International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Kazuo Ohta

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2019
TCC
Efficient Private PEZ Protocols for Symmetric Functions
A private PEZ protocol is a variant of secure multi-party computation performed using a (long) PEZ dispenser. The original paper by Balogh et al. presented a private PEZ protocol for computing an arbitrary function with n inputs. This result is interesting, but no follow-up work has been presented since then, to the best of our knowledge. We show herein that it is possible to shorten the initial string (the sequence of candies filled in a PEZ dispenser) and the number of moves (a player pops out a specified number of candies in each move) drastically if the function is symmetric. Concretely, it turns out that the length of the initial string is reduced from $$\mathcal {O}(2^n!)$$ for general functions in Balogh et al.’s results to $$\mathcal {O}(n\cdot n!)$$ for symmetric functions, and $$2^n$$ moves for general functions are reduced to $$n^2$$ moves for symmetric functions. Our main idea is to utilize the recursive structure of symmetric functions to construct the protocol recursively. This idea originates from a new initial string we found for a private PEZ protocol for the three-input majority function, which is different from the one with the same length given by Balogh et al. without describing how they derived it.
2012
PKC
2011
CHES
2011
CHES
2010
ASIACRYPT
2010
CHES
2010
EPRINT
Evaluation of Hardware Performance for the SHA-3 Candidates Using SASEBO-GII
As a result of extensive analyses on cryptographic hash functions, NIST started an open competition for selecting a new standard hash function SHA-3. One important aspect of this competition is in evaluating hardware implementations and in collecting much attention of researchers in this area. For a fair comparison of the hardware performance, we propose an evaluation platform, a hardware design strategy, and evaluation criteria that must be consistent for all SHA-3 candidates. First, we define specifications of interface for the SASEBO-GII platform that are suitable for evaluating the performance in real-life hash applications, while one can also evaluate the performance of the SHA-3 core function that has an ideal interface. Second, we discuss the design strategy for high-throughput hardware implementations. Lastly, we explain the evaluation criteria to compare the cost and speed performance of eight SHA-3 candidates out of fourteen.
2010
EPRINT
An Information Theoretic Perspective on the Differential Fault Analysis against AES
Differential Fault Analysis against AES has been actively studied these years. Based on similar assumptions of the fault injection, different DFA attacks against AES have been proposed. However, it is difficult to understand how different attack results are obtained for the same fault injection. It is also difficult to understand the relationship between similar assumptions of fault injection and the corresponding attack results. This paper reviews the previous DFA attacks against AES based on the information theory, and gives a general and easy understanding of DFA attacks against AES. We managed to apply the analysis on DFA attacks on AES-192 and AES-256, and we propose the attack procedures to reach the theoretically minimal number of fault injections.
2010
EPRINT
Efficient Differential Fault Analysis for AES
This paper proposes improved post analysis methods for Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) against AES. In detail, we propose three techniques to improve the attack efficiency as 1) combining previous DFA methods, 2) performing a divide-and-conquer attack by considering the AES key-schedule structure, and 3) taking the linearity of the MixColumns operation into account. As a result, the expectation of the analysis time in the previous work can be reduced to about one sixteenth. Notice that these improvements are based on the detailed analysis of the previous DFA methods and the calculation time and memory cost in practical implementations. Moreover, the proposed techniques can be widely applied to DFA attacks under different assumptions.
2010
EPRINT
Robust RFID Authentication Protocol with Formal Proof and Its Feasibility
The proloferation of RFID tags enhances everyday activities, such as by letting us reference the price, origin and circulation route of specific goods. On the other hand, this lecel of traceability gives rise to new privacy issues and the topic of developing cryptographic protocols for RFID- tags is garnering much attention. A large amount of research has been conducted in this area. In this paper, we reconsider the security model of RFID- authentication with a man-in-the-middle adversary and communication fault. We define model and security proofs via a game-based approach makes our security models compatible with formal security analysis tools. We show that an RFID authentication protocol is robust against the above attacks, and then provide game-based (hand-written) proofs and their erification by using CryptoVerif.
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
EPRINT
How to Prove the Security of Practical Cryptosystems with Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd Hashing by Adopting Indifferentiability
In this paper, we show that major cryptosystems such as FDH, OAEP, and RSA-KEM are secure under a hash function $MD^h$ with Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd (MD) construction that uses a random oracle compression function $h$. First, we propose two new ideal primitives called Traceable Random Oracle ($\mathcal{TRO}$) and Extension Attack Simulatable Random Oracle ($\mathcal{ERO}$) which are weaker than a random oracle ($\mathcal{RO}$). Second, we show that $MD^h$ is indifferentiable from $\mathcal{LRO}$, $\mathcal{TRO}$ and $\mathcal{ERO}$, where $\mathcal{LRO}$ is Leaky Random Oracle proposed by Yoneyama et al. This result means that if a cryptosystem is secure in these models, then the cryptosystem is secure under $MD^h$ following the indifferentiability theory proposed by Maurer et al. Finally, we prove that OAEP is secure in the $\mathcal{TRO}$ model and RSA-KEM is secure in the $\mathcal{ERO}$ model. Since it is also known that FDH is secure in the $\mathcal{LRO}$ model, as a result, major cryptosystems, FDH, OAEP and RSA-KEM, are secure under $MD^h$, though $MD^h$ is not indifferentiable from $\mathcal{RO}$.
