tool for proving security of three-key triple-encryption, a long-standing open problem. Our result, which is in the ideal-cipher model, demonstrates that for DES parameters (56-bit keys and 64-bit plaintexts) an adversary's maximal advantage is small until it asks about $2^{78}$ queries. Beyond this application, we develop the foundations for game playing, formalizing a general framework for game-playing proofs and discussing techniques used within such proofs. To further exercise the game-playing framework we show how to use games to get simple proofs for the PRP/PRF Switching Lemma, the security of the basic CBC MAC, and the chosen-plaintext-attack security of OAEP.
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
EUROCRYPT
2003
PKC
2003
JOFC
2003
EPRINT
Hash Function Balance and its Impact on Birthday Attacks
Mihir Bellare Tadayoshi Kohno
Textbooks tell us that a birthday attack on a hash function $h$ with range size $r$ requires $r^{1/2}$ trials (hash computations) to find a collision. But this is misleading, being true only if $h$ is regular, meaning all points in the range have the same number of pre-images under $h$; if $h$ is not regular, \textit{fewer} trials may be required. But how much fewer? This paper addresses this question by introducing a measure of the ``amount of regularity'' of a hash function that we call its balance, and then providing estimates of the success-rate of the birthday attack as a function of the balance of the hash function being attacked. In particular, we will see that the number of trials to find a collision can be significantly less than $r^{1/2}$ for hash functions of low balance. This leads us to examine popular design principles, such as the MD (Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd) transform, from the point of view of balance preservation, and to mount experiments to determine the balance of popular hash functions.
2003
EPRINT
EAX: A Conventional Authenticated-Encryption Mode
Mihir Bellare P. Rogaway D. Wagner
We propose a block-cipher mode of operation, called EAX, for authenticated-encryption with associated-data (AEAD). Given a nonce N, a message M, and a header H, the mode protects the privacy of M and the authenticity of both M and H. Strings N,M,H$ are arbitrary, and the mode uses $2\lceil |M|/n \rceil + \lceil |H|/n\rceil + \lceil |N|/n\rceil$ block-cipher calls when these strings are nonempty and n is the block length of the underlying block cipher. Among EAX's characteristics are that it is on-line (the length of a message isn't needed to begin processing it) and a fixed header can be pre-processed, effectively removing the per-message cost of binding it to the ciphertext. EAX is obtained by instantiating a simple generic-composition method, and then collapsing its two keys into one. EAX is provably secure under a standard complexity-theoretic assumption. EAX was designed in response to the expressed need of several standardization bodies, including NIST, IETF and IEEE 802.11, for a patent-free AEAD scheme. Such a scheme would have to be conventional, meaning it would make two passes, one aimed at achieving privacy and one aimed at achieving authenticity. EAX aims to fill this need by doing as well as possible within the space of conventional schemes with regard to issues of efficiency, simplicity, elegance, ease of correct use, and provable-security guarantees. EAX is an alternative to CCM.
2003
EPRINT
An Uninstantiable Random-Oracle-Model Scheme for a Hybrid Encryption Problem
We present a simple, natural random-oracle (RO) model scheme, for a practical goal, that is uninstantiable, meaning is proven in the RO model to meet its goal yet admits NO standard-model instantiation that meets this goal. The goal in question is IND-CCA-preserving asymmetric encryption which formally captures security of the most common practical usage of asymmetric encryption, namely to transport a symmetric key in such a way that symmetric encryption under the latter remains secure. The scheme is an ElGamal variant, called Hash ElGamal, that resembles numerous existing RO-model schemes, and on the surface shows no evidence of its anomalous properties. More generally, we show that a certain goal, that we call key-verifiable, ciphertext-verifiable IND-CCA-preserving asymmetric encryption, is achievable in the RO model (by Hash ElGamal in particular) but unachievable in the standard model. This helps us better understand the source of the anomalies in Hash ElGamal and also lifts our uninstantiability result from being about a specific scheme to being about a primitive or goal. These results extend our understanding of the gap between the standard and RO models, and bring concerns raised by previous work closer to practice by indicating that the problem of RO-model schemes admitting no secure instantiation can arise in domains where RO schemes are commonly designed.
