International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Stefano Tessaro

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
EUROCRYPT
A Fast and Simple Partially Oblivious PRF, with Applications 📺
We build the first construction of a partially oblivious pseudorandom function (POPRF) that does not rely on bilinear pairings. Our construction can be viewed as combining elements of the 2HashDH OPRF of Jarecki, Kiayias, and Krawczyk with the Dodis-Yampolskiy PRF. We analyze our POPRF’s security in the random oracle model via reduction to a new one-more gap strong Diffie-Hellman inversion assumption. The most significant technical challenge is establishing confidence in the new assumption, which requires new proof techniques that enable us to show that its hardness is implied by the q-DL assumption in the algebraic group model. Our new construction is as fast as the current, standards-track OPRF 2HashDH protocol, yet provides a new degree of flexibility useful in a variety of applications. We show how POPRFs can be used to prevent token hoarding attacks against Privacy Pass, reduce key management complexity in the OPAQUE password authenticated key exchange protocol, and ensure stronger security for password breach alerting services.
2022
EUROCRYPT
Short Pairing-Free Blind Signatures with Exponential Security 📺
Stefano Tessaro Chenzhi Zhu
This paper proposes the first practical pairing-free three-move blind signature schemes that (1) are concurrently secure, (2) produce short signatures (i.e., {\em three} or {\em four} group elements/scalars), and (3) are provably secure either in the generic group model (GGM) or the algebraic group model (AGM) under the (plain or one-more) discrete logarithm assumption (beyond additionally assuming random oracles). We also propose a partially blind version of one of our schemes. Our schemes do not rely on the hardness of the ROS problem (which can be broken in polynomial time) or of the mROS problem (which admits sub-exponential attacks). The only prior work with these properties is Abe's signature scheme (EUROCRYPT '02), which was recently proved to be secure in the AGM by Kastner et al. (PKC '22), but which also produces signatures twice as long as those from our scheme. The core of our proofs of security is a new problem, called {\em weighted} {\em fractional} ROS (WFROS), for which we prove (unconditional) exponential lower bounds.
2022
EUROCRYPT
Hiding in Plain Sight: Memory-tight Proofs via Randomness Programming 📺
This paper continues the study of {\em memory-tight reductions} (Auerbach et al, CRYPTO '17). These are reductions that only incur minimal memory costs over those of the original adversary, allowing precise security statements for memory-bounded adversaries (under appropriate assumptions expressed in terms of adversary time and memory usage). Despite its importance, only a few techniques to achieve memory-tightness are known and impossibility results in prior works show that even basic, textbook reductions cannot be made memory-tight. This paper introduces a new class of memory-tight reductions which leverage random strings in the interaction with the adversary to hide state information, thus shifting the memory costs to the adversary. We exhibit this technique with several examples. We give memory-tight proofs for digital signatures allowing many forgery attempts when considering randomized message distributions or probabilistic RSA-FDH signatures specifically. We prove security of the authenticated encryption scheme Encrypt-then-PRF with a memory-tight reduction to the underlying encryption scheme. By considering specific schemes or restricted definitions we avoid generic impossibility results of Auerbach et al.~(CRYPTO '17) and Ghoshal et al.~(CRYPTO '20). As a further case study, we consider the textbook equivalence of CCA-security for public-key encryption for one or multiple encryption queries. We show two qualitatively different memory-tight versions of this result, depending on the considered notion of CCA security.
2022
CRYPTO
Better than Advertised Security for Non-Interactive Threshold Signatures
We give a unified syntax, and a hierarchy of definitions of security of increasing strength, for non-interactive threshold signature schemes. These are schemes having a single-round signing protocol, possibly with one prior round of message-independent pre-processing. We fit FROST1 and BLS, which are leading practical schemes, into our hierarchy, in particular showing they meet stronger security definitions than they have been shown to meet so far. We also fit in our hierarchy a more efficient version FROST2 of FROST1 that we give. These definitions and results, for simplicity, all assume trusted key generation. Finally, we prove the security of FROST2 with key generation performed by an efficient distributed key generation protocol.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Password Hashing and Preprocessing 📺
Pooya Farshim Stefano Tessaro
How does the cryptanalytic effort needed to compromise t out of m instances of hashed passwords scale with the number of users when arbitrary preprocessing information on the hash function is available? We provide a formal treatment of this problem in the multi-instance setting with auxiliary information. A central contribution of our work is an (arguably simple) transcript-counting argument that allows us to resolve a fundamental question left open by Bellare, Ristenpart, and Tessaro (BRT; CRYPTO 2012) in multi-instance security. We leverage this proof technique to formally justify unrecoverability of hashed salted passwords in the presence of auxiliary information in the random-oracle model. To this end we utilize the recent pre-sampling techniques for dealing with auxiliary information developed by Coretti et al. (CRYPTO 2018). Our bounds closely match those commonly assumed in practice. Besides hashing of passwords through a monolithic random oracle, we consider the effect of iteration, a technique that is used in classical mechanisms, such as bcrypt and PBKDF2, to slow down the rate of guessing. Building on the work of BRT, we formulate a notion of KDF security, also in the presence of auxiliary information, and prove an appropriate composition theorem for it.