2009
EPRINT
Davies-Meyer Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd Revisited:\\Variants of Indifferentiability and Random Oracles
In this paper, we succeed in analyzing practical cryptosystems that employ the Davies-Meyer Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd hash function $\mddm^E$ with ideal cipher $E$ by using two approaches: {\it indifferentiability from variants of random oracles} and {\it indifferentiability from a random oracle $\ro$ with conditions}. We show that RSA-KEM with $\mddm^E$ is secure by using the former approach and that OAEP with $\mddm^E$ is secure by using the latter approach. The public-use random oracle ($\pubro$) model is a variant of random oracle (proposed by Dodis et al. and Yoneyama et al.). We also show that cryptosystems secure under $\pubro$ model, such as FDH, Fiat-Shamir, PSS and so on, are also secure under $\mddm^E$ by using the former approach. Note that Dodis et al. failed in the paper of EUROCRYPT 2009 in analyzing the security of cryptosystems with $\mddm^E$, because they started by analyzing the underlying compression function, while our first approach starts by analyzing the hash function.
2008
EUROCRYPT
2007
FSE
2007
PKC
2006
ASIACRYPT
2006
EPRINT
Message Modification for Step 21-23 on SHA-0
In CRYPTO 2005, Xiaoyun Wang, Hongbo Yu and Yiqun Lisa Yin proposed an efficient collision attack on SHA-0. Collision messages are found with complexity $2^{39}$ SHA-0 operations by using their method. Collision messages can be obtained when a message satisfying all sufficient conditions is found. In their paper, they proposed message modifications that can satisfy all sufficient conditions of step 1-20. However, they didn't propose message modifications for sufficient conditions after step 21. In this paper, we propose message modifications for sufficient conditions of step 21-23. By using our message modifications, collision messages are found with complexity $2^{36}$ SHA-0 operations.
2006
EPRINT
How to Construct Sufficient Condition in Searching Collisions of MD5
In Eurocrypt 2005, Wang et al. presented a collision attak on MD5. In their paper, they intoduced gSufficient Conditionh which would be needed to generate collisions. In this paper, we explain how to construct sufficent conditions of MD5 when a differential path is given. By applying our algorithm to a collision path given byWang et al, we found that sufficient conditions introduced by them contained some unnecessary conditions. Generally speaking, when a differential path is given, corresponding sets of sufficient conditions is not unique. In our research, we analyzed the differential path found by Wang et al, and we found a different set of sufficient conditions from that of Wang et al. We have generated collisions by using our sifficient conditions.
2005
EPRINT
Improved Collision Attack on MD4
In this paper, we propose an attack method to find collisions of MD4 hash function. This attack is the improved version of the attack which was invented by Xiaoyun Wang et al [1]. We were able to find collisions with probability almost 1, and the average complexity to find a collision is upper bounded by three times of MD4 hash operations. This result is improved compared to the original result of [1] where the probability were from $2^{-6}$ to $2^{-2}$, and the average complexity to find a collision was upper bounded by $2^8$ MD4 hash operations. We also point out the lack of sufficient conditions and imprecise modifications for the original attack in [1].
2005
EPRINT
Improved Collision Attack on MD5
In EUROCRYPT2005, a collision attack on MD5 was proposed by Wang et al. In this attack, conditions which are sufficient to generate collisions (called ``sufficient condition") are introduced. This attack raises the success probability by modifing messages to satisfy these conditions. In this attack, 37 conditions cannot be satisfied even messages are modified. Therefore, the complexity is $2^{37}$. After that, Klima improved this result. Since 33 conditions cannot be satisfied in his method, the complexity is $2^{33}$. In this paper, we propose new message modification techniques which are more efficient than attacks proposed so far. In this method, 29 conditions cannot be satisfied. However, this method is probabilistic, and the probability that this method work correctly is roughly 1/2. Therefore, the complexity of this attack is $2^{30}$. Furthermore, we propose a more efficient collision search algorithm than that of Wang et al. By using this algorithm, the total complexity is reduced into roughly 5/8.
2004
EPRINT
Efficient Universal Padding Schemes for Multiplicative Trapdoor One-way Permutation
Yuichi Komano Kazuo Ohta
Coron et al. proposed the ES-based scheme PSS-ES which realizes an encryption scheme and a signature scheme with a unique padding scheme and key pair. The security of PSS-ES as an encryption scheme is based on the \textit{partial-domain one-wayness} of the encryption permutation. In this paper, we propose new ES schemes OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES, and prove their security under the assumption of \textit{only} the \textit{one-wayness} of encryption permutation. OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES suit practical implementation because they use the same padding technique for encryption and for signature, and their security proof guarantees that we can prepare one key pair to realize encryption and signature in the same way as PSS-ES. Since \textit{one-wayness} is a weaker assumption than \textit{partial-domain one-wayness}, the proposed schemes offer tighter security than PSS-ES. Hence, we conclude that OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES are more effective than PSS-ES. OAEP++-ES is the most practical approach in terms of the tightness of security and communication efficiency.
2003
CRYPTO
1998
CRYPTO
1995
CRYPTO
1994
CRYPTO
1993
CRYPTO
1992
AUSCRYPT
1992
EUROCRYPT
1991
ASIACRYPT
1991
ASIACRYPT
1991
CRYPTO
1991
CRYPTO
1991
EUROCRYPT
1991
EUROCRYPT
1990
AUSCRYPT
1990
CRYPTO
1990
EUROCRYPT
1990
EUROCRYPT
1989
CRYPTO
1989
EUROCRYPT
1988
CRYPTO
1988
EUROCRYPT
1987
CRYPTO

Program Committees

PKC 2007
Crypto 1999
Asiacrypt 1998 (Program chair)
Crypto 1995
Crypto 1992