2002
ASIACRYPT
2002
CRYPTO
2002
EUROCRYPT
2002
JOFC
2002
EPRINT
From Identification to Signatures via the Fiat-Shamir Transform: Minimizing Assumptions for Security and Forward-Security
The Fiat-Shamir paradigm for transforming identification schemes into signature schemes has been popular since its introduction because it yields efficient signature schemes, and has been receiving renewed interest of late as the main tool in deriving forward-secure signature schemes. We find minimal (meaning necessary and sufficient) conditions on the identification scheme to ensure security of the signature scheme in the random oracle model, in both the usual and the forward-secure cases. Specifically we show that the signature scheme is secure (resp. forward-secure) against chosen-message attacks in the random oracle model if and only if the underlying identification scheme is secure (resp. forward-secure) against impersonation under passive (i.e.. eavesdropping only) attacks, and has its commitments drawn at random from a large space. An extension is proven incorporating a random seed into the Fiat-Shamir transform so that the commitment space assumption may be removed.
2002
EPRINT
Protecting against Key Exposure: Strongly Key-Insulated Encryption with Optimal Threshold
Mihir Bellare Adriana Palacio
A new framework for protection against key exposure was recently suggested by Dodis et. al.. We take its realization further towards practice by presenting simple new schemes that provide benefits over previous ones in terms of scalability, performance and security. Our first contribution is a simple, practical, scalable scheme called SKIE-OT that achieves the best possible security in their framework. SKIE-OT is based on the Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme and exploits algebraic properties of the latter. We also show that the role of identity-based encryption is not coincidental by proving that IBE is equivalent to (not strongly) key-insulated encryption with optimal threshold and allowing random-access key updates.
2001
ASIACRYPT
2001
CRYPTO
2001
EUROCRYPT
2001
EUROCRYPT
2001
EPRINT
OCB Mode
This paper was prepared for NIST, which is considering new block-cipher modes of operation. It describes a parallelizable mode of operation that simultaneously provides both privacy and authenticity. "OCB mode" encrypts-and-authenticates an arbitrary message $M\in\bits^*$ using only $\lceil |M|/n\rceil + 2$ block-cipher invocations, where $n$ is the block length of the underlying block cipher. Additional overhead is small. OCB refines a scheme, IAPM, suggested by Jutla [IACR-2000/39], who was the first to devise an authenticated-encryption mode with minimal overhead compared to standard modes. Desirable new properties of OCB include: very cheap offset calculations; operating on an arbitrary message $M\in\bits^*$; producing ciphertexts of minimal length; using a single underlying cryptographic key; making a nearly optimal number of block-cipher calls; avoiding the need for a random IV; and rendering it infeasible for an adversary to find "pretag collisions". The paper provides a full proof of security for OCB.
2001
EPRINT
Forward-Security in Private-Key Cryptography
Mihir Bellare Bennet Yee
This paper provides a comprehensive treatment of forward-security in the context of shared-key based cryptographic primitives, as a practical means to mitigate the damage caused by key-exposure. We provide definitions of security, practical proven-secure constructions, and applications for the main primitives in this area. We identify forward-secure pseudorandom bit generators as the central primitive, providing several constructions and then showing how forward-secure message authentication schemes and symmetric encryption schemes can be built based on standard schemes for these problems coupled with forward-secure pseudorandom bit generators. We then apply forward-secure message authentication schemes to the problem of maintaining secure access logs in the presence of break-ins.
2001
EPRINT
The Security of Practical Two-Party RSA Signature Schemes
Mihir Bellare Ravi Sandhu
In a two-party RSA signature scheme, a client and server, each holding a share of an RSA decryption exponent $d$, collaborate to compute an RSA signature under the corresponding public key $N,e$ known to both. This primitive is of growing interest in the domain of server-aided password-based security, where the client's share of $d$ is based on its password. To minimize cost, designers are looking at very simple, practical protocols based on the early ideas of Boyd, but their security is unclear. We analyze a class of these protocols. We suggest two notions of security for two-party signature schemes and provide proofs of security for the schemes in our class based on assumptions about RSA and the hash function underlying the scheme.
2001
PKC
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
ASIACRYPT
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
EPRINT
Identification Protocols Secure Against Reset Attacks
We provide identification protocols that are secure even when the adversary can reset the internal state and/or randomization source of the user identifying itself, and when executed in an asynchronous environment like the Internet that gives the adversary concurrent access to instances of the user. These protocols are suitable for use by devices (like smartcards) which when under adversary control may not be able to reliably maintain their internal state between invocations.
