International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Maria Eichlseder

Affiliation: TU Graz, Austria

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2018
CRYPTO
Rasta: A Cipher with Low ANDdepth and Few ANDs per Bit 📺
Recent developments in multi party computation (MPC) and fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) promoted the design and analysis of symmetric cryptographic schemes that minimize multiplications in one way or another. In this paper, we propose with Rastaa design strategy for symmetric encryption that has ANDdepth d and at the same time only needs d ANDs per encrypted bit. Even for very low values of d between 2 and 6 we can give strong evidence that attacks may not exist. This contributes to a better understanding of the limits of what concrete symmetric-key constructions can theoretically achieve with respect to AND-related metrics, and is to the best of our knowledge the first attempt that minimizes both metrics simultaneously. Furthermore, we can give evidence that for choices of d between 4 and 6 the resulting implementation properties may well be competitive by testing our construction in the use-case of removing the large ciphertext-expansion when using the BGV scheme.
2018
TCHES
SIFA: Exploiting Ineffective Fault Inductions on Symmetric Cryptography
Since the seminal work of Boneh et al., the threat of fault attacks has been widely known and techniques for fault attacks and countermeasures have been studied extensively. The vast majority of the literature on fault attacks focuses on the ability of fault attacks to change an intermediate value to a faulty one, such as differential fault analysis (DFA), collision fault analysis, statistical fault attack (SFA), fault sensitivity analysis, or differential fault intensity analysis (DFIA). The other aspect of faults—that faults can be induced and do not change a value—has been researched far less. In case of symmetric ciphers, ineffective fault attacks (IFA) exploit this aspect. However, IFA relies on the ability of an attacker to reliably induce reproducible deterministic faults like stuck-at faults on parts of small values (e.g., one bit or byte), which is often considered to be impracticable.As a consequence, most countermeasures against fault attacks do not focus on such attacks, but on attacks exploiting changes of intermediate values and usually try to detect such a change (detection-based), or to destroy the exploitable information if a fault happens (infective countermeasures). Such countermeasures implicitly assume that the release of “fault-free” ciphertexts in the presence of a fault-inducing attacker does not reveal any exploitable information. In this work, we show that this assumption is not valid and we present novel fault attacks that work in the presence of detection-based and infective countermeasures. The attacks exploit the fact that intermediate values leading to “fault-free” ciphertexts show a non-uniform distribution, while they should be distributed uniformly. The presented attacks are entirely practical and are demonstrated to work for software implementations of AES and for a hardware co-processor. These practical attacks rely on fault induction by means of clock glitches and hence, are achieved using only low-cost equipment. This is feasible because our attack is very robust under noisy fault induction attempts and does not require the attacker to model or profile the exact fault effect. We target two types of countermeasures as examples: simple time redundancy with comparison and several infective countermeasures. However, our attacks can be applied to a wider range of countermeasures and are not restricted to these two countermeasures.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of MORUS
MORUS is a high-performance authenticated encryption algorithm submitted to the CAESAR competition, and recently selected as a finalist. There are three versions of MORUS: MORUS-640 with a 128-bit key, and MORUS-1280 with 128-bit or 256-bit keys. For all versions the security claim for confidentiality matches the key size. In this paper, we analyze the components of this algorithm (initialization, state update and tag generation), and report several results.As our main result, we present a linear correlation in the keystream of full MORUS, which can be used to distinguish its output from random and to recover some plaintext bits in the broadcast setting. For MORUS-1280, the correlation is $$2^{-76}$$, which can be exploited after around $$2^{152}$$ encryptions, less than what would be expected for a 256-bit secure cipher. For MORUS-640, the same attack results in a correlation of $$2^{-73}$$, which does not violate the security claims of the cipher.To identify this correlation, we make use of rotational invariants in MORUS using linear masks that are invariant by word-rotations of the state. This motivates us to introduce single-word versions of MORUS called MiniMORUS, which simplifies the analysis. The attack has been implemented and verified on MiniMORUS, where it yields a correlation of $$2^{-16}$$.We also study reduced versions of the initialization and finalization of MORUS, aiming to evaluate the security margin of these components. We show a forgery attack when finalization is reduced from 10 steps to 3, and a key-recovery attack in the nonce-misuse setting when initialization is reduced from 16 steps to 10. These additional results do not threaten the full MORUS, but studying all aspects of the design is useful to understand its strengths and weaknesses.
