International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Xiaoyang Dong

Affiliation: Shandong University

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
EUROCRYPT
Automatic Search of Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks on AES-like Hashing
The Meet-in-the-Middle (MITM) preimage attack is highly effective in breaking the preimage resistance of many hash functions, including but not limited to the full MD5, HAVAL, and Tiger, and reduced SHA-0/1/2. It was also shown to be a threat to hash functions built on block ciphers like AES by Sasaki in 2011. Recently, such attacks on AES hashing modes evolved from merely using the freedom of choosing the internal state to also exploiting the freedom of choosing the message state. However, detecting such attacks especially those evolved variants is difficult. In previous works, the search space of the configurations of such attacks is limited, such that manual analysis is practical, which results in sub-optimal solutions. In this paper, we remove artificial limitations in previous works, formulate the essential ideas of the construction of the attack in well-defined ways, and translate the problem of searching for the best attacks into optimization problems under constraints in Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming (MILP) models. The MILP models capture a large solution space of valid attacks; and the objectives of the MILP models are attack configurations with the minimized computational complexity. With such MILP models and using the off-the-shelf solver, it is efficient to search for the best attacks exhaustively. As a result, we obtain the first attacks against the full (5-round) and an extended (5.5-round) version of Haraka-512 v2, and 8-round AES-128 hashing modes, as well as improved attacks covering more rounds of Haraka-256 v2 and other members of AES and Rijndael hashing modes.
2021
TOSC
Towards Key-recovery-attack Friendly Distinguishers: Application to GIFT-128
When analyzing a block cipher, the first step is to search for some valid distinguishers, for example, the differential trails in the differential cryptanalysis and the linear trails in the linear cryptanalysis. A distinguisher is advantageous if it can be utilized to attack more rounds and the amount of the involved key bits during the key-recovery process is small, as this leads to a long attack with a low complexity. In this article, we propose a two-step strategy to search for such advantageous distinguishers. This strategy is inspired by the intuition that if a differential is advantageous only when some properties are satisfied, then we can predefine some constraints describing these properties and search for the differentials in the small set.As applications, our strategy is used to analyze GIFT-128, which was proposed in CHES 2017. Based on some 20-round differentials, we give the first 27-round differential attack on GIFT-128, which covers one more round than the best previous result. Also, based on two 17-round linear trails, we give the first linear hull attack on GIFT-128, which covers 22 rounds. In addition, we also give some results on two GIFT-128 based AEADs GIFT-COFB and SUNDAE-GIFT.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Collision Attacks on AES-like Hashing with Low Quantum Random Access Memories 📺
At EUROCRYPT 2020, Hosoyamada and Sasaki proposed the first dedicated quantum attack on hash functions -- a quantum version of the rebound attack exploiting differentials whose probabilities are too low to be useful in the classical setting. This work opens up a new perspective toward the security of hash functions against quantum attacks. In particular, it tells us that the search for differentials should not stop at the classical birthday bound. Despite these interesting and promising implications, the concrete attacks described by Hosoyamada and Sasaki make use of large quantum random access memories (qRAMs), a resource whose availability in the foreseeable future is controversial even in the quantum computation community. Without large qRAMs, these attacks incur significant increases in time complexities. In this work, we reduce or even avoid the use of qRAMs by performing a quantum rebound attack based on differentials with non-full-active super S-boxes. Along the way, an MILP-based method is proposed to systematically explore the search space of useful truncated differentials with respect to rebound attacks. As a result, we obtain improved attacks on \aes-\texttt{MMO}, \aes-\texttt{MP}, and the first classical collision attacks on 4- and 5-round \grostl-\texttt{512}. Interestingly, the use of non-full-active super S-box differentials in the analysis of \aes-\texttt{MMO} gives rise to new difficulties in collecting enough starting points. To overcome this issue, we consider attacks involving two message blocks to gain more degrees of freedom, and we successfully compress the qRAM demand of the collision attacks on \texttt{AES}-\texttt{MMO} and \texttt{AES}-\texttt{MP} (EUROCRYPT 2020) from $2^{48}$ to a range from $2^{16}$ to $0$, while still maintaining a comparable time complexity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first dedicated quantum attacks on hash functions that slightly outperform Chailloux, Naya-Plasencia, and Schrottenloher's generic quantum collision attack (ASIACRYPT 2017) in a model where large qRAMs are not available. This work demonstrates again how a clever combination of classical cryptanalytic technique and quantum computation leads to improved attacks, and shows that the direction pointed out by Hosoyamada and Sasaki deserves further investigation.
