International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Oded Goldreich

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2013
JOFC
Enhancements of Trapdoor Permutations
Oded Goldreich Ron D. Rothblum
We take a closer look at several enhancements of the notion of trapdoor permutations. Specifically, we consider the notions of enhanced trapdoor permutation (Goldreich, Foundation of Cryptography: Basic Applications, 2004) and doubly enhanced trapdoor permutation (Goldreich, Computational Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective, 2011) as well as intermediate notions (Rothblum, A Taxonomy of Enhanced Trapdoor Permutations, 2010). These enhancements arose in the study of Oblivious Transfer and NIZK, but they address natural concerns that may arise also in other applications of trapdoor permutations. We clarify why these enhancements are needed in such applications, and show that they actually suffice for these needs.
2010
PKC
2010
JOFC
2007
TCC
2006
JOFC
2006
EPRINT
On Probabilistic versus Deterministic Provers in the Definition of Proofs Of Knowledge
Mihir Bellare Oded Goldreich
This note points out a gap between two natural formulations of the concept of a proof of knowledge, and shows that in all natural cases (e.g., NP-statements) this gap can be closed. The aforementioned formulations differ by whether they refer to (all possible) probabilistic or deterministic prover strategies. Unlike in the rest of cryptography, in the current context, the obvious transformation of probabilistic strategies to deterministic strategies does not seem to suffice per se.
2006
EPRINT
On Post-Modern Cryptography
Oded Goldreich
This essay relates to a recent article of Koblitz & Menezes (Cryptology ePrint Report 2004/152) that ``criticizes several typical `provable security' results'' and argues that the ``theorem-proof paradigm of theoretical mathematics is often of limited relevance'' to cryptography. Although it feels ridiculous to answer such a claim, we undertake to do so in this essay. In particular, we point out some of the fundamental philosophical flaws that underly the said article and some of its misconceptions regarding theoretical research in Cryptography in the last quarter of a century.
2006
EPRINT
On Expected Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Adversaries -- A suggestion for restricted definitions and their benefits
Oded Goldreich
This paper concerns the possibility of developing a coherent theory of security when feasibility is associated with expected probabilistic polynomial-time (expected PPT). The source of difficulty is that the known definitions of expected PPT strategies (i.e., expected PPT interactive machines) do not support natural results of the type presented below. To overcome this difficulty, we suggest new definitions of expected PPT strategies, which are more restrictive than the known definitions (but nevertheless extend the notion of expected PPT non-interactive algorithms). We advocate the conceptual adequacy of these definitions, and point out their technical advantages. Specifically, identifying a natural subclass of black-box simulators, called normal, we prove the following two results: (1) Security proofs that refer to all strict PPT adversaries (and are proven via normal black-box simulators), extend to provide security with respect to all adversaries that satisfy the restricted definitions of expected PPT. (2) Security composition theorems of the type known for strict PPT hold for these restricted definitions of expected PPT, where security means simulation by normal black-box simulators. Specifically, a normal black-box simulator is required to make an expected polynomial number of steps, when given oracle access to any strategy, where each oracle call is counted as a single step. This natural property is satisfies by most known simulators and is easy to verify.
2004
TCC
2004
JOFC
Preface
Oded Goldreich
2004
EPRINT
The Power of Verification Queries in Message Authentication and Authenticated Encryption
Mihir Bellare Oded Goldreich Anton Mityagin
This paper points out that, contrary to popular belief, allowing a message authentication adversary multiple verification attempts towards forgery is NOT equivalent to allowing it a single one, so that the notion of security that most message authentication schemes are proven to meet does not guarantee their security in practice. We then show, however, that the equivalence does hold for STRONG unforgeability. Based on this we recover security of popular classes of message authentication schemes such as MACs (including HMAC and PRF-based MACs) and CW-schemes. Furthermore, in many cases we do so with a TIGHT security reduction, so that in the end the news we bring is surprisingly positive given the initial negative result. Finally, we show analogous results for authenticated encryption.
