## CryptoDB

### Akshayaram Srinivasan

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Two-Round Maliciously-Secure Oblivious Transfer with Optimal Rate
Abstract

We give a construction of a two-round batch oblivious transfer (OT) protocol in the CRS model that is UC-secure against malicious adversaries and has (near) optimal communication cost. Specifically, to perform a batch of $k$ oblivious transfers where the sender's inputs are bits, the sender and the receiver need to communicate a total of $3k + o(k) \cdot \mathsf{poly}(\lambda)$ bits. We argue that $3k$ bits are required by any protocol with a black-box and straight-line simulator. The security of our construction is proven assuming the hardness of Quadratic Residuosity (QR) and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN).

2024

PKC

Rate-1 Fully Local Somewhere Extractable Hashing from DDH
Abstract

Somewhere statistically binding (SSB) hashing allows us to sample a special hashing key such that the digest statistically binds the input at $m$ secret locations. This hash function is said to be somewhere extractable (SE) if there is an additional trapdoor that allows the extraction of the input bits at the $m$ locations from the digest.
Devadas, Goyal, Kalai, and Vaikuntanathan (FOCS 22) introduced a variant of somewhere extractable hashing called rate-1 fully local SE hash functions. The rate-1 requirement states that the size of the digest is $m + \polyn(\lambda)$ (where $\lambda$ is the security parameter). The fully local property requires that for any index $i$, there is a ``very short" opening showing that $i$-th bit of the hashed input is equal to $b$ for some $b \in \bin$. The size of this opening is required to be independent of $m$ and in particular, this means that its size is independent of the size of the digest. Devadas et al. gave such a construction from Learning with Errors (LWE).
In this work, we give a construction of a rate-1 fully local somewhere extractable hash function from Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and BARGs. Under the same assumptions, we give constructions of rate-1 BARG and RAM SNARG with partial input soundness whose proof sizes are only matched by prior constructions based on LWE.

2024

TCC

Secure Computation with Parallel Calls to 2-ary Functions
Abstract

Reductions are the workhorses of cryptography. They allow constructions of complex cryptographic primitives from simple building blocks. A prominent example is the non-interactive reduction from securely computing a ``complex" function f to securely computing a ``simple" function g via randomized encodings.
Prior work equated simplicity with functions of small degree. In this work, we consider a different notion of simplicity where we require g to only take inputs from a small number of parties. In other words, we want the arity of g to be as small as possible.
In more detail, we consider the problem of reducing secure computation of arbitrary functions to secure computation of functions with arity two (two is the minimal arity required to compute non-trivial functions). Specifically, we want to compute a function f via a protocol that makes parallel calls to a 2-ary function g. We want this protocol to be secure against malicious adversaries that could corrupt an arbitrary number of parties. We obtain the following results:
- Negative Result: We show that there exists a degree-2 polynomial p such that no protocol that makes parallel calls to 2-ary functions can compute p with statistical security with abort.
- Positive Results: We give two ways to bypass the above impossibility result.
1. Weakening the Security Notion. We show that every degree-2 polynomial can be computed with statistical privacy with knowledge of outputs (PwKO) by making parallel calls to a 2-ary function. Privacy with knowledge of outputs is weaker than security with abort.
2. Computational Security. We prove that for every function f, there exists a protocol for computing f that makes parallel calls to a 2-ary function and achieves security with abort against computationally-bounded adversaries. The security of this protocol relies on the existence of semi-honest secure oblivious transfer.
- Applications: We give connections between this problem and the task of reducing the encoding complexity of Multiparty Randomized Encodings (MPRE) (Applebaum, Brakerski, and Tsabary, TCC 2018). Specifically, we show that under standard computational assumptions, there exists an MPRE where the encoder can be implemented by an NC0 circuit with constant fan-out.
- Extensions: We explore this problem in the honest majority setting and give similar results assuming one-way functions. We also show that if the parties have access to 3-ary functions then we can construct a computationally secure protocol in the dishonest majority setting assuming one-way functions.