2000
EPRINT
The Security of Chaffing and Winnowing
Mihir Bellare Alexandra Boldyreva
This paper takes a closer look at Rivest's chaffing-and-winnowing paradigm for data privacy. We begin with a \textit{definition} which enables one to determine clearly whether a given scheme qualifies as ``chaffing-and-winnowing.'' We then analyze Rivest's schemes to see what quality of data privacy they provide. His simplest scheme is easily proven secure but is ineffient. The security of his more efficient scheme ---based on all-or-nothing transforms (AONTs)--- is however more problematic. It can be attacked under Rivest's definition of security of an AONT, and even under stronger notions does not appear provable. We show however that by using a OAEP as the AONT one can prove security. We also present a different scheme, still using AONTs, that is equally efficient and easily proven secure even under the original weak notion of security of AONTs.
2000
EPRINT
Authenticated Key Exchange Secure Against Dictionary Attacks
This paper gives definitions and results about password-based protocols for authenticated key exchange (AKE), mutual authentication MA), and the combination of these goals (AKE, MA). Such protocols are designed to work despite interference by an active adversary and despite the use of passwords drawn from a space so small that an adversary might well enumerate, off line, a user's password. While several such password-based protocols have been suggested, the underlying theory has been lagging, and some of the protocols don't actually work. This is an area strongly in need of foundations, but definitions and theorems here can get overwhelmingly complex. To help manage this complexity we begin by defining a model, one rich enough to deal with password guessing, forward secrecy, server compromise, and loss of session keys. The one model can be used to define various goals. We take AKE (with implicit authentication---no one besides your intended partner could possibly get the key, though he may or may not actually get it) as the basic goal. Then we prove that any secure AKE protocol can be embellished (in a simple and generic way) to also provide for MA. This approach turns out to be simpler than trying to augment an MA protocol to also distribute a session key. Next we prove correctness for the idea at the center of the Encrypted Key-Exchange (EKE) protocol of Bellovin and Merritt: we prove (in an ideal-cipher model) that the two-flow protocol at the core of EKE is a secure AKE. Combining with the result above we have a simple 3-flow protocol for AKE,MA which is proven secure against dictionary attack.
2000
EPRINT
Authenticated Encryption: Relations among notions and analysis of the generic composition paradigm
Mihir Bellare Chanathip Namprempre
An authenticated encryption scheme is a symmetric encryption scheme whose goal is to provide both privacy and integrity. We consider two possible notions of authenticity for such schemes, namely integrity of plaintexts and integrity of ciphertexts, and relate them (when coupled with IND-CPA) to the standard notions of privacy (IND-CCA, NM-CPA) by presenting implications and separations between all notions considered. We then analyze the security of authenticated encryption schemes designed by ``generic composition,'' meaning making black-box use of a given symmetric encryption scheme and a given MAC. Three composition methods are considered, namely Encrypt-and-MAC, MAC-then-encrypt, and Encrypt-then-MAC. For each of these, and for each notion of security, we indicate whether or not the resulting scheme meets the notion in question assuming the given symmetric encryption scheme is secure against chosen-plaintext attack and the given MAC is unforgeable under chosen-message attack. We provide proofs for the cases where the answer is ``yes'' and counter-examples for the cases where the answer is ``no.''
1999
CRYPTO
1999
CRYPTO
1999
CRYPTO
1999
CRYPTO
1999
FSE
1999
EPRINT
A forward-secure digital signature scheme
Mihir Bellare Sara Miner
We describe a digital signature scheme in which the public key is fixed but the secret signing key is updated at regular intervals so as to provide a <i>forward security</i> property: compromise of the current secret key does not enable an adversary to forge signatures pertaining to the past. This can be useful to mitigate the damage caused by key exposure without requiring distribution of keys. Our construction uses ideas from the Fiat-Shamir and Ong-Schnorr identification and signature schemes, and is proven to be forward secure based on the hardness of factoring, in the random oracle model. The construction is also quite efficient.