2003
JOFC
2003
EPRINT
On the random-oracle methodology as applied to length-restricted signature schemes
Ran Canetti Oded Goldreich Shai Halevi
In earlier work, we described a ``pathological'' example of a signature scheme that is secure in the random-oracle model, but for which no secure implementation exists. For that example, however, it was crucial that the scheme is able to sign "long messages" (i.e., messages whose length is not a-priori bounded). This left open the possibility that the Random Oracle Methodology is sound with respect to signature schemes that sign only "short" messages (i.e., messages of a-priori bounded length, smaller than the length of the keys in use), and are "memoryless" (i.e., the only thing kept between different signature generations is the initial signing-key). In this work, we extend our negative result to address such signature schemes. A key ingredient in our proof is a new type of interactive proof systems, which may be of independent interest.
2002
EPRINT
The GGM Construction does NOT yield Correlation Intractable Function Ensembles
Oded Goldreich
We consider the function ensembles emerging from the construction of Goldreich, Goldwasser and Micali (GGM), when applied to an arbitrary pseudoramdon generator. We show that, in general, such functions fail to yield correlation intractable ensembles. Specifically, it may happen that, given a description of such a function, one can easily find an input that is mapped to zero under this function.
2002
EPRINT
On Chosen Ciphertext Security of Multiple Encryptions
Oded Goldreich Yoad Lustig Moni Naor
We consider the security of multiple and possibly related plaintexts in the context of a chosen ciphertext attack. That is the attacker in addition and concurrently to obtaining encryptions of multiple plaintexts under the same key, may issue encryption and decryption queries and partial information queries. Loosely speaking, an encryption scheme is considered secure under such attacks if all that the adversary can learn from such attacks about the selected plaintexts can be obtained from the corresponding partial information queries. The above definition extends the definition of semantic security under chosen ciphertext attacks (CCAs), which is also formulated in this work. The extension is in considering the security of multiple plaintexts rather than the security of a single plaintext. We prove that both these formulations are equivalent to the standard formulation of CCA, which refers to indistinguishability of encryptions. The good news is that any encryption scheme that is secure in the standard CCA sense is in fact secure in the extended model. The treatment holds both for public-key and private-key encryption schemes.
2002
EPRINT
Zero-Knowledge twenty years after its invention
Oded Goldreich
Zero-knowledge proofs are proofs that are both convincing and yet yield nothing beyond the validity of the assertion being proven. Since their introduction about twenty years ago, zero-knowledge proofs have attracted a lot of attention and have, in turn, contributed to the development of other areas of cryptography and complexity theory. We survey the main definitions and results regarding zero-knowledge proofs. Specifically, we present the basic definitional approach and its variants, results regarding the power of zero-knowledge proofs as well as recent results regarding questions such as the composeability of zero-knowledge proofs and the use of the adversary's program within the proof of security (i.e., non-black-box simulation).
2001
CRYPTO
2001
CRYPTO
2001
EPRINT
Resettably-Sound Zero-Knowledge and its Applications
Resettably-sound proofs and arguments remain sound even when the prover can reset the verifier, and so force it to use the same random coins in repeated executions of the protocol. We show that resettably-sound zero-knowledge {\em arguments} for NP exist if collision-resistant hash functions exist. In contrast, resettably-sound zero-knowledge {\em proofs} are possible only for languages in P/poly. We present two applications of resettably-sound zero-knowledge arguments. First, we construct resettable zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge for NP, using a natural relaxation of the definition of arguments (and proofs) of knowledge. We note that, under the standard definition of proofs of knowledge, it is impossible to obtain resettable zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge for languages outside BPP. Second, we construct a constant-round resettable zero-knowledge argument for NP in the public-key model, under the assumption that collision-resistant hash functions exist. This improves upon the sub-exponential hardness assumption required by previous constructions. We emphasize that our results use non-black-box zero-knowledge simulations. Indeed, we show that some of the results are {\em impossible} to achieve using black-box simulations. In particular, only languages in BPP have resettably-sound arguments that are zero-knowledge with respect to black-box simulation.