2023

CRYPTO

Round-Optimal Black-Box MPC in the Plain Model
Abstract

We give the first construction of a (fully) black-box round-
optimal secure multiparty computation protocol in the plain model. Our
protocol makes black-box use of a sub-exponentially secure two-message
statistical sender private oblivious transfer (SSP-OT), which in turn can
be based on (sub-exponential variants of) most of the standard cryptographic assumptions known to imply public-key cryptography

2023

EUROCRYPT

Black-Box Reusable NISC with Random Oracles
Abstract

We revisit the problem of {\em reusable} non-interactive secure computation (NISC). A standard NISC protocol for a sender-receiver functionality $f$ enables the receiver to encrypt its input $x$ such that any sender, on input $y$, can send back a message revealing only $f(x,y)$. Security should hold even when either party can be malicious. A {\em reusable} NISC protocol has the additional feature that the receiver's message can be safely reused for computing multiple outputs $f(x,y_i)$. Here security should hold even when a malicious sender can learn partial information about the honest receiver's outputs in each session.
We present the first reusable NISC protocol for general functions $f$ that only makes a {\em black-box} use of any two-message oblivious transfer protocol, along with a random oracle. All previous reusable NISC protocols either made a non-black-box use of cryptographic primitives (Cachin et al., ICALP 2002) or alternatively required a stronger arithmetic variant of oblivious transfer and were restricted to $f$ in $\mathsf{NC}^1$ or similar classes (Chase et al., Crypto 2019). Our result is obtained via a general compiler from standard NISC to reusable NISC that makes use of special type of honest-majority protocols for secure multiparty computation.
Finally, we extend the above main result to reusable {\em two-sided} NISC, in which two parties can encrypt their inputs in the first round and then reveal different functions of their inputs in multiple sessions. This extension either requires an additional (black-box) use of additively homomorphic commitment or alternatively requires the parties to maintain a state between sessions.

2023

CRYPTO

A Framework for Statistically Sender Private OT with Optimal Rate
Abstract

Statistical sender privacy (SSP) is the strongest achievable security notion for two-message oblivious transfer (OT) in the standard model, providing statistical security against malicious receivers and computational security against semi-honest senders. In this work we provide a novel construction of SSP OT from the Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumptions achieving (asymptotically) optimal amortized communication complexity, i.e. it achieves rate 1. Concretely, the total communication complexity for $k$ OT instances is $2k(1+o(1))$, which (asymptotically) approaches the information-theoretic lower bound. Previously, it was only known how to realize this primitive using heavy rate-1 FHE techniques [Brakerski et al., Gentry and Halevi TCC'19].
At the heart of our construction is a primitive called statistical co-PIR, essentially a a public key encryption scheme which statistically erases bits of the message in a few hidden locations. Our scheme achieves nearly optimal ciphertext size and provides statistical security against malicious receivers. Computational security against semi-honest senders holds under the DDH assumption.

2023

CRYPTO

Secure Computation with Shared EPR Pairs (Or: How to Teleport in Zero-Knowledge)
Abstract

Can a sender non-interactively transmit one of two strings to a receiver without knowing which was received? Does there exist minimally-interactive secure computation without the use of public-key primitives? We provide affirmative answers to these questions in a model where parties have access to shared EPR pairs, thus demonstrating the cryptographic power of this resource.
- First, we construct one-shot string oblivious transfer (OT) in the shared EPR pair model, assuming the sub-exponential hardness of LWE. Building on this, we show that {\em secure teleportation} is possible: Given the description of any quantum operation $Q$, a sender with input $\rho$ can send a single classical message that securely transmits $Q(\rho)$ to a receiver. That is, we realize an ideal channel that takes input $\rho$ from the sender and provably delivers $Q(\rho)$ to the receiver without revealing any other information, achieving one-shot secure computation of unidirectional quantum functionalities in the shared EPR pair model.
This immediately gives a number of applications in the shared EPR pair model: (1) We obtain one-shot secure computation of unidirectional \emph{classical} functionalities, (2) We obtain the first construction of NIZK for QMA from (sub-exponential) standard assumptions, and (3) We define a notion of \emph{zero-knowledge} state synthesis, and show that it can be achieved with one message.
- Next, we investigate general-purpose secure \emph{multiparty} computation in the shared EPR pair model. Here, we obtain a (round-optimal) two-round protocol for secure computation of classical functionalities that is \emph{unconditionally-secure} in the (quantum-accessible) random oracle model. We also obtain a two-round protocol without random oracles assuming (non-interactive) extractable commitments and correlation-intractability for efficient functions.
At the heart of our approach are novel techniques for making use of entangling operations to generate multibit OT correlations, and for instantiating the Fiat-Shamir transform using correlation-intractability in the quantum setting.

