International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Stefan Kölbl


Pyjamask: Block Cipher and Authenticated Encryption with Highly Efficient Masked Implementation 📺
This paper introduces Pyjamask, a new block cipher family and authenticated encryption proposal submitted to the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process. Pyjamask targets side-channel resistance as one of its main goal. More precisely, it strongly minimizes the number of nonlinear gates used in its internal primitive in order to allow efficient masked implementations, especially for high-order masking in software. Compared to other block ciphers, our proposal has thus among the smallest number of binary AND computations per input bit at the time of writing. Even though Pyjamask minimizes such an important criterion, it remains rather lightweight and efficient, thanks to a general bitslice construction that enables to computation of all nonlinear gates in parallel. For authenticated encryption, we adopt the provably secure AEAD mode OCB which has been extensively studied and has the benefit to offer full parallelization. Of course, other block cipher-based modes can be considered as well if other performance profiles are to be targeted.The paper first gives the specification of the Pyjamask block cipher and the associated AEAD proposal. We also provide a detailed design rationale for the block cipher which is guided by our aim of software efficiency in the presence of high-order masking. The security of the design is analyzed against most commonly known cryptanalysis techniques. We finally describe efficient (masked) implementations in software and provide implementation results with aggressive performances for masking of very high orders (up to 128). We also provide a rough estimation of the hardware performances which remain much better than those of an AES round-based implementation.
We present the family of authenticated encryption schemes SKINNY-AEAD and the family of hashing schemes SKINNY-Hash. All of the schemes employ a member of the SKINNY family of tweakable block ciphers, which was presented at CRYPTO 2016, as the underlying primitive. In particular, for authenticated encryption, we show how to instantiate members of SKINNY in the Deoxys-I-like ΘCB3 framework to fulfill the submission requirements of the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process. For hashing, we use SKINNY to build a function with larger internal state and employ it in a sponge construction. To highlight the extensive amount of third-party analysis that SKINNY obtained since its publication, we briefly survey the existing cryptanalysis results for SKINNY-128-256 and SKINNY-128-384 as of February 2020. In the last part of the paper, we provide a variety of ASIC implementations of our schemes and propose new simple SKINNY-AEAD and SKINNY-Hash variants with a reduced number of rounds while maintaining a very comfortable security margin.
ShiftRows Alternatives for AES-like Ciphers and Optimal Cell Permutations for Midori and Skinny 📺
We study possible alternatives for ShiftRows to be used as cell permutations in AES-like ciphers. As observed during the design process of the block cipher Midori, when using a matrix with a non-optimal branch number for the MixColumns operation, the choice of the cell permutation, i.e., an alternative for ShiftRows, can actually improve the security of the primitive. In contrast, when using an MDS matrix it is known that one cannot increase the minimum number of active S-boxes by deviating from the ShiftRows-type permutation. However, finding the optimal choice for the cell permutation for a given, non-optimal, MixColumns operation is a highly non-trivial problem. In this work, we propose techniques to speed up the search for the optimal cell permutations significantly. As case studies, we apply those techniques to Midori and Skinny and provide possible alternatives for their cell permutations. We finally state an easy-to-verify sufficient condition on a cell permutation, to be used as an alternative in Midori, that attains a high number of active S-boxes and thus provides good resistance against differential and linear attacks.
Gimli : A Cross-Platform Permutation
This paper presents Gimli, a 384-bit permutation designed to achieve high security with high performance across a broad range of platforms, including 64-bit Intel/AMD server CPUs, 64-bit and 32-bit ARM smartphone CPUs, 32-bit ARM microcontrollers, 8-bit AVR microcontrollers, FPGAs, ASICs without side-channel protection, and ASICs with side-channel protection.
Haraka v2 - Efficient Short-Input Hashing for Post-Quantum Applications
Recently, many efficient cryptographic hash function design strategies have been explored, not least because of the SHA-3 competition. These designs are, almost exclusively, geared towards high performance on long inputs. However, various applications exist where the performance on short (fixed length) inputs matters more. Such hash functions are the bottleneck in hash-based signature schemes like SPHINCS or XMSS, which is currently under standardization. Secure functions specifically designed for such applications are scarce. We attend to this gap by proposing two short-input hash functions (or rather simply compression functions). By utilizing AES instructions on modern CPUs, our proposals are the fastest on such platforms, reaching throughputs below one cycle per hashed byte even for short inputs, while still having a very low latency of less than 60 cycles. Under the hood, this results comes with several innovations. First, we study whether the number of rounds for our hash functions can be reduced, if only second-preimage resistance (and not collision resistance) is required. The conclusion is: only a little. Second, since their inception, AES-like designs allow for supportive security arguments by means of counting and bounding the number of active S-boxes. However, this ignores powerful attack vectors using truncated differentials, including the powerful rebound attacks. We develop a general tool-based method to include arguments against attack vectors using truncated differentials.

Program Committees

FSE 2022
FSE 2020
FSE 2019
FSE 2018
Asiacrypt 2018