2001
EPRINT
On the (Im)possibility of Obfuscating Programs
Informally, an {\em obfuscator} $O$ is an (efficient, probabilistic) ``compiler'' that takes as input a program (or circuit) $P$ and produces a new program $O(P)$ that has the same functionality as $P$ yet is ``unintelligible'' in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic and complexity-theoretic applications, ranging from software protection to homomorphic encryption to complexity-theoretic analogues of Rice's theorem. Most of these applications are based on an interpretation of the ``unintelligibility'' condition in obfuscation as meaning that $O(P)$ is a ``virtual black box,'' in the sense that anything one can efficiently compute given $O(P)$, one could also efficiently compute given oracle access to $P$. In this work, we initiate a theoretical investigation of obfuscation. Our main result is that, even under very weak formalizations of the above intuition, obfuscation is impossible. We prove this by constructing a family of functions $F$ that are {\em \inherently unobfuscatable} in the following sense: there is a property $\pi : F \rightarrow \{0,1\}$ such that (a) given {\em any program} that computes a function $f\in F$, the value $\pi(f)$ can be efficiently computed, yet (b) given {\em oracle access} to a (randomly selected) function $f\in F$, no efficient algorithm can compute $\pi(f)$ much better than random guessing. We extend our impossibility result in a number of ways, including even obfuscators that (a) are not necessarily computable in polynomial time, (b) only {\em approximately} preserve the functionality, and (c) only need to work for very restricted models of computation ($TC_0$). We also rule out several potential applications of obfuscators, by constructing ``unobfuscatable'' signature schemes, encryption schemes, and pseudorandom function families.
2001
EPRINT
Concurrent Zero-Knowledge With Timing, Revisited
Oded Goldreich
Following Dwork, Naor, and Sahai (30th STOC, 1998), we consider concurrent execution of protocols in a semi-synchronized network. Specifically, we assume that each party holds a local clock such that a constant bound on the relative rates of these clocks is a-priori known, and consider protocols that employ time-driven operations (i.e., time-out in-coming messages and delay out-going messages). We show that the constant-round zero-knowledge proof for NP of Goldreich and Kahan (Jour. of Crypto., 1996) preserves its security when polynomially-many independent copies are executed concurrently under the above timing model. We stress that our main result establishes zero-knowledge of interactive proofs, whereas the results of Dwork et al. are either for zero-knowledge arguments or for a weak notion of zero-knowledge (called $\epsilon$-knowledge) proofs. Our analysis identifies two extreme schedulings of concurrent executions under the above timing model: the first is the case of parallel execution of polynomially-many copies, and the second is of concurrent execution of polynomially-many copies such the number of copies that are simultaneously active at any time is bounded by a constant (i.e., bounded simultaneity). Dealing with each of these extreme cases is of independent interest, and the general result (regarding concurrent executions under the timing model) is obtained by combining the two treatments.
2001
EPRINT
Universal Arguments and their Applications
Boaz Barak Oded Goldreich
We put forward a new type of computationally-sound proof systems, called universal-arguments, which are related but different from both CS-proofs (as defined by Micali) and arguments (as defined by Brassard, Chaum and Crepeau). In particular, we adopt the instance-based prover-efficiency paradigm of CS-proofs, but follow the computational-soundness condition of argument systems (i.e., we consider only cheating strategies that are implementable by polynomial-size circuits). We show that universal-arguments can be constructed based on standard intractability assumptions that refer to polynomial-size circuits (rather than assumptions referring to subexponential-size circuits as used in the construction of CS-proofs). As an application of universal-arguments, we weaken the intractability assumptions used in the recent non-black-box zero-knowledge arguments of Barak. Specifically, we only utilize intractability assumptions that refer to polynomial-size circuits (rather than assumptions referring to circuits of some ``nice'' super-polynomial size).