2023

CRYPTO

Reusable Secure Computation in the Plain Model
Abstract

Consider the standard setting of two-party computation where the sender has a secret function $f$ and the receiver has a secret input $x$ and the output $f(x)$ is delivered to the receiver at the end of the protocol. Let us consider the unidirectional message model where only one party speaks in each round. In this setting, Katz and Ostrovsky (Crypto 2004) showed that at least four rounds of interaction between the parties are needed in the plain model (i.e., no trusted setup) if the simulator uses the adversary in a black-box way (a.k.a. black-box simulation). Suppose the sender and the receiver would like to run multiple sequential iterations of the secure computation protocol on possibly different inputs. For each of these iterations, do the parties need to start the protocol from scratch and exchange four messages?
In this work, we explore the possibility of \textit{amortizing} the round complexity or in other words, \textit{reusing} a certain number of rounds of the secure computation protocol in the plain model. We obtain the following results.
\begin{itemize}
\item Under standard cryptographic assumptions, we construct a four-round two-party computation protocol where (i) the first three rounds of the protocol could be reused an unbounded number of times if the receiver input remains the same and only the sender input changes, and (ii) the first two rounds of the protocol could be reused an unbounded number of times if the receiver input needs to change as well. In other words, the sender sends a single additional message if only its input changes, and in the other case, we need one message each from the receiver and the sender. The number of additional messages needed in each of the above two modes is optimal and, additionally, our protocol allows arbitrary interleaving of these two modes.
\item We also extend these results to the multiparty setting (in the simultaneous message exchange model) and give round-optimal protocols such that (i) the first two rounds could be reused an unbounded number of times if the inputs of the parties need to change and (ii) the first three rounds could be reused an unbounded number of times if the inputs remain the same but the functionality to be computed changes. As in the two-party setting, we allow arbitrary interleaving of the above two modes of operation.
\end{itemize}

2022

PKC

Reusable Two-Round MPC from LPN
📺
Abstract

We present a new construction of maliciously-secure, two-round multiparty computation (MPC) in the CRS model, where the first message is reusable an unbounded number of times. The security of the protocol relies on the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption with inverse polynomial noise rate $1/n^{1-\epsilon}$ for small enough constant $\epsilon$, where $n$ is the LPN dimension. Prior works on reusable two-round MPC required assumptions such as DDH or LWE that imply some flavor of homomorphic computation. We obtain our result in two steps:
- In the first step, we construct a two-round MPC protocol in the {\it silent pre-processing model} (Boyle et al., Crypto 2019). Specifically, the parties engage in a computationally inexpensive setup procedure that generates some correlated random strings. Then, the parties commit to their inputs. Finally, each party sends a message depending on the function to be computed, and these messages can be decoded to obtain the output. Crucially, the complexity of the pre-processing phase and the input commitment phase do not grow with the size of the circuit to be computed. We call this {\it multiparty silent NISC} (msNISC), generalizing the notion of two-party silent NISC of Boyle et al. (CCS 2019). We provide a construction of msNISC from LPN in the random oracle model.
- In the second step, we give a transformation that removes the pre-processing phase and use of random oracle from the previous protocol. This transformation additionally adds (unbounded) reusability of the first round message, giving the first construction of reusable two-round MPC from the LPN assumption. This step makes novel use of randomized encoding of circuits (Applebaum et al., FOCS 2004) and a variant of the ``tree of MPC messages" technique of Ananth et al. and Bartusek et al. (TCC 2020).