2019
TOSC
New Conditional Cube Attack on Keccak Keyed Modes 📺
The conditional cube attack on round-reduced Keccak keyed modes was proposed by Huang et al. at EUROCRYPT 2017. In their attack, a conditional cube variable was introduced, whose diffusion was significantly reduced by certain key bit conditions. The attack requires a set of cube variables which are not multiplied in the first round while the conditional cube variable is not multiplied with other cube variables (called ordinary cube variables) in the first two rounds. This has an impact on the degree of the output of Keccak and hence gives a distinguisher. Later, the MILP method was applied to find ordinary cube variables. However, for some Keccak based versions with few degrees of freedom, one could not find enough ordinary cube variables, which weakens or even invalidates the conditional cube attack.In this paper, a new conditional cube attack on Keccak is proposed. We remove the limitation that no cube variables multiply with each other in the first round. As a result, some quadratic terms may appear in the first round. We make use of some new bit conditions to prevent the quadratic terms from multiplying with other cube variables in the second round, so that there will be no cubic terms in the first two rounds. Furthermore, we introduce the kernel quadratic term and construct a 6-2-2 pattern to reduce the diffusion of quadratic terms significantly, where the Θ operation even in the second round becomes an identity transformation (CP-kernel property) for the kernel quadratic term. Previous conditional cube attacks on Keccak only explored the CP-kernel property of Θ operation in the first round. Therefore, more degrees of freedom are available for ordinary cube variables and fewer bit conditions are used to remove the cubic terms in the second round, which plays a key role in the conditional cube attack on versions with very few degrees of freedom. We also use the MILP method in the search of cube variables and give key-recovery attacks on round-reduced Keccak keyed modes.As a result, we reduce the time complexity of key-recovery attacks on 7-round Keccak-MAC-512 and 7-round Ketje Sr v2 from 2111, 299 to 272, 277, respectively. Additionally, we have reduced the time complexity of attacks on 9-round KMAC256 and 7-round Ketje Sr v1. Besides, practical attacks on 6-round Ketje Sr v1 and v2 are also given in this paper for the first time.
2019
TOSC
New Related-Tweakey Boomerang and Rectangle Attacks on Deoxys-BC Including BDT Effect 📺
Boxin Zhao Xiaoyang Dong Keting Jia
In the CAESAR competition, Deoxys-I and Deoxys-II are two important authenticated encryption schemes submitted by Jean et al. Recently, Deoxys-II together with Ascon, ACORN, AEGIS-128, OCB and COLM have been selected as the final CAESAR portfolio. Notably, Deoxys-II is also the primary choice for the use case “Defense in depth”. However, Deoxys-I remains to be one of the third-round candidates of the CAESAR competition. Both Deoxys-I and Deoxys-II adopt Deoxys-BC-256 and Deoxys-BC-384 as their internal tweakable block ciphers.In this paper, we investigate the security of round-reduced Deoxys-BC-256/-384 and Deoxys-I against the related-tweakey boomerang and rectangle attacks with some new boomerang distinguishers. For Deoxys-BC-256, we present 10-round related-tweakey boomerang and rectangle attacks for the popular setting (|tweak|, |key|) = (128, 128), which reach one more round than the previous attacks in this setting. Moreover, an 11-round related-tweakey rectangle attack on Deoxys-BC-256 is given for the first time. We also put forward a 13-round related-tweakey boomerang attack in the popular setting (|tweak|, |key|) = (128, 256) for Deoxys-BC-384, while the previous attacks in this setting only work for 12 rounds at most. In addition, the first 14-round relatedtweakey rectangle attack on Deoxys-BC-384 is given when (|tweak| < 98, |key| > 286), that attacks one more round than before. Besides, we give the first 10-round rectangle attack on the authenticated encryption mode Deoxys-I-128-128 with one more round than before, and we also reduce the complexity of the related-tweakey rectangle attack on 12-round Deoxys-I-256-128 by a factor of 228. Our attacks can not be applied to (round-reduced) Deoxys-II.
2018
CRYPTO
A Key-Recovery Attack on 855-round Trivium 📺
In this paper, we propose a key-recovery attack on Trivium reduced to 855 rounds. As the output is a complex Boolean polynomial over secret key and IV bits and it is hard to find the solution of the secret keys, we propose a novel nullification technique of the Boolean polynomial to reduce the output Boolean polynomial of 855-round Trivium. Then we determine the degree upper bound of the reduced nonlinear boolean polynomial and detect the right keys. These techniques can be applicable to most stream ciphers based on nonlinear feedback shift registers (NFSR). Our attack on 855-round Trivium costs time complexity $$2^{77}$$. As far as we know, this is the best key-recovery attack on round-reduced Trivium. To verify our attack, we also give some experimental data on 721-round reduced Trivium.