2018
ASIACRYPT
Statistical Ineffective Fault Attacks on Masked AES with Fault Countermeasures
Implementation attacks like side-channel and fault attacks are a threat to deployed devices especially if an attacker has physical access. As a consequence, devices like smart cards and IoT devices usually provide countermeasures against implementation attacks, such as masking against side-channel attacks and detection-based countermeasures like temporal or spacial redundancy against fault attacks. In this paper, we show how to attack implementations protected with both masking and detection-based fault countermeasures by using statistical ineffective fault attacks using a single fault induction per execution. Our attacks are largely unaffected by the deployed protection order of masking and the level of redundancy of the detection-based countermeasure. These observations show that the combination of masking plus error detection alone may not provide sufficient protection against implementation attacks.
2018
TOSC
Clustering Related-Tweak Characteristics: Application to MANTIS-6 📺
Maria Eichlseder Daniel Kales
The TWEAKEY/STK construction is an increasingly popular approach for designing tweakable block ciphers that notably uses a linear tweakey schedule. Several recent attacks have analyzed the implications of this approach for differential cryptanalysis and other attacks that can take advantage of related tweakeys. We generalize the clustering approach of a recent differential attack on the tweakable block cipher MANTIS5 and describe a tool for efficiently finding and evaluating such clusters. More specifically, we consider the set of all differential characteristics compatible with a given truncated characteristic, tweak difference, and optional constraints for the differential. We refer to this set as a semi-truncated characteristic and estimate its probability by analyzing the distribution of compatible differences at each step. We apply this approach to find a semi-truncated differential characteristic for MANTIS6 with probability about 2−67.73 and derive a key-recovery attack with a complexity of about 255.09 chosen-plaintext queries and 255.52 computations. The data-time product is 2110.61 << 2126.
2017
TOSC
ISAP - Towards Side-Channel Secure Authenticated Encryption
Side-channel attacks and in particular differential power analysis (DPA) attacks pose a serious threat to cryptographic implementations. One approach to counteract such attacks are cryptographic schemes based on fresh re-keying. In settings of pre-shared secret keys, such schemes render DPA attacks infeasible by deriving session keys and by ensuring that the attacker cannot collect side-channel leakage on the session key during cryptographic operations with different inputs. While these schemes can be applied to secure standard communication settings, current re-keying approaches are unable to provide protection in settings where the same input needs to be processed multiple times. In this work, we therefore adapt the re-keying approach and present a symmetric authenticated encryption scheme that is secure against DPA attacks and that does not have such a usage restriction. This means that our scheme fully complies with the requirements given in the CAESAR call and hence, can be used like other noncebased authenticated encryption schemes without loss of side-channel protection. Its resistance against side-channel analysis is highly relevant for several applications in practice, like bulk storage settings in general and the protection of FPGA bitfiles and firmware images in particular.
2016
FSE
2016
ASIACRYPT
2016
TOSC
Practical Key-Recovery Attack on MANTIS5
MANTIS is a lightweight tweakable block cipher published at CRYPTO 2016. In addition to the full 14-round version, MANTIS7, the designers also propose an aggressive 10-round version, MANTIS5. The security claim for MANTIS5 is resistance against “practical attacks”, defined as related-tweak attacks with data complexity 2d less than 230 chosen plaintexts (or 240 known plaintexts), and computational complexity at most 2126−d. We present a key-recovery attack against MANTIS5 with 228 chosen plaintexts and a computational complexity of about 238 block cipher calls, which violates this claim. Our attack is based on a family of differential characteristics and exploits several properties of the lightweight round function and tweakey schedule. To verify the validity of the attack, we also provide a practical implementation which recovers the full key in about 1 core hour using 230 chosen plaintexts.
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
EPRINT
2015
FSE
2015
ASIACRYPT
2015
ASIACRYPT
2014
EPRINT
2014
FSE

Program Committees

Eurocrypt 2020
FSE 2020
FSE 2019
FSE 2018