2000
EPRINT
On Security Preserving Reductions -- Revised Terminology
Oded Goldreich
Many of the results in Modern Cryptography are actually transformations of a basic computational phenomenon (i.e., a basic primitive, tool or assumption) to a more complex phenomenon (i.e., a higher level primitive or application). The transformation is explicit and is always accompanied by an explicit reduction of the violation of the security of the former phenomenon to the violation of the latter. A key aspect is the efficiency of the reduction. We discuss and slightly modify the hierarchy of reductions originally suggested by Levin.
2000
EPRINT
On the Security of Modular Exponentiation with Application to the Construction of Pseudorandom Generators
Oded Goldreich Vered Rosen
Assuming the inractability of factoring, we show that the output of the exponentiation modulo a composite function $f_{N,g}(x)=g^x\bmod N$ (where $N=P\cdot Q$) is pseudorandom, even when its input is restricted to be half the size. This result is equivalent to the simultaneous hardness of the upper half of the bits of $f_{N,g}$, proven by Hastad, Schrift and Shamir. Yet, we supply a different proof that is significantly simpler than the original one. In addition, we suggest a pseudorandom generator which is more efficient than all previously known factoring based pseudorandom generators.
2000
JOFC
Preface
Oded Goldreich
2000
EPRINT
Session-Key Generation using Human Passwords Only
Oded Goldreich Yehuda Lindell
We present session-key generation protocols in a model where the legitimate parties share {\em only} a human-memorizable password, and there is no additional setup assumption in the network. Our protocol is proven secure under the assumption that trapdoor permutations exist. The security guarantee holds with respect to probabilistic polynomial-time adversaries that control the communication channel (between the parties), and may omit, insert and modify messages at their choice. Loosely speaking, the effect of such an adversary that attacks an execution of our protocol is comparable to an attack in which an adversary is only allowed to make a constant number of queries of the form ``is $w$ the password of Party $A$''. We stress that the result holds also in case the passwords are selected at random from a small dictionary so that it is feasible (for the adversary) to scan the entire directory. We note that prior to our result, it was not known whether or not such protocols were attainable without the use of random oracles or additional setup assumptions.
2000
EPRINT
Candidate One-Way Functions Based on Expander Graphs
Oded Goldreich
We suggest a candidate one-way function using combinatorial constructs such as expander graphs. These graphs are used to determine a sequence of small overlapping subsets of input bits, to which a hard-wired random predicate is applied. Thus, the function is extremely easy to evaluate: all that is needed is to take multiple projections of the input bits, and to use these as entries to a look-up table. It is feasible for the adversary to scan the look-up table, but we believe it would be infeasible to find an input that fits a given sequence of values obtained for these overlapping projections. The conjectured difficulty of inverting the suggested function does not seem to follow from any well-known assumption. Instead, we propose the study of the complexity of inverting this function as an interesting open problem, with the hope that further research will provide evidence to our belief that the inversion task is intractable.
1999
CRYPTO
1999
CRYPTO
1999
EPRINT
Chinese Remaindering with Errors
Oded Goldreich Dana Ron Madhu Sudan
The Chinese Remainder Theorem states that a positive integer m is uniquely specified by its remainder modulo k relatively prime integers p_1,...,p_k, provided m < \prod_{i=1}^k p_i. Thus the residues of m modulo relatively prime integers p_1 < p_2 < ... < p_n form a redundant representation of m if m <= \prod_{i=1}^k p_i and k < n. This suggests a number-theoretic construction of an ``error-correcting code'' that has been implicitly considered often in the past. In this paper we provide a new algorithmic tool to go with this error-correcting code: namely, a polynomial-time algorithm for error-correction. Specifically, given n residues r_1,...,r_n and an agreement parameter t, we find a list of all integers m < \prod_{i=1}^k p_i such that (m mod p_i) = r_i for at least t values of i in {1,...,n}, provided t = Omega(sqrt{kn (log p_n)/(log p_1)}). We also give a simpler algorithm to decode from a smaller number of errors, i.e., when t > n - (n-k)(log p_1)/(log p_1 + \log p_n). In such a case there is a unique integer which has such agreement with the sequence of residues. One consequence of our result is that is a strengthening of the relationship between average-case complexity of computing the permanent and its worst-case complexity. Specifically we show that if a polynomial time algorithm is able to guess the permanent of a random n x n matrix on 2n-bit integers modulo a random n-bit prime with inverse polynomial success rate, then #P=BPP. Previous results of this nature typically worked over a fixed prime moduli or assumed very small (though non-negligible) error probability (as opposed to small but non-negligible success probability).
