## CryptoDB

### Tianren Liu

#### ORCID: 0009-0007-8697-2327

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

How to Garble Mixed Circuits that Combine Boolean and Arithmetic Computations
Abstract

The study of garbling arithmetic circuits is initiated by Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz [FOCS'11], which can be naturally extended to mixed circuits. The basis of mixed circuits includes Boolean operations, arithmetic operations over a large ring and bit-decomposition that converts an arithmetic value to its bit representation. We construct efficient garbling schemes for mixed circuits.
In the random oracle model, we construct two garbling schemes:
- The first scheme targets mixed circuits modulo some $N\approx 2^b$. Addition gates are free. Each multiplication gate costs $O(\lambda \cdot b^{1.5})$ communication. Each bit-decomposition costs $O(\lambda \cdot b^{2} / \log{b})$.
- The second scheme targets mixed circuit modulo some $N\approx 2^b$. Each addition gate and multiplication gate costs $O(\lambda \cdot b \cdot \log b / \log \log b)$. Every bit-decomposition costs $O(\lambda \cdot b^2 / \log b)$.
Our schemes improve on the work of Ball, Malkin, and Rosulek [CCS'16] in the same model.
Additionally relying on the DCR assumption, we construct in the programmable random oracle model a more efficient garbling scheme targeting mixed circuits over $\mathbb Z_{2^b}$, where addition gates are free, and each multiplication or bit-decomposition gate costs $O(\lambda_{DCR} \cdot b)$ communication. We improve on the recent work of Ball, Li, Lin, and Liu [Eurocrypt'23] which also relies on the DCR assumption.

2023

EUROCRYPT

New Ways to Garble Arithmetic Circuits
Abstract

The beautiful work of Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushileviz [FOCS’11]
initiated the study of arithmetic variants of Yao’s garbled
circuits. An arithmetic garbling scheme is an efficient transformation
that converts an arithmetic circuit C : Rn → Rm over a ring R into a
garbled circuit \widehat{C} and n affine functions Li for i ∈ [n],
such that \widehat{C} and Li(xi) reveals only the output C(x) and no
other information of x. AIK presented the first arithmetic garbling
scheme supporting computation over integers from a bounded (possibly
exponentially large) range, based on Learning With Errors (LWE). In
contrast, converting C into a Boolean circuit and applying Yao’s
garbled circuit treat the inputs as bit strings instead of ring
elements, and hence is not “arithmetic”.
In this work, we present new ways to garble arithmetic circuits, which
improve the state-of-the-art on efficiency, modularity, and
functionality. To measure efficiency, we define the rate of a garbling
scheme as the maximal ratio between the bit-length of the garbled
circuit |\widehat{C}| and that of the computation tableau |C|ℓ in the
clear, where ℓ is the bit length of wire values (e.g., Yao’s garbled
circuit has rate O(λ)).
– We present the first constant-rate arithmetic garbled circuit for
computation over large integers based on the Decisional Composite
Residuosity (DCR) assumption, significantly improving the efficiency
of the schemes of Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz.
– We construct an arithmetic garbling scheme for modular computation
over R = Zp for any integer modulus p, based on either DCR or LWE. The
DCR-based instantiation achieves rate O(λ) for large p. Furthermore,
our construction is modular and makes black-box use of the underlying
ring and a simple key extension gadget.
– We describe a variant of the first scheme supporting arithmetic
circuits over bounded integers that are augmented with Boolean
computation (e.g., truncation of an integer value, and comparison
between two values), while keeping the constant rate when garbling the
arithmetic part.
To the best of our knowledge, constant-rate (Boolean or arithmetic)
garbling were only achieved before using the powerful primitive of
indistinguishability obfuscation, or for restricted circuits with
small depth.

