## CryptoDB

### San Ling

#### Affiliation: Nanyang Technological University

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2019

TOSC

PEIGEN – a Platform for Evaluation, Implementation, and Generation of S-boxes
📺
Abstract

In this paper, a platform named PEIGEN is presented to evaluate security, find efficient software/hardware implementations, and generate cryptographic S-boxes. Continuously developed for decades, S-boxes are constantly evolving in terms of the design criteria for both security requirements and software/hardware performances. PEIGEN is aimed to be a platform covering a comprehensive check-list of design criteria of S-boxes appearing in the literature. To do so, the security requirements are first intensively surveyed, existing tools of S-boxes are then comprehensively compared, and finally our platform PEIGEN is presented. The survey part is aimed to be a systematic reference for the theoretical study of S-boxes. The platform is aimed to be an assistant tool for the experimental study and practical use of S-boxes. PEIGEN not only integrates most of the features in existing tools, but also equips with functionalities to evaluate new security-related properties, improves the efficiency of the search algorithms for optimized implementations in several aspects. With the help of this powerful platform, many interesting observations are made in-between the security notations, as well as on the S-boxes used in the existing symmetrickey cryptographic primitives. PEIGEN will become an open platform and welcomes contributions from all parties to help the community to facilitate the research and use of S-boxes.

2018

CRYPTO

Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Integer Relations
📺
Abstract

We provide lattice-based protocols allowing to prove relations among committed integers. While the most general zero-knowledge proof techniques can handle arithmetic circuits in the lattice setting, adapting them to prove statements over the integers is non-trivial, at least if we want to handle exponentially large integers while working with a polynomial-size modulus q. For a polynomial L, we provide zero-knowledge arguments allowing a prover to convince a verifier that committed L-bit bitstrings x, y and z are the binary representations of integers X, Y and Z satisfying $$Z=X+Y$$ over $$\mathbb {Z}$$. The complexity of our arguments is only linear in L. Using them, we construct arguments allowing to prove inequalities $$X<Z$$ among committed integers, as well as arguments showing that a committed X belongs to a public interval $$[\alpha ,\beta ]$$, where $$\alpha $$ and $$\beta $$ can be arbitrarily large. Our range arguments have logarithmic cost (i.e., linear in L) in the maximal range magnitude. Using these tools, we obtain zero-knowledge arguments showing that a committed element X does not belong to a public set S using $$\widetilde{\mathcal {O}}(n \cdot \log |S|)$$ bits of communication, where n is the security parameter. We finally give a protocol allowing to argue that committed L-bit integers X, Y and Z satisfy multiplicative relations $$Z=XY$$ over the integers, with communication cost subquadratic in L. To this end, we use our protocol for integer addition to prove the correct recursive execution of Karatsuba’s multiplication algorithm. The security of our protocols relies on standard lattice assumptions with polynomial modulus and polynomial approximation factor.

2018

PKC

Constant-Size Group Signatures from Lattices
Abstract

Lattice-based group signature is an active research topic in recent years. Since the pioneering work by Gordon, Katz and Vaikuntanathan (Asiacrypt 2010), ten other schemes have been proposed, providing various improvements in terms of security, efficiency and functionality. However, in all known constructions, one has to fix the number N of group users in the setup stage, and as a consequence, the signature sizes are dependent on N.In this work, we introduce the first constant-size group signature from lattices, which means that the size of signatures produced by the scheme is independent of N and only depends on the security parameter $$\lambda $$λ. More precisely, in our scheme, the sizes of signatures, public key and users’ secret keys are all of order $$\widetilde{\mathcal {O}}(\lambda )$$O~(λ). The scheme supports dynamic enrollment of users and is proven secure in the random oracle model under the Ring Short Integer Solution (RSIS) and Ring Learning With Errors (RLWE) assumptions. At the heart of our design is a zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of a valid message-signature pair for the Ducas-Micciancio signature scheme (Crypto 2014), that may be of independent interest.

2018

ASIACRYPT

New MILP Modeling: Improved Conditional Cube Attacks on Keccak-Based Constructions
Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new MILP modeling to find better or even optimal choices of conditional cubes, under the general framework of conditional cube attacks. These choices generally find new or improved attacks against the keyed constructions based on Keccak permutation and its variants, including Keccak-MAC, KMAC, Keyak, and Ketje, in terms of attack complexities or the number of attacked rounds. Interestingly, conditional cube attacks were applied to round-reduced Keccak-MAC, but not to KMAC despite the great similarity between Keccak-MAC and KMAC, and the fact that KMAC is the NIST standard way of constructing MAC from SHA-3. As examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of our new modeling, we report key recovery attacks against KMAC128 and KMAC256 reduced to 7 and 9 rounds, respectively; the best attack against Lake Keyak with 128-bit key is improved from 6 to 8 rounds in the nonce-respected setting and 9 rounds of Lake Keyak can be attacked if the key size is of 256 bits; attack complexity improvements are found generally on other constructions. Our new model is also applied to Keccak-based full-state keyed sponge and gives a positive answer to the open question proposed by Bertoni et al. whether cube attacks can be extended to more rounds by exploiting full-state absorbing. To verify the correctness of our attacks, reduced-variants of the attacks are implemented and verified on a PC practically. It is remarked that this work does not threaten the security of any full version of the instances analyzed in this paper.