2022

EUROCRYPT

Round-Optimal Black-Box Protocol Compilers
📺
Abstract

We give black-box, round-optimal protocol compilers from semi-honest security to malicious security in the Random Oracle Model (ROM) and in the 1-out-2 OT correlations model. We use our compilers to obtain the following results:
\begin{itemize}
\item A two-round, two-party protocol secure against malicious adversaries in the random oracle model making black-box use of a two-round semi-honest secure protocol. Prior to our work, such a result was not known even considering special functionalities such as a two-round oblivious transfer. This result also implies the first constructions of two-round malicious (batch) OT/OLE in the random oracle model based on the black-box use of two-round semi-honest (batch) OT/OLE.
\item A three-round multiparty secure computation protocol in the random oracle model secure against malicious adversaries that is based on the black-box use of two-round semi-honest OT. This protocol matches a known round complexity lower bound due to Applebaum et al. (ITCS'20) and is based on a minimal cryptographic hardness assumption.
\item A two-round, multiparty secure computation protocol in the $1$-out-of-$2$ OT correlations model that is secure against malicious adversaries and makes black-box use of cryptography. This gives new round-optimal protocols for computing arithmetic branching programs that are statistically secure and makes black-box use of the underlying field.
\end{itemize}
As a contribution of independent interest, we provide a new variant of the IPS compiler (Ishai, Prabhakaran and Sahai, Crypto 2008) in the two-round setting, where we relax requirements on the IPS ``inner protocol'' by strengthening the ``outer protocol''.

2022

EUROCRYPT

SNARGs for P from Sub-exponential DDH and QR
📺
Abstract

We obtain publicly verifiable Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments (SNARGs) for arbitrary deterministic computations and bounded space non-deterministic computation from well-studied group-based assumptions. In particular, assuming the sub-exponential hardness of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and Quadratic Residuosity (QR) assumptions, we obtain the following results, where n denotes the length of the instance:
1. A SNARG for any language that can be decided in non-deterministic time T and space S with communication complexity and verifier runtime(n+S)·T^{o(1)}.
2. A SNARG for any language that can be decided in deterministic time T with communication complexity n·T^{o(1)} and verifier runtime n·T^{o(1)}.

2022

TCC

Fully-Secure MPC with Minimal Trust
Abstract

The task of achieving full security (with guaranteed output delivery) in secure multiparty computation (MPC) is a long-studied problem with known impossibility results that rule out constructions in the dishonest majority setting. In this work, we investigate the question of constructing fully-secure MPC protocols in the dishonest majority setting with the help of an external trusted party (TP). It is well-known that the existence of such a trusted party is sufficient to bypass the impossibility results. As our goal is to study the minimal requirements needed from this trusted party, we restrict ourselves to the extreme setting where the size of the TP is independent of the size of the functionality to be computed (called "small" TP) and this TP is invoked only once during the protocol execution. We present several positive and negative results for fully-secure MPC in this setting.
- For a natural class of protocols, specifically, those with a universal output decoder, we show that the size of the TP must necessarily be exponential in the number of parties. This result holds irrespective of the computational assumptions used in the protocol. This class is broad enough to capture the prior results and indicates that the prior techniques necessitate the use of an exponential-sized TP. We additionally rule out the possibility of achieving information-theoretic full security (without the restriction of using a universal output decoder) using a "small" TP in the plain model (i.e., without any setup).
- In order to get around the above negative result, we consider protocols without a universal output decoder. The main positive result in our work is a construction of such a fully-secure MPC protocol assuming the existence of a succinct Functional Encryption scheme. We also give evidence that such an assumption is likely to be necessary for fully-secure MPC in certain restricted settings.
- We also explore the possibility of achieving full-security with a semi-honest TP that could collude with the other malicious parties in the protocol (which are in a dishonest majority). In this setting, we show that fairness is impossible to achieve even if we allow the size of the TP to grow with the circuit-size of the function to be computed.