2023

CRYPTO

Layout Graphs, Random Walks and the $t$-wise Independence of SPN Block Ciphers
Abstract

We continue the study of $t$-wise independence of substitution-permutation networks (SPNs) initiated by the recent work of Liu, Tessaro, and Vaikuntanathan (CRYPTO 2021).
Our key technical result shows that when the S-boxes are {\em randomly and independently chosen}, as well as secret, an $r$-round SPN with input length $n = b \cdot k$ is $2^{-\Theta(n)}$-close to $t$-wise independent within $r = O(\min\{k, \log t\})$ rounds for any $t$ almost as large as $2^{b/2}$. Here, $b$ is the input length of the S-box and the result assumes that the underlying mixing achieves maximum branch number. We also analyze the special case of AES parameters (with random S-boxes), and show it is $2^{-128}$-close to pairwise independent in $7$ rounds. Central to our result is the analysis of a random walk on what we call the {\em layout graph}, a combinatorial abstraction that captures equality and inequality constraints among multiple SPN evaluations.
We use our technical result to show concrete security bounds for SPNs with actual block cipher parameters and {\em small-input $S$-boxes}. (This is in contrast to the large body of results on ideal-model analyses of SPNs.) For example, for the censored-AES block cipher, namely AES with most of the mixing layers removed, we show that 192 rounds suffice to attain $2^{-128}$-closeness to pairwise independence. The prior such result for AES (Liu, Tessaro and Vaikuntanathan, CRYPTO 2021) required more than 9000 rounds.

2022

CRYPTO

Two-Round MPC without Round Collapsing Revisited -- Towards Efficient Malicious Protocols
Abstract

Recent works have made exciting progress on the construction of round optimal, {\em two-round}, Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols. However, most proposals so far are still complex and inefficient.
In this work, we improve the simplicity and efficiency of two-round MPC in the setting with dishonest majority and malicious security. Our protocols make use of the Random Oracle (RO) and a generalization of the Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE) correlated randomness, called tensor OLE, over a finite field $\mathbb{F}$, and achieve the following:
- {\em MPC for Boolean Circuits:} Our two-round, maliciously secure MPC protocols for computing Boolean circuits, has overall (asymptotic) computational cost $O(S\cdot n^3 \cdot \log |\mathbb{F}|)$, where $S$ is the size of the circuit computed, $n$ the number of parties, and $\mathbb{F}$ a field of characteristic two. The protocols also make black-box calls to a Pseudo-Random Function (PRF).
- {\em MPC for Arithmetic Branching Programs (ABPs):} Our two-round, information theoretically and maliciously secure protocols for computing ABPs over a general field $\field$ has overall computational cost $O(S^{1.5}\cdot n^3\cdot \log |\mathbb{F}|)$, where $S$ is the size of ABP computed.
Both protocols achieve security levels inverse proportional to the size of the field $|\mathbb{F}|$.
Our construction is built upon the simple two-round MPC protocols of [Lin-Liu-Wee TCC'20], which are only semi-honest secure. Our main technical contribution lies in ensuring malicious security using simple and lightweight checks, which incur only a constant overhead over the complexity of the protocols by Lin, Liu, and Wee. In particular, in the case of computing Boolean circuits, our malicious MPC protocols have the same complexity (up to a constant overhead) as (insecurely) computing Yao's garbled circuits in a distributed fashion.
Finally, as an additional contribution, we show how to efficiently generate tensor OLE correlation in fields of characteristic two using OT.

2021

CRYPTO

The $t$-wise Independence of Substitution-Permutation Networks
📺
Abstract

Block ciphers such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) are used extensively in practice, yet our understanding of their security continues to be highly incomplete. This paper promotes and continues a research program aimed at {\em proving} the security of block ciphers against important and well-studied classes of attacks. In particular, we initiate the study of (almost) $t$-wise independence of concrete block-cipher construction paradigms such as substitution-permutation networks and key-alternating ciphers. Sufficiently strong (almost) pairwise independence already suffices to resist (truncated) differential attacks and linear cryptanalysis, and hence this is a relevant and meaningful target. Our results are two-fold.
Our first result concerns substitution-permutation networks (SPNs) that model ciphers such as AES. We prove the almost pairwise-independence of an SPN instantiated with concrete S-boxes together with an appropriate linear mixing layer, given sufficiently many rounds and independent sub-keys. Our proof relies on a {\em characterization} of S-box computation on input differences in terms of sampling output differences from certain subspaces, and a new randomness extraction lemma (which we prove with Fourier-analytic techniques) that establishes when such sampling yields uniformity. We use our techniques in particular to prove almost pairwise-independence for sufficiently many rounds of both the AES block cipher (which uses a variant of the patched inverse function $x \mapsto x^{-1}$ as the $S$-box) and the MiMC block cipher (which uses the cubing function $x \mapsto x^3$ as the $S$-box), assuming independent sub-keys.
Secondly, we show that instantiating a key-alternating cipher (which can be thought of as a degenerate case of SPNs) with most permutations gives us (almost) $t$-wise independence in $t + o(t)$ rounds. In order to do this, we use the probabilistic method to develop two new lemmas, an {\em independence-amplification lemma} and a {\em distance amplification lemma}, that allow us to reason about the evolution of key-alternating ciphers.