2021
CRYPTO
Tight State-Restoration Soundness in the Algebraic Group Model 📺
Ashrujit Ghoshal Stefano Tessaro
Most efficient zero-knowledge arguments lack a concrete security analysis, making parameter choices and efficiency comparisons challenging. This is even more true for non-interactive versions of these systems obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform, for which the security guarantees generically derived from the interactive protocol are often too weak, even when assuming a random oracle. This paper initiates the study of {\em state-restoration soundness} in the algebraic group model (AGM) of Fuchsbauer, Kiltz, and Loss (CRYPTO '18). This is a stronger notion of soundness for an interactive proof or argument which allows the prover to rewind the verifier, and which is tightly connected with the concrete soundness of the non-interactive argument obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform. We propose a general methodology to prove tight bounds on state-restoration soundness, and apply it to variants of Bulletproofs (Bootle et al, S\&P '18) and Sonic (Maller et al., CCS '19). To the best of our knowledge, our analysis of Bulletproofs gives the {\em first} non-trivial concrete security analysis for a non-constant round argument combined with the Fiat-Shamir transform.
2021
CRYPTO
The $t$-wise Independence of Substitution-Permutation Networks 📺
Block ciphers such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) are used extensively in practice, yet our understanding of their security continues to be highly incomplete. This paper promotes and continues a research program aimed at {\em proving} the security of block ciphers against important and well-studied classes of attacks. In particular, we initiate the study of (almost) $t$-wise independence of concrete block-cipher construction paradigms such as substitution-permutation networks and key-alternating ciphers. Sufficiently strong (almost) pairwise independence already suffices to resist (truncated) differential attacks and linear cryptanalysis, and hence this is a relevant and meaningful target. Our results are two-fold. Our first result concerns substitution-permutation networks (SPNs) that model ciphers such as AES. We prove the almost pairwise-independence of an SPN instantiated with concrete S-boxes together with an appropriate linear mixing layer, given sufficiently many rounds and independent sub-keys. Our proof relies on a {\em characterization} of S-box computation on input differences in terms of sampling output differences from certain subspaces, and a new randomness extraction lemma (which we prove with Fourier-analytic techniques) that establishes when such sampling yields uniformity. We use our techniques in particular to prove almost pairwise-independence for sufficiently many rounds of both the AES block cipher (which uses a variant of the patched inverse function $x \mapsto x^{-1}$ as the $S$-box) and the MiMC block cipher (which uses the cubing function $x \mapsto x^3$ as the $S$-box), assuming independent sub-keys. Secondly, we show that instantiating a key-alternating cipher (which can be thought of as a degenerate case of SPNs) with most permutations gives us (almost) $t$-wise independence in $t + o(t)$ rounds. In order to do this, we use the probabilistic method to develop two new lemmas, an {\em independence-amplification lemma} and a {\em distance amplification lemma}, that allow us to reason about the evolution of key-alternating ciphers.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Better Security-Efficiency Trade-Offs in Permutation-Based Two-Party Computation 📺
Yu Long Chen Stefano Tessaro
We improve upon the security of (tweakable) correlation-robust hash functions, which are essential components of garbling schemes and oblivious-transfer extension schemes. We in particular focus on constructions from permutations, and improve upon the work by Guo etal. (IEEE S\&P '20) in terms of security and efficiency. We present a tweakable one-call construction which matches the security of the most secure two-call construction -- the resulting security bound takes form O((p+q)q/2^n), where q is the number of construction evaluations and p is the number of direct adversarial queries to the underlying n-bit permutation, which is modeled as random. Moreover, we present a new two-call construction with much better security degradation -- in particular, for applications of interest, where only a constant number of evaluations per tweak are made, the security degrades as O((\sqrt{q} p+q^2)/2^n). Our security proof relies on on the sum-capture theorems (Babai ’02; Steinberger ’12, Cogliati and Seurin ’18), as well as on new balls-into-bins combinatorial lemmas for limited independence ball-throws. Of independent interest, we also provide a self-contained concrete security treatment of oblivious transfer extension.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tight Security for Key-Alternating Ciphers with Correlated Sub-Keys 📺