1999
EPRINT
Resettable Zero-Knowledge
We introduce the notion of Resettable Zero-Knowledge (rZK), a new security measure for cryptographic protocols which strengthens the classical notion of zero-knowledge. In essence, an rZK protocol is one that remains zero knowledge even if an adeversary can interact with the prover many times, each time resetting the prover to its initial state and forcing him to use the same random tape. Under general complexity asumptions, which hold for example if the Discrete Logarithm Problem is hard, we construct (1) rZK proof-systems for NP: (2) constant-round resettable witness-indistinguishable proof-systems for NP; and (3) constant-round rZK arguments for NP in the public key model where verifiers have fixed, public keys associated with them. In addition to shedding new light on what makes zero knowledge possible (by constructing ZK protocols that use randomness in a dramatically weaker way than before), rZK has great relevance to applications. Firstly, we show that rZK protocols are closed under parallel and concurrent execution and thus are guaranteed to be secure when implemented in fully asynchronous networks, even if an adversary schedules the arrival of every message sent. Secondly, rZK protocols enlarge the range of physical ways in which provers of a ZK protocols can be securely implemented, including devices which cannot reliably toss coins on line, nor keep state betweeen invocations. (For instance, because ordinary smart cards with secure hardware are resattable, they could not be used to implement securely the provers of classical ZK protocols, but can now be used to implement securely the provers of rZK protocols.)
1998
CRYPTO
1998
EPRINT
The Graph Clustering Problem has a Perfect Zero-Knowledge Proof
The input to the Graph Clustering Problem consists of a sequence of integers $m_1,...,m_t$ and a sequence of $\sum_{i=1}^{t}m_i$ graphs. The question is whether the equivalence classes, under the graph isomorphism relation, of the input graphs have sizes which match the input sequence of integers. In this note we show that this problem has a (perfect) zero-knowledge interactive proof system. This result improves over <a href="http:../1996/96-14.html">record 96-14</a>, where a parametrized (by the sequence of integers) version of the problem was studied.
1998
EPRINT
On the possibility of basing Cryptography on the assumption that $P \neq NP$
Oded Goldreich Shafi Goldwasser
Recent works by Ajtai and by Ajtai and Dwork bring to light the old (general) question of whether it is at all possible to base the security of cryptosystems on the assumption that $\P\neq\NP$. We discuss this question and in particular review and extend a two-decade old result of Brassard regarding this question. Our conclusion is that the question remains open.
1998
EPRINT
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Ran Canetti Oded Goldreich Shai Halevi
We take a critical look at the relationship between the security of cryptographic schemes in the Random Oracle Model, and the security of the schemes that result from implementing the random oracle by so called "cryptographic hash functions". The main result of this paper is a negative one: There exist signature and encryption schemes that are secure in the Random Oracle Model, but for which any implementation of the random oracle results in insecure schemes. In the process of devising the above schemes, we consider possible definitions for the notion of a "good implementation" of a random oracle, pointing out limitations and challenges.