2021

TCC

Multi-party PSM, Revisited: Improved Communication and Unbalanced Communication
📺
Abstract

We improve the communication complexity in the Private Simultaneous Messages (PSM) model, which is a minimal model of non-interactive information-theoretic multi-party computation. The state-of-the-art PSM protocols were recently constructed by Beimel, Kushilevitz and Nissim (EUROCRYPT 2018).
We present new constructions of $k$-party PSM protocols. The new protocols match the previous upper bounds when $k=2$ or $3$ and improve the upper bounds for larger $k$. We also construct $2$-party PSM protocols with unbalanced communication complexity.
More concretely,
- For infinitely many $k$ (including all $k \leq 20$), we construct $k$-party PSM protocols for arbitrary functionality $f:[N]^k\to\{0,1\}$, whose communication complexity is $O_k(N^{\frac{k-1}{2}})$. This improves the former best known upper bounds of $O_k(N^{\frac{k}{2}})$ for $k\geq 6$, $O(N^{7/3})$ for $k=5$, and $O(N^{5/3})$ for $k=4$.
- For all rational $0<\eta<1$ whose denominator is $\leq 20$, we construct 2-party PSM protocols for arbitrary functionality $f:[N]\times[N]\to\{0,1\}$, whose communication complexity is $O(N^\eta)$ for one party, $O(N^{1-\eta})$ for the other. Previously the only known unbalanced 2-party PSM has communication complexity $O(\log(N)), O(N)$.

2020

TCC

Information-Theoretic 2-Round MPC without Round Collapsing: Adaptive Security, and More
📺
Abstract

We present simpler and improved constructions of 2-round protocols for secure multi-party computation (MPC) in the semi-honest setting. Our main results are new information-theoretically secure protocols for arithmetic NC1 in two settings:
(i) the plain model tolerating up to $t < n/2$ corruptions; and
(ii) in the OLE-correlation model tolerating any number of corruptions.
Our protocols achieve adaptive security and require only black-box access to the underlying field, whereas previous results only achieve static security and require non-black-box field access. Moreover, both results extend to polynomial-size circuits with computational and adaptive security, while relying on black-box access to a pseudorandom generator. In the OLE correlation model, the extended protocols for circuits tolerate up to $n-1$ corruptions.
Along the way, we introduce a conceptually novel framework for 2-round MPC that does not rely on the round collapsing framework underlying all of the recent advances in 2-round MPC.