Stefano Tessaro Xihu Zhang
A substantial effort has been devoted to proving optimal bounds for the security of key-alternating ciphers with independent sub-keys in the random permutation model (e.g., Chen and Steinberger, EUROCRYPT '14; Hoang and Tessaro, CRYPTO '16). While common in the study of multi-round constructions, the assumption that sub-keys are truly independent is not realistic, as these are generally highly correlated and generated from shorter keys. In this paper, we show the existence of non-trivial distributions of limited independence for which a t-round key-alternating cipher achieves optimal security. Our work is a natural continuation of the work of Chen et al. (CRYPTO '14) which considered the case of t = 2 when all-subkeys are identical. Here, we show that key-alternating ciphers remain secure for a large class of (t-1)-wise and (t-2)-wise independent distribution of sub-keys. Our proofs proceed by generalizations of the so-called Sum-Capture Theorem, which we prove using Fourier-analytic techniques.
2021
TCC
Quantum Key-length Extension 📺
Joseph Jaeger Fang Song Stefano Tessaro
Should quantum computers become available, they will reduce the effective key length of basic secret-key primitives, such as blockciphers. To address this we will either need to use blockciphers with inherently longer keys or develop key-length extension techniques to amplify the security of a blockcipher to use longer keys. We consider the latter approach and revisit the FX and double encryption constructions. Classically, FX was proven to be a secure key-length extension technique, while double encryption fails to be more secure than single encryption due to a meet-in-the-middle attack. In this work we provide positive results, with concrete and tight bounds, for the security of both of these constructions against quantum attackers in ideal models. For FX, we consider a partially-quantum model, where the attacker has quantum access to the ideal primitive, but only classical access to FX. This is a natural model and also the strongest possible, since effective quantum attacks against FX exist in the fully-quantum model when quantum access is granted to both oracles. We provide two results for FX in this model. The first establishes the security of FX against non-adaptive attackers. The second establishes security against general adaptive attackers for a variant of FX using a random oracle in place of an ideal cipher. This result relies on the techniques of Zhandry (CRYPTO '19) for lazily sampling a quantum random oracle. An extension to perfectly lazily sampling a quantum random permutation, which would help resolve the adaptive security of standard FX, is an important but challenging open question. We introduce techniques for partially-quantum proofs without relying on analyzing the classical and quantum oracles separately, which is common in existing work. This may be of broader interest. For double encryption, we show that it amplifies strong pseudorandom permutation security in the fully-quantum model, strengthening a known result in the weaker sense of key-recovery security. This is done by adapting a technique of Tessaro and Thiruvengadam (TCC '18) to reduce the security to the difficulty of solving the list disjointness problem and then showing its hardness via a chain of reductions to the known quantum difficulty of the element distinctness problem.
2020
EUROCRYPT
On the Memory-Tightness of Hashed ElGamal 📺
Ashrujit Ghoshal Stefano Tessaro
We study the memory-tightness of security reductions in public-key cryptography, focusing in particular on Hashed ElGamal. We prove that any {\em straightline} (i.e., without rewinding) black-box reduction needs memory which grows linearly with the number of queries of the adversary it has access to, as long as this reduction treats the underlying group generically. This makes progress towards proving a conjecture by Auerbach {\em et al.} (CRYPTO 2017), and is also the first lower bound on memory-tightness for a concrete cryptographic scheme (as opposed to generalized reductions across security notions). Our proof relies on compression arguments in the generic group model.