2017
TOSC
Conditional Cube Attack on Round-Reduced ASCON
Zheng Li Xiaoyang Dong Xiaoyun Wang
This paper evaluates the secure level of authenticated encryption Ascon against cube-like method. Ascon submitted by Dobraunig et al. is one of 16 survivors of the 3rd round CAESAR competition. The cube-like method is first used by Dinur et al. to analyze Keccak keyed modes. At CT-RSA 2015, Dobraunig et al. applied this method to 5/6-round reduced Ascon, whose structure is similar to Keccak keyed modes. However, for Ascon the non-linear layer is more complex and state is much smaller, which make it hard for the attackers to select enough cube variables that do not multiply with each other after the first round. This seems to be the reason why the best previous key-recovery attack is on 6-round Ascon, while for Keccak keyed modes (Keccak-MAC and Keyak) the attacked round is no less than 7-round. In this paper, we generalize the conditional cube attack proposed by Huang et al., and find new cubes depending on some key bit conditions for 5/6-round reduced Ascon, and translate the previous theoretic 6-round attack with 266 time complexity to a practical one with 240 time complexity. Moreover, we propose the first 7-round key-recovery attack on Ascon. By introducing the cube-like key-subset technique, we divide the full key space into many subsets according to different key conditions. For each key subset, we launch the cube tester to determine if the key falls into it. Finally, we recover the full key space by testing all the key subsets. The total time complexity is about 2103.9. In addition, for a weak-key subset, whose size is 2117, the attack is more efficient and costs only 277 time complexity. Those attacks do not threaten the full round (12 rounds) Ascon.
2017
TOSC
Cube-like Attack on Round-Reduced Initialization of Ketje Sr
This paper studies the Keccak-based authenticated encryption (AE) scheme Ketje Sr against cube-like attacks. Ketje is one of the remaining 16 candidates of third round CAESAR competition, whose primary recommendation is Ketje Sr. Although the cube-like method has been successfully applied to Ketje’s sister ciphers, including Keccak-MAC and Keyak – another Keccak-based AE scheme, similar attacks are missing for Ketje. For Ketje Sr, the state (400-bit) is much smaller than Keccak-MAC and Keyak (1600-bit), thus the 128-bit key and cubes with the same dimension would occupy more lanes in Ketje Sr. Hence, the number of key bits independent of the cube sum is very small, which makes the divide-and-conquer method (it has been applied to 7-round attack on Keccak-MAC by Dinur et al.) can not be translated to Ketje Sr trivially. This property seems to be the barrier for the translation of the previous cube-like attacks to Ketje Sr. In this paper, we evaluate Ketje Sr against the divide-and-conquer method. Firstly, by applying the linear structure technique, we find some 32/64-dimension cubes of Ketje Sr that do not multiply with each other as well as some bits of the key in the first round. In addition, we introduce the new dynamic variable instead of the auxiliary variable (it was used in Dinur et al.’s divide-and-conquer attack to reduce the diffusion of the key) to reduce the diffusion of the key as well as the cube variables. Finally, we successfully launch a 6/7-round1 key recovery attack on Ketje Sr v1 and v2 (v2 is presented for the 3rd round CAESAR competition.). In 7-round attack, the complexity of online phase for Ketje Sr v1 is 2113, while for Ketje Sr v2, it is 297 (the preprocessing complexity is the same). We claim 7-round reduced Ketje Sr v2 is weaker than v1 against our attacks. In addition, some results on other Ketje instances and Ketje Sr with smaller nonce are given. Those are the first results on Ketje and bridge the gaps of cryptanalysis between its sister ciphers – Keyak and the Keccak keyed modes.
2017
ASIACRYPT
2016
TOSC
Chosen-Key Distinguishers on 12-Round Feistel-SP and 11-Round Collision Attacks on Its Hashing Modes
Xiaoyang Dong Xiaoyun Wang
Since Knudsen and Rijmen proposed the known-key attacks in ASIACRYPT 2007, the open-key model becomes more and more popular. As the other component of the open-key model, chosen-key model was applied to the full attacks on AES-256 by Biryukov et al. in CRYPTO 2009. In this paper, we explore how practically the chosen-key model affect the real-world cryptography and show that 11-round generic Feistel-SP block cipher is no longer safe in its hashing modes (MMO and MP mode) as there exist collision attacks. This work improves Sasaki and Yasuda’s collision attacks by 2 rounds with two interesting techniques. First, we for the first time use the available degrees of freedom in the key to reduce the complexity of the inbound phase, which extends the previous 5-round inbound differential to a 7-round one. This results in a 12-round chosen-key distinguisher of Feistel-SP block cipher. Second, inspired by the idea of Wang et al., we construct collisions using two blocks. The rebound attack is used in the second compression function. We carefully balance the freedom of the first block and the complexity of the rebound attack, and extend the chosen-key attack to a 11-round collision attack on its hashing modes (MMO and MP mode).
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2014
EPRINT