2022

TCC

Round-Optimal Black-Box Secure Computation from Two-Round Malicious OT
Abstract

We give round-optimal {\em black-box} constructions of two-party and multiparty protocols in the common random/reference string (CRS) model, with security against malicious adversaries, based on any two-round oblivious transfer (OT) protocol in the same model. Specifically, we obtain two types of results.
\smallskip
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Two-party protocol.} We give a (two-round) {\it two-sided NISC} protocol that makes black-box use of two-round (malicious-secure) OT in the CRS model. In contrast to the standard setting of non-interactive secure computation (NISC), two-sided NISC allows communication from both parties in each round and delivers the output to both parties at the end of the protocol. Prior black-box constructions of two-sided NISC relied on idealized setup assumptions such as OT correlations, or were proven secure in the random oracle model.
\item {\bf Multiparty protocol.} We give a three-round secure multiparty computation protocol for an arbitrary number of parties making black-box use of a two-round OT in the CRS model. The round optimality of this construction follows from a black-box impossibility proof of Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2020). Prior constructions either required the use of random oracles, or were based on two-round malicious-secure OT protocols that satisfied additional security properties.
\end{enumerate}

2022

JOFC

Correction to: Unconditionally Secure Computation Against Low-Complexity Leakage
Abstract

We consider the problem of constructing leakage-resilient circuit compilers that are secure against global leakage functions with bounded output length. By global, we mean that the leakage can depend on all circuit wires and output a low-complexity function (represented as a multi-output Boolean circuit) applied on these wires. In this work, we design compilers both in the stateless (a.k.a. single-shot leakage) setting and the stateful (a.k.a. continuous leakage) setting that are unconditionally secure against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ AC 0 leakage and similar low-complexity classes. In the stateless case, we show that the original private circuits construction of Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner (Crypto 2003) is actually secure against $${\mathsf {AC}}^{0}$$ AC 0 leakage. In the stateful case, we modify the construction of Rothblum (Crypto 2012), obtaining a simple construction with unconditional security. Prior works that designed leakage-resilient circuit compilers against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ AC 0 leakage had to rely either on secure hardware components (Faust et al., Eurocrypt 2010, Miles-Viola, STOC 2013) or on (unproven) complexity-theoretic assumptions (Rothblum, Crypto 2012).

2021

CRYPTO

Three-Round Secure Multiparty Computation from Black-Box Two-Round Oblivious Transfer
📺
Abstract

We give constructions of three-round secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols for general functions that make {\it black-box} use of a two-round oblivious transfer (OT). For the case of semi-honest adversaries, we make use of a two-round, semi-honest secure OT in the plain model. This resolves the round-complexity of black-box (semi-honest) MPC protocols from minimal assumptions and answers an open question of Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2020). For the case of malicious adversaries, we make use of a two-round maliciously-secure OT in the common random/reference string model that satisfies a (mild) variant of adaptive security for the receiver.

2021

EUROCRYPT

Multi-Source Non-Malleable Extractors and Applications
📺
Abstract

We introduce a natural generalization of two-source non-malleable extractors (Cheragachi and Guruswami, TCC 2014) called as \textit{multi-source non-malleable extractors}. Multi-source non-malleable extractors are special independent source extractors which satisfy an additional non-malleability property. This property requires that the output of the extractor remains close to uniform even conditioned on its output generated by tampering {\it several sources together}. We formally define this primitive, give a construction that is secure against a wide class of tampering functions, and provide applications. More specifically, we obtain the following results:
\begin{itemize}
\item For any $s \geq 2$, we give an explicit construction of a $s$-source non-malleable extractor for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ and error $2^{-n^{\Omega(1)}}$ in the {\it overlapping joint tampering model}. This means that each tampered source could depend on any strict subset of all the sources and the sets corresponding to each tampered source could be overlapping in a way that we define. Prior to our work, there were no known explicit constructions that were secure even against disjoint tampering (where the sets are required to be disjoint without any overlap).
\item We adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{disjoint tampering model}. This is the first general construction of a threshold non-malleable secret sharing (NMSS) scheme in the disjoint tampering model. All prior constructions had a restriction that the size of the tampered subsets could not be equal.
\item We further adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{overlapping joint tampering model}. This is the first construction of a threshold NMSS in the overlapping joint tampering model.
\item We show that a stronger notion of $s$-source non-malleable extractor that is multi-tamperable against disjoint tampering functions gives a single round network extractor protocol (Kalai et al., FOCS 2008) with attractive features. Plugging in with a new construction of multi-tamperable, 2-source non-malleable extractors provided in our work, we get a network extractor protocol for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ that tolerates an {\it optimum} number ($t = p-2$) of faulty processors and extracts random bits for {\it every} honest processor. The prior network extractor protocols could only tolerate $t = \Omega(p)$ faulty processors and failed to extract uniform random bits for a fraction of the honest processors.
\end{itemize}