2020
CRYPTO
The Memory-Tightness of Authenticated Encryption 📺
This paper initiates the study of the provable security of authenticated encryption (AE) in the memory-bounded setting. Recent works -- Tessaro and Thiruvengadam (TCC '18), Jaeger and Tessaro (EUROCRYPT '19), and Dinur (EUROCRYPT '20) -- focus on confidentiality, and look at schemes for which trade-offs between the attacker's memory and its data complexity are inherent. Here, we ask whether these results and techniques can be lifted to the full AE setting, which additionally asks for integrity. We show both positive and negative results. On the positive side, we provide tight memory-sensitive bounds for the security of GCM and its generalization, CAU (Bellare and Tackmann, CRYPTO '16). Our bounds apply to a restricted case of AE security which abstracts the deployment within protocols like TLS, and rely on a new memory-tight reduction to corresponding restricted notions of confidentiality and integrity. In particular, our reduction uses an amount of memory which linearly depends on that of the given adversary, as opposed to only imposing a constant memory overhead as in earlier works (Auerbach et al, CRYPTO '17). On the negative side, we show that a large class of black-box reductions cannot generically lift confidentiality and integrity security to a joint definition of AE security in a memory-tight way.
2020
TCC
Towards Defeating Backdoored Random Oracles: Indifferentiability with Bounded Adaptivity 📺
In the backdoored random-oracle (BRO) model, besides access to a random function $\hash$, adversaries are provided with a backdoor oracle that can compute arbitrary leakage functions $f$ of the function table of $\hash$. Thus, an adversary would be able to invert points, find collisions, test for membership in certain sets, and more. This model was introduced in the work of Bauer, Farshim, and Mazaheri (Crypto 2018) and extends the auxiliary-input idealized models of Unruh (Crypto 2007), Dodis, Guo, and Katz (Eurocrypt 2017), Coretti et al. (Eurocrypt 2018), and Coretti, Dodis, and Guo (Crypto~2018). It was shown that certain security properties, such as one-wayness, pseudorandomness, and collision resistance can be re-established by combining two independent BROs, even if the adversary has access to both backdoor oracles. In this work we further develop the technique of combining two or more independent BROs to render their backdoors useless in a more general sense. More precisely, we study the question of building an \emph{indifferentiable} and backdoor-free random function by combining multiple BROs. Achieving full indifferentiability in this model seems very challenging at the moment. We however make progress by showing that the xor combiner goes well beyond security against preprocessing attacks and offers indifferentiability as long as the adaptivity of queries to different backdoor oracles remains logarithmic in the input size of the BROs. We even show that an extractor-based combiner of three BROs can achieve indifferentiability with respect to a linear adaptivity of backdoor queries. Furthermore, a natural restriction of our definition gives rise to a notion of \emph{indifferentiability with auxiliary input}, for which we give two positive feasibility results. To prove these results we build on and refine techniques by Göös et al. (STOC 2015) and Kothari et al. (STOC 2017) for decomposing distributions with high entropy into distributions with more structure and show how they can be applied in the more involved adaptive settings.
2020
TCC
Super-Linear Time-Memory Trade-Offs for Symmetric Encryption 📺
Wei Dai Stefano Tessaro Xihu Zhang
We build symmetric encryption schemes from a pseudorandom function/permutation with domain size $N$ which have very high security -- in terms of the amount of messages $q$ they can securely encrypt -- assuming the adversary has $S < N$ bits of memory. We aim to minimize the number of calls $k$ we make to the underlying primitive to achieve a certain $q$, or equivalently, to maximize the achievable $q$ for a given $k$. We target in particular $q \gg N$, in contrast to recent works (Jaeger and Tessaro, EUROCRYPT '19; Dinur, EUROCRYPT '20) which aim to beat the birthday barrier with one call when $S < \sqrt{N}$. Our first result gives new and explicit bounds for the Sample-then-Extract paradigm by Tessaro and Thiruvengadam (TCC '18). We show instantiations for which $q =\Omega((N/S)^{k})$. If $S < N^{1- \alpha}$, Thiruvengadam and Tessaro's weaker bounds only guarantee $q > N$ when $k = \Omega(\log N)$. In contrast, here, we show this is true already for $k = O(1/\alpha)$. We also consider a scheme by Bellare, Goldreich and Krawczyk (CRYPTO '99) which evaluates the primitive at $k$ independent random strings, and masks the message with the XOR of the outputs. Here, we show $q= \Omega((N/S)^{k/2})$, using new combinatorial bounds on the list-decodability of XOR codes which are of independent interest. We also study best-possible attacks against this construction.