2019

CRYPTO

Reusable Non-Interactive Secure Computation
📺
Abstract

We consider the problem of Non-Interactive Two-Party Secure Computation (NISC), where Rachel wishes to publish an encryption of her input x, in such a way that any other party, who holds an input y, can send her a single message which conveys to her the value f(x, y), and nothing more. We demand security against malicious parties. While such protocols are easy to construct using garbled circuits and general non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, this approach inherently makes a non-black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives and is infeasible in practice.Ishai et al. (Eurocrypt 2011) showed how to construct NISC protocols that only use parallel calls to an ideal oblivious transfer (OT) oracle, and additionally make only a black-box use of any pseudorandom generator. Combined with the efficient 2-message OT protocol of Peikert et al. (Crypto 2008), this leads to a practical approach to NISC that has been implemented in subsequent works. However, a major limitation of all known OT-based NISC protocols is that they are subject to selective failure attacks that allows a malicious sender to entirely compromise the security of the protocol when the receiver’s first message is reused.Motivated by the failure of the OT-based approach, we consider the problem of basing reusable NISC on parallel invocations of a standard arithmetic generalization of OT known as oblivious linear-function evaluation (OLE). We obtain the following results:We construct an information-theoretically secure reusable NISC protocol for arithmetic branching programs and general zero-knowledge functionalities in the OLE-hybrid model. Our zero-knowledge protocol only makes an absolute constant number of OLE calls per gate in an arithmetic circuit whose satisfiability is being proved. We also get reusable NISC in the OLE-hybrid model for general Boolean circuits using any one-way function.We complement this by a negative result, showing that reusable NISC is impossible to achieve in the OT-hybrid model. This provides a formal justification for the need to replace OT by OLE.We build a universally composable 2-message reusable OLE protocol in the CRS model that can be based on the security of Paillier encryption and requires only a constant number of modular exponentiations. This provides the first arithmetic analogue of the 2-message OT protocols of Peikert et al. (Crypto 2008).By combining our NISC protocol in the OLE-hybrid model and the 2-message OLE protocol, we get protocols with new attractive asymptotic and concrete efficiency features. In particular, we get the first (designated-verifier) NIZK protocols for NP where following a statement-independent preprocessing, both proving and verifying are entirely “non-cryptographic” and involve only a constant computational overhead. Furthermore, we get the first statistical designated-verifier NIZK argument for NP under an assumption related to factoring.

2018

TCC

On Basing Search SIVP on NP-Hardness
★
Abstract

The possibility of basing cryptography on the minimal assumption
$$\mathbf{NP }\nsubseteq \mathbf{BPP }$$
NP⊈BPP is at the very heart of complexity-theoretic cryptography. The closest we have gotten so far is lattice-based cryptography whose average-case security is based on the worst-case hardness of approximate shortest vector problems on integer lattices. The state-of-the-art is the construction of a one-way function (and collision-resistant hash function) based on the hardness of the
$$\tilde{O}(n)$$
O~(n)-approximate shortest independent vector problem
$${\textsf {SIVP}}_{\tilde{O}(n)}$$
SIVPO~(n).Although
$${\textsf {SIVP}}$$
SIVP is NP-hard in its exact version, Guruswami et al. (CCC 2004) showed that
$${\textsf {gapSIVP}}_{\sqrt{n/\log n}}$$
gapSIVPn/logn is in
$$\mathbf{NP } \cap \mathbf{coAM }$$
NP∩coAM and thus unlikely to be
$$\mathbf{NP }$$
NP-hard. Indeed, any language that can be reduced to
$${\textsf {gapSIVP}}_{\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})}$$
gapSIVPO~(n) (under general probabilistic polynomial-time adaptive reductions) is in
$$\mathbf{AM } \cap \mathbf{coAM }$$
AM∩coAM by the results of Peikert and Vaikuntanathan (CRYPTO 2008) and Mahmoody and Xiao (CCC 2010). However, none of these results apply to reductions to search problems, still leaving open a ray of hope: can
$$\mathbf{NP }$$
NPbe reduced to solving search SIVP with approximation factor
$$\tilde{O}(n)$$
O~(n)?We eliminate such possibility, by showing that any language that can be reduced to solving search
$${\textsf {SIVP}}$$
SIVP with any approximation factor
$$\lambda (n) = \omega (n\log n)$$
λ(n)=ω(nlogn) lies in AM intersect coAM.

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2024
- Crypto 2023
- Asiacrypt 2022
- Crypto 2021

#### Coauthors

- Léonard Assouline (1)
- Marshall Ball (1)
- Melissa Chase (1)
- Yevgeniy Dodis (2)
- Yuval Ishai (1)
- Daniel Kraschewski (1)
- Hanjun Li (2)
- Huijia Lin (3)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (1)
- Angelos Pelecanos (1)
- Martijn Stam (1)
- John P. Steinberger (1)
- Stefano Tessaro (2)
- Vinod Vaikuntanathan (6)
- Hoeteck Wee (3)