1999
EPRINT
DHAES: An Encryption Scheme Based on the Diffie-Hellman Problem
scheme, DHAES. The scheme is as efficient as ElGamal encryption, but has stronger security properties. Furthermore, these security properties are proven to hold under appropriate assumptions on the underlying primitive. We show that DHAES has not only the ``basic'' property of secure encryption (namely privacy under a chosen-plaintext attack) but also achieves privacy under both non-adaptive and adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks. (And hence it also achieves non-malleability.) DHAES is built in a generic way from lower-level primitives: a symmetric encryption scheme, a message authentication code, group operations in an arbitrary group, and a cryptographic hash function. In particular, the underlying group may be an elliptic-curve group or the multiplicative group of integers modulo a prime number. The proofs of security are based on appropriate assumptions about the hardness of the Diffie-Hellman problem and the assumption that the underlying symmetric primitives are secure. The assumptions are all standard in the sense that no random oracles are involved. We suggest that DHAES provides an attractive starting point for developing public-key encryption standards based on the Diffie-Hellman assumption.
1999
EPRINT
Non-Malleable Encryption: Equivalence between Two Notions, and an Indistinguishability-Based Characterization
Mihir Bellare Amit Sahai
We prove the equivalence of two definitions of non-malleable encryption appearing in the literature--- the original one of Dolev, Dwork and Naor and the later one of Bellare, Desai, Pointcheval and Rogaway. The equivalence relies on a new characterization of non-malleable encryption in terms of the standard notion of indistinguishability of Goldwasser and Micali. We show that non-malleability is equivalent to indistinguishability under a ``parallel chosen ciphertext attack,'' this being a new kind of chosen ciphertext attack we introduce, in which the adversary's decryption queries are not allowed to depend on answers to previous queries, but must be made all at once. This characterization simplifies both the notion of non-malleable encryption and its usage, and enables one to see more easily how it compares with other notions of encryption. The results here apply to non-malleable encryption under any form of attack, whether chosen-plaintext, chosen-ciphertext, or adaptive chosen-ciphertext.
1999
EPRINT
A tool for obtaining tighter security analyses of pseudorandom function based constructions, with applications to PRP to PRF conversion
Mihir Bellare R. Impagliazzo
We present a general probabilistic lemma that can be applied to upper bound the advantage of an adversary in distinguishing between two families of functions. Our lemma reduces the task of upper bounding the advantage to that of upper bounding the ratio of two probabilities associated to the adversary, when this ratio is is viewed as a random variable. It enables us to obtain significantly tighter analyses than more conventional methods. In this paper we apply the technique to the problem of PRP to PRF conversion. We present a simple, new construction of a PRF from a PRP that makes only two invocations of the PRP and has insecurity linear in the number of queries made by the adversary. We also improve the analysis of the truncation construction.
1999
JOFC
1998
CRYPTO
1998
CRYPTO
1998
CRYPTO
1998
EUROCRYPT
1998
EUROCRYPT
1998
EPRINT
Fast Batch Verification for Modular Exponentiation and Digital Signatures
Mihir Bellare Juan A. Garay Tal Rabin
Many tasks in cryptography (e.g., digital signature verification) call for verification of a basic operation like modular exponentiation in some group: given (g,x,y) check that g<sup>x</sup>=y. This is typically done by re-computing g<sup>x</sup> and checking we get y. We would like to do it differently, and faster. The approach we use is batching. Focusing first on the basic modular exponentiation operation, we provide some probabilistic batch verifiers, or tests, that verify a sequence of modular exponentiations significantly faster than the naive re-computation method. This yields speedups for several verification tasks that involve modular exponentiations. Focusing specifically on digital signatures, we then suggest a weaker notion of (batch) verification which we call ``screening.'' It seems useful for many usages of signatures, and has the advantage that it can be done very fast; in particular, we show how to screen a sequence of RSA signatures at the cost of one RSA verification plus hashing.
1998
EPRINT
A Modular Approach to the Design and Analysis of Authentication and Key Exchange Protocols
Mihir Bellare Ran Canetti Hugo Krawczyk
We present a general framework for constructing and analyzing authentication protocols in realistic models of communication networks. This framework provides a sound formalization for the authentication problem and suggests simple and attractive design principles for general authentication and key exchange protocols. The key element in our approach is a modular treatment of the authentication problem in cryptographic protocols; this applies to the definition of security, to the design of the protocols, and to their analysis. In particular, following this modular approach, we show how to systematically transform solutions that work in a model of idealized authenticated communications into solutions that are secure in the realistic setting of communication channels controlled by an active adversary. Using these principles we construct and prove the security of simple and practical authentication and key-exchange protocols. In particular, we provide a security analysis of some well-known key exchange protocols (e.g. authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange), and of some of the techniques underlying the design of several authentication protocols that are currently being deployed on a large scale for the Internet Protocol and other applications.