2020
TCC
Expected-Time Cryptography: Generic Techniques and Applications to Concrete Soundness 📺
Joseph Jaeger Stefano Tessaro
This paper studies concrete security with respect to expected-time adversaries. Our first contribution is a set of generic tools to obtain tight bounds on the advantage of an adversary with expected-time guarantees. We apply these tools to derive bounds in the random-oracle and generic-group models, which we show to be tight. As our second contribution, we use these results to derive concrete bounds on the soundness of public-coin proofs and arguments of knowledge. Under the lens of concrete security, we revisit a paradigm by Bootle at al. (EUROCRYPT '16) that proposes a general Forking Lemma for multi-round protocols which implements a rewinding strategy with expected-time guarantees. We give a tighter analysis, as well as a modular statement. We adopt this to obtain the first quantitative bounds on the soundness of Bulletproofs (Bünz et al., S&P 2018), which we instantiate with our expected-time generic-group analysis to surface inherent dependence between the concrete security and the statement to be proved.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Tight Time-Memory Trade-Offs for Symmetric Encryption 📺
Joseph Jaeger Stefano Tessaro
Concrete security proofs give upper bounds on the attacker’s advantage as a function of its time/query complexity. Cryptanalysis suggests however that other resource limitations – most notably, the attacker’s memory – could make the achievable advantage smaller, and thus these proven bounds too pessimistic. Yet, handling memory limitations has eluded existing security proofs.This paper initiates the study of time-memory trade-offs for basic symmetric cryptography. We show that schemes like counter-mode encryption, which are affected by the Birthday Bound, become more secure (in terms of time complexity) as the attacker’s memory is reduced.One key step of this work is a generalization of the Switching Lemma: For adversaries with S bits of memory issuing q distinct queries, we prove an n-to-n bit random function indistinguishable from a permutation as long as $$S \times q \ll 2^n$$S×q≪2n. This result assumes a combinatorial conjecture, which we discuss, and implies right away trade-offs for deterministic, stateful versions of CTR and OFB encryption.We also show an unconditional time-memory trade-off for the security of randomized CTR based on a secure PRF. Via the aforementioned conjecture, we extend the result to assuming a PRP instead, assuming only one-block messages are encrypted.Our results solely rely on standard PRF/PRP security of an underlying block cipher. We frame the core of our proofs within a general framework of indistinguishability for streaming algorithms which may be of independent interest.
2019
CRYPTO
Seedless Fruit Is the Sweetest: Random Number Generation, Revisited 📺
The need for high-quality randomness in cryptography makes random-number generation one of its most fundamental tasks.A recent important line of work (initiated by Dodis et al., CCS ’13) focuses on the notion of robustness for pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) with inputs. These are primitives that use various sources to accumulate sufficient entropy into a state, from which pseudorandom bits are extracted. Robustness ensures that PRNGs remain secure even under state compromise and adversarial control of entropy sources. However, the achievability of robustness inherently depends on a seed, or, alternatively, on an ideal primitive (e.g., a random oracle), independent of the source of entropy. Both assumptions are problematic: seed generation requires randomness to start with, and it is arguable whether the seed or the ideal primitive can be kept independent of the source. This paper resolves this dilemma by putting forward new notions of robustness which enable both (1) seedless PRNGs and (2) primitive-dependent adversarial sources of entropy. To bypass obvious impossibility results, we make a realistic compromise by requiring that the source produce sufficient entropy even given its evaluations of the underlying primitive. We also provide natural, practical, and provably secure constructions based on hash-function designs from compression functions, block ciphers, and permutations. Our constructions can be instantiated with minimal changes to industry-standard hash functions SHA-2 and SHA-3, or key derivation function HKDF, and can be downgraded to (online) seedless randomness extractors, which are of independent interest.On the way we consider both a computational variant of robustness, where attackers only make a bounded number of queries to the ideal primitive, as well as a new information-theoretic variant, which dispenses with this assumption to a certain extent, at the price of requiring a high rate of injected weak randomness (as it is, e.g., plausible on Intel’s on-chip RNG). The latter notion enables applications such as everlasting security. Finally, we show that the CBC extractor, used by Intel’s on-chip RNG, is provably insecure in our model.