1998
EPRINT
Comparing Entropies in Statistical Zero-Knowledge with Applications to the Structure of SZK
Oded Goldreich Salil P. Vadhan
We consider the following (promise) problem, denoted ED (for Entropy Difference): The input is a pairs of circuits, and YES instances (resp., NO instances) are such pairs in which the first (resp., second) circuit generates a distribution with noticeably higher entropy. On one hand we show that any language having a (honest-verifier) statistical zero-knowledge proof is Karp-reducible to ED. On the other hand, we present a public-coin (honest-verifier) statistical zero-knowledge proof for ED. Thus, we obtain an alternative proof of Okamoto's result by which HVSZK (i.e., Honest-Verifier Statistical Zero-Knowledge) equals public-coin HVSZK. The new proof is much simpler than the original one. The above also yields a trivial proof that HVSZK is closed under complementation (since ED easily reduces to its complement). Among the new results obtained is an equivalence of a weak notion of statistical zero-knowledge to the standard one.
1997
CRYPTO
1997
CRYPTO
1997
CRYPTO
1997
EPRINT
A Probabilistic Error-Correcting Scheme
S. Decatur O. Goldreich D. Ron
In the course of research in Computational Learning Theory, we found ourselves in need of an error-correcting encoding scheme for which few bits in the codeword yield no information about the plain message. Being unaware of a previous solution, we came-up with the scheme presented here. Since this scheme may be of interest to people working in Cryptography, we thought it may be worthwhile to ``publish'' this part of our work within the Cryptography community. Clearly, a scheme as described above cannot be deterministic. Thus, we introduce a probabilistic coding scheme which, in addition to the standard coding theoretic requirements, has the feature that any constant fraction of the bits in the (randomized) codeword yields no information about the message being encoded. This coding scheme is also used to obtain efficient constructions for the Wire-Tap Channel Problem.
1997
EPRINT
Self-Delegation with Controlled Propagation - or - What If You Lose Your Laptop
We introduce delegation schemes wherein a user may delegate rights to himself, i.e., to other public keys he owns, but may not safely delegate those rights to others, i.e., to their public keys. In our motivating application, a user has a primary (long-term) key that receives rights, such as access privileges, that may not be delegated to others, yet the user may reasonably wish to delegate these rights to new secondary (short-term) keys he creates to use on his laptop when traveling, to avoid having to store his primary secret key on the vulnerable laptop. We propose several cryptographic schemes, both generic and practical, that allow such self-delegation while providing strong motivation for the user not to delegate rights that he only obtained for personal use to other parties.
1996
EPRINT
Collision-Free Hashing from Lattice Problems
Oded Goldreich Shafi Goldwasser Shai Halevi
Recently Ajtai described a construction of one-way functions whose security is equivalent to the difficulty of some well known approximation problems in lattices. We show that essentially the same construction can also be used to obtain collision-free hashing.
1996
EPRINT
The Graph Clustering Problem has a Perfect Zero-Knowledge Proof
Oded Goldreich
The Graph Clustering Problem is parameterized by a sequence of positive integers, $m_1,...,m_t$. The input is a sequence of $\sum_{i=1}^{t}m_i$ graphs, and the question is whether the equivalence classes under the graph isomorphism relation have sizes which match the sequence of parameters. In this note we show that this problem has a (perfect) zero-knowledge interactive proof system.
1996
EPRINT
Public-Key Cryptosystems from Lattice Reduction Problems
Oded Goldreich Shafi Goldwasser Shai Halevi
We present a new proposal for a trapdoor one-way function, from which we derive public-key encryption and digital signatures. The security of the new construction is based on the conjectured computational difficulty of lattice-reduction problems, providing a possible alternative to existing public-key encryption algorithms and digital signatures such as RSA and DSS.
1996
JOFC
1996
JOFC
1995
CRYPTO
1994
CRYPTO
1994
JOFC
1993
JOFC
1993
JOFC
1992
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1989
CRYPTO
1988
CRYPTO
1988
CRYPTO
1988
CRYPTO
1987
CRYPTO
1986
CRYPTO
1986
CRYPTO
1986
CRYPTO
1985
CRYPTO
1985
CRYPTO
1984
CRYPTO
1984
CRYPTO
1984
EUROCRYPT
1984
EUROCRYPT
1983
CRYPTO
1983
CRYPTO
1983
CRYPTO
1982
CRYPTO
1982
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Crypto 1992
Crypto 1988
Crypto 1985