1998
EPRINT
Many-to-one Trapdoor Functions and their Relation to Public-key Cryptosystems
The heart of the task of building public key cryptosystems is viewed as that of ``making trapdoors;'' in fact, public key cryptosystems and trapdoor functions are often discussed as synonymous. How accurate is this view? In this paper we endeavor to get a better understanding of the nature of ``trapdoorness'' and its relation to public key cryptosystems, by broadening the scope of the investigation: we look at general trapdoor functions; that is, functions that are not necessarily injective (ie., one-to-one). Our first result is somewhat surprising: we show that non-injective trapdoor functions (with super-polynomial pre-image size) can be constructed {from} any one-way function (and hence it is unlikely that they suffice for public key encryption). On the other hand, we show that trapdoor functions with polynomial pre-image size are sufficient for public key encryption. Together, these two results indicate that the pre-image size is a fundamental parameter of trapdoor functions. We then turn our attention to the converse, asking what kinds of trapdoor functions can be constructed from public key cryptosystems. We take a first step by showing that in the random-oracle model one can construct injective trapdoor functions from any public key cryptosystem.
1998
EPRINT
Relations among Notions of Security for Public-Key Encryption Schemes
We compare the relative strengths of popular notions of security for public key encryption schemes. We consider the goals of indistinguishability and non-malleability, each under chosen plaintext attack and two kinds of chosen ciphertext attack. For each of the resulting pairs of definitions we prove either an implication (every scheme meeting one notion must meet the other) or a separation (there is a scheme meeting one notion but not the other, assuming the first notion can be met at all). We similarly treat plaintext awareness, a notion of security in the random oracle model. An additional contribution of this paper is a new definition of non-malleability which we believe is simpler than the previous one.
1998
EPRINT
Security amplification by composition: The case of doubly-iterated, ideal ciphers
We investigate, in the Shannon model, the security of constructions corresponding to double and (two-key) triple DES. That is, we consider F<sub>k1</sub>(F<sub>k2</sub>(.)) and F<sub>k1</sub>(F<sub>k2</sub><sup>-1</sup>(F<sub>k1</sub>(.))) with the component functions being ideal ciphers. This models the resistance of these constructions to ``generic'' attacks like meet in the middle attacks. We obtain the first proof that composition actually increases the security in some meaningful sense. We compute a bound on the probability of breaking the double cipher as a function of the number of computations of the base cipher made, and the number of examples of the composed cipher seen, and show that the success probability is the square of that for a single key cipher. The same bound holds for the two-key triple cipher. The first bound is tight and shows that meet in the middle is the best possible generic attack against the double cipher.
1997
CRYPTO
1997
CRYPTO
1997
EUROCRYPT
1997
EUROCRYPT
1997
EPRINT
A New Paradigm for Collision-free Hashing: Incrementality at Reduced Cost
Mihir Bellare Daniele Micciancio
We present a simple, new paradigm for the design of collision-free hash functions. Any function emanating from this paradigm is <i>incremental.</i> (This means that if a message x which I have previously hashed is modified to x' then rather than having to re-compute the hash of x' from scratch, I can quickly ``update'' the old hash value to the new one, in time proportional to the amount of modification made in x to get x'.) Also any function emanating from this paradigm is parallelizable, useful for hardware implementation.
1997
EPRINT
Round-Optimal Zero-Knowledge Arguments Based on any One-Way Function
Mihir Bellare Markus Jakobsson Moti Yung
We fill a gap in the theory of zero-knowledge protocols by presenting NP-arguments that achieve negligible error probability and computational zero-knowledge in four rounds of interaction, assuming only the existence of a one-way function. This result is optimal in the sense that four rounds and a one-way function are each individually necessary to achieve a negligible error zero-knowledge argument for NP.