2019
CRYPTO
Memory-Hard Functions from Cryptographic Primitives 📺
Binyi Chen Stefano Tessaro
Memory-hard functions (MHFs) are moderately-hard functions which enforce evaluation costs both in terms of time and memory (often, in form of a trade-off). They are used e.g. for password protection, password-based key-derivation, and within cryptocurrencies, and have received a considerable amount of theoretical scrutiny over the last few years. However, analyses see MHFs as modes of operation of some underlying hash function $$\mathcal {H}$$, modeled as a monolithic random oracle. This is however a very strong assumption, as such hash functions are built from much simpler primitives, following somewhat ad-hoc design paradigms.This paper initiates the study of how to securely instantiate $$\mathcal {H}$$ within MHF designs using common cryptographic primitives like block ciphers, compression functions, and permutations. Security here will be in a model in which the adversary has parallel access to an idealized version of the underlying primitive. We will provide provably memory-hard constructions from all the aforementioned primitives. Our results are generic, in that we will rely on hard-to-pebble graphs designed in prior works to obtain our constructions.One particular challenge we encounter is that $$\mathcal {H}$$ is usually required to have large outputs (to increase memory hardness without changing the description size of MHFs), whereas the underlying primitives generally have small output sizes.
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
EUROCRYPT
2018
CRYPTO
The Curse of Small Domains: New Attacks on Format-Preserving Encryption 📺
Viet Tung Hoang Stefano Tessaro Ni Trieu
Format-preserving encryption (FPE) produces ciphertexts which have the same format as the plaintexts. Building secure FPE is very challenging, and recent attacks (Bellare, Hoang, Tessaro, CCS ’16; Durak and Vaudenay, CRYPTO ’17) have highlighted security deficiencies in the recent NIST SP800-38G standard. This has left the question open of whether practical schemes with high security exist.In this paper, we continue the investigation of attacks against FPE schemes. Our first contribution are new known-plaintext message recovery attacks against Feistel-based FPEs (such as FF1/FF3 from the NIST SP800-38G standard) which improve upon previous work in terms of amortized complexity in multi-target scenarios, where multiple ciphertexts are to be decrypted. Our attacks are also qualitatively better in that they make no assumptions on the correlation between the targets to be decrypted and the known plaintexts. We also surface a new vulnerability specific to FF3 and how it handles odd length domains, which leads to a substantial speedup in our attacks.We also show the first attacks against non-Feistel based FPEs. Specifically, we show a strong message-recovery attack for FNR, a construction proposed by Cisco which replaces two rounds in the Feistel construction with a pairwise-independent permutation, following the paradigm by Naor and Reingold (JoC, ’99). We also provide a strong ciphertext-only attack against a variant of the DTP construction by Brightwell and Smith, which is deployed by Protegrity within commercial applications. All of our attacks show that existing constructions fall short of achieving desirable security levels. For Feistel and the FNR schemes, our attacks become feasible on small domains, e.g., 8 bits, for suggested round numbers. Our attack against the DTP construction is practical even for large domains. We provide proof-of-concept implementations of our attacks that verify our theoretical findings.
2018
TCC
Provable Time-Memory Trade-Offs: Symmetric Cryptography Against Memory-Bounded Adversaries
Stefano Tessaro Aishwarya Thiruvengadam
We initiate the study of symmetric encryption in a regime where the memory of the adversary is bounded. For a block cipher with n-bit blocks, we present modes of operation for encryption and authentication that guarantee security beyond$$2^n$$ encrypted/authenticated messages, as long as (1) the adversary’s memory is restricted to be less than $$2^n$$ bits, and (2) the key of the block cipher is long enough to mitigate memory-less key-search attacks. This is the first proposal of a setting which allows to bypass the $$2^n$$ barrier under a reasonable assumption on the adversarial resources.Motivated by the above, we also discuss the problem of stretching the key of a block cipher in the setting where the memory of the adversary is bounded. We show a tight equivalence between the security of double encryption in the ideal-cipher model and the hardness of a special case of the element distinctness problem, which we call the list-disjointness problem. Our result in particular implies a conditional lower bound on time-memory trade-offs to break PRP security of double encryption, assuming optimality of the worst-case complexity of existing algorithms for list disjointness.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
CRYPTO
2017
CRYPTO
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2016
CRYPTO
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
TCC
2016
JOFC
2015
TCC
2015
FSE
2015
CRYPTO
2015
ASIACRYPT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2014
EUROCRYPT
2014
PKC
2014
ASIACRYPT
2013
TCC
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
EUROCRYPT
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2012
CRYPTO
2011
TCC
2010
TCC
2010
ASIACRYPT
2009
ASIACRYPT
2009
CRYPTO
2008
ASIACRYPT
2007
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2019
Crypto 2017
TCC 2017
TCC 2015
Crypto 2014
Asiacrypt 2014
TCC 2013
Crypto 2011