2016

EUROCRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

2016

ASIACRYPT

2010

EPRINT

Advanced Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks: First Results on Full Tiger, and Improved Results on MD4 and SHA-2
Abstract

We revisit narrow-pipe designs that are in practical use, and their security against preimage attacks.
Our results are the best known preimage attacks on Tiger, MD4, and reduced SHA-2, with the result on Tiger
being the first cryptanalytic shortcut attack on the full hash function. Our attacks runs in time $2^{188.8}$ for finding preimages, and $2^{188.2}$ for second-preimages. Both have memory requirement of order $2^{8}$, which is much less than in any other recent preimage attacks on reduced Tiger.
Using pre-computation techniques, the time complexity for finding a new preimage or second-preimage for MD4 can now be as low as $2^{78.4}$ and $2^{69.4}$ MD4 computations, respectively. The second-preimage attack works for all messages longer than 2 blocks.
To obtain these results, we extend the meet-in-the-middle framework recently developed by Aoki and Sasaki in a series of papers. In addition to various algorithm-specific techniques, we use a number of conceptually new ideas that are applicable to a larger class of constructions. Among them are (1) incorporating multi-target scenarios into the MITM framework, leading to faster preimages from pseudo-preimages, (2) a simple precomputation technique that allows for finding new preimages at the cost of a single pseudo-preimage, and (3) probabilistic initial structures, compared with deterministic ones, to enable more neutral words, and hence to reduce the attack time complexity. All the techniques developed await application to other hash functions. To illustrate this, we give as another example improved preimage attacks on SHA-2 members.

2010

ASIACRYPT

2007

EPRINT

Cryptanalysis of LASH
Abstract

We show that the LASH-$x$ hash function is vulnerable to attacks
that trade time for memory, including collision attacks as
fast as $2^{\frac{4}{11}x}$ and preimage attacks as fast as $2^{\frac47x}$.
Moreover, we describe heuristic lattice based collision attacks that
use small memory but require very long messages.
Based upon experiments, the lattice attacks are expected to find
collisions much faster than $2^{x/2}$.
All of these attacks exploit the designers' choice of an all zero IV.
We then consider whether LASH can be patched simply by changing the IV.
In this case, we show that LASH is vulnerable to a $2^{\frac78x}$
preimage attack. We also show that LASH is trivially not a PRF when any subset of input bytes is used as a secret key.
None of our attacks depend upon the particular contents of the LASH matrix -- we only assume that the distribution of elements is more or less uniform.
Additionally, we show a generalized birthday attack
on the final compression of LASH which requires
$O\left(x2^{\frac{x}{2(1+\frac{107}{105})}}\right) \approx O(x2^{x/4})$ time and memory.
Our method extends the Wagner algorithm to
truncated sums, as is done in the final transform in LASH.

#### Program Committees

- Eurocrypt 2017

#### Coauthors

- Zhenzhen Bao (1)
- Alex Biryukov (1)
- Yeow Meng Chee (1)
- Scott Contini (2)
- Sareh Emami (2)
- Martianus Frederic Ezerman (2)
- Praveen Gauravaram (1)
- Jian Guo (7)
- Tao Huang (1)
- Khoongming Khoo (1)
- Dmitry Khovratovich (1)
- Adeline Langlois (2)
- Hyung Tae Lee (2)
- Benoît Libert (6)
- Chu-Wee Lim (1)
- Mulan Liu (1)
- Krystian Matusiewicz (3)
- Amir Moradi (2)
- Fabrice Mouhartem (3)
- Phuong Ha Nguyen (1)
- Khoa Nguyen (14)
- Ivica Nikolić (3)
- Christof Paar (1)
- Thomas Peyrin (1)
- Duong Hieu Phan (2)
- Josef Pieprzyk (7)
- Axel Poschmann (3)
- Christian Rechberger (2)
- Yu Sasaki (1)
- Danping Shi (1)
- Przemyslaw Sokolowski (1)
- Ling Song (1)
- Damien Stehlé (3)
- Ron Steinfeld (5)
- Christophe Tartary (1)
- Huaxiong Wang (28)
- Lei Wei (1)
- Hongjun Wu (1)
- Yanhong Xu (1)
- Zhifang Zhang (1)