1997
EPRINT
A note on negligible functions
Mihir Bellare
In theoretical cryptography, one formalizes the notion of an adversary's success probability being ``too small to matter'' by asking that it be a negligible function of the security parameter. We argue that the issue that really arises is what it might mean for a collection of functions to be ``negligible.'' We consider (and define) two such notions, and prove them equivalent. Roughly, this enables us to say that any cryptographic primitive has a specific associated ``security level.'' In particular we say this for any one-way function. We also reconcile different definitions of negligible error arguments and computational proofs of knowledge that have appeared in the literature. Although the motivation is cryptographic, the main result is purely about negligible functions.
1996
CRYPTO
1996
EUROCRYPT
1996
EPRINT
Verifiable Partial Key Escrow
Mihir Bellare Shafi Goldwasser
One of the main objections to existing proposals for key escrow is that the individual's privacy relies on too high a level of trust in the law enforcement agencies. In particular, even if the government is trustworthy today, it may be replaced by an un-trustworthy government tomorrow which could immediately and suddenly recover the secret keys of all users.
1996
JOFC
1995
CRYPTO
1994
CRYPTO
1994
CRYPTO
1994
EUROCRYPT
1993
CRYPTO
1992
CRYPTO
1992
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1988
CRYPTO

Program Committees

PKC 2018
Crypto 2017
Crypto 2013
Crypto 2011
TCC 2007
Asiacrypt 2006
Crypto 2003
Crypto 2000
Eurocrypt 1999
Crypto 1996
Eurocrypt 1995
Crypto 1993

Coauthors

Michel Abdalla (9)
Tolga Acar (2)
William Aiello (2)
Jee Hea An (4)
Benedikt Auerbach (1)
Mira Belenkiy (2)
Daniel J. Bernstein (1)
John Black (1)
Alexandra Boldyreva (12)
Zvika Brakerski (1)
Ran Canetti (2)
David Cash (5)
Dario Catalano (3)
Lenore Cowen (1)
Giovanni Di Crescenzo (2)
Wei Dai (1)
Hannah Davis (1)
Anand Desai (3)
Rafael Dowsley (3)
Shanshan Duan (1)
Marc Fischlin (4)
Georg Fuchsbauer (2)
Juan A. Garay (2)
Oded Goldreich (5)
Shafi Goldwasser (7)
Roch Guérin (1)
Felix Günther (1)
Shai Halevi (2)
Viet Tung Hoang (6)
Dennis Hofheinz (2)
Russell Impagliazzo (1)
Joseph Jaeger (2)
Markus Jakobsson (2)
Daniel Kane (2)
Sriram Keelveedhi (9)
Joe Kilian (1)
Eike Kiltz (6)
Lars R. Knudsen (3)
Tadayoshi Kohno (7)
Hugo Krawczyk (3)
Ted Krovetz (2)
Tanja Lange (3)
Lucy Li (1)
John Malone-Lee (3)
Sarah Meiklejohn (1)
Silvio Micali (5)
Daniele Micciancio (4)
Rachel Miller (1)
Sara K. Miner (2)
Anton Mityagin (1)
Chanathip Namprempre (12)
Moni Naor (1)
Gregory Neven (9)
Ruth Ng (1)
Maya Nyayapati (1)
Adam O'Neill (4)
Pascal Paillier (3)
Adriana Palacio (9)
Kenneth G. Paterson (3)
Chris Peikert (1)
Krzysztof Pietrzak (1)
Bertram Poettering (2)
David Pointcheval (6)
Tal Rabin (2)
Thomas Ristenpart (10)
Todor Ristov (3)
Ronald L. Rivest (1)
Phillip Rogaway (25)
Amit Sahai (5)
Ravi Sandhu (1)
Alessandra Scafuro (1)
Gil Segev (1)
Michael Semanko (1)
Hovav Shacham (1)
Haixia Shi (4)
Sarah Shoup (2)
Victor Shoup (1)
Asha Camper Singh (1)
Jessica Staddon (1)
Douglas Stebila (2)
Igors Stepanovs (8)
Björn Tackmann (3)
Stefano Tessaro (6)
Susan Thomson (2)
Salil P. Vadhan (2)
Alexander Vardy (1)
Ramarathnam Venkatesan (2)
David Wagner (2)
Bogdan Warinschi (1)
Brent Waters (5)
Bennet Yee (1)
Scott Yilek (6)
Moti Yung (4)
Chong Zhang (1)