2021

CRYPTO

Improved Computational Extractors and their Applications
📺
Abstract

Recent exciting breakthroughs have achieved the first two-source extractors that operate in the low min-entropy regime. Unfortunately, these constructions suffer from non-negligible error, and reducing the error to negligible remains an important open problem. In recent work, Garg, Kalai, and Khurana (GKK, Eurocrypt 2020) investigated a meaningful relaxation of this problem to the computational setting, in the presence of a common random string (CRS). In this relaxed model, their work built explicit two-source extractors for a restricted class of unbalanced sources with min-entropy n^{\gamma} (for some constant \gamma) and negligible error, under the sub-exponential DDH assumption.
In this work, we investigate whether computational extractors in the CRS model be applied to more challenging environments. Specifically, we study network extractor protocols (Kalai et al., FOCS 2008) and extractors for adversarial sources (Chattopadhyay et al., STOC 2020) in the CRS model. We observe that these settings require extractors that work well for balanced sources, making the GKK results inapplicable.
We remedy this situation by obtaining the following results, all of which are in the CRS model and assume the sub-exponential hardness of DDH.
- We obtain ``optimal'' computational two-source and non-malleable extractors for balanced sources: requiring both sources to have only poly-logarithmic min-entropy, and achieving negligible error. To obtain this result, we perform a tighter and arguably simpler analysis of the GKK extractor.
- We obtain a single-round network extractor protocol for poly-logarithmic min-entropy sources that tolerates an optimal number of adversarial corruptions. Prior work in the information-theoretic setting required sources with high min-entropy rates, and in the computational setting had round complexity that grew with the number of parties, required sources with linear min-entropy, and relied on exponential hardness (albeit without a CRS).
- We obtain an ``optimal'' adversarial source extractor for poly-logarithmic min-entropy sources, where the number of honest sources is only 2 and each corrupted source can depend on either one of the honest sources. Prior work in the information-theoretic setting had to assume a large number of honest sources.

2021

CRYPTO

Traceable Secret Sharing and Applications
📺
Abstract

Consider a scenario where Alice stores some secret data $s$ on $n$ servers using a $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing scheme. Trudy (the collector) is interested in the secret data of Alice and is willing to pay for it. Trudy publishes an advertisement on the internet which describes an elaborate cryptographic scheme to collect the shares from the $n$ servers. Each server who decides to submit its share is paid a hefty monetary reward and is guaranteed ``immunity" from being caught or prosecuted in a court for violating its service agreement with Alice. Bob is one of the servers and sees this advertisement. On examining the collection scheme closely, Bob concludes that there is no way for Alice to prove anything in a court that he submitted his share. Indeed, if Bob is rational, he might use the cryptographic scheme in the advertisement and submit his share since there are no penalties and no fear of being caught and prosecuted. Can we design a secret sharing scheme which Alice can use to avoid such a scenario?
We introduce a new primitive called as \textit{Traceable Secret Sharing} to tackle this problem. In particular, a traceable secret sharing scheme guarantees that a cheating server always runs the risk of getting traced and prosecuted by providing a valid evidence (which can be examined in a court of law) implicating its dishonest behavior. We explore various definitional aspects and show how they are highly non-trivial to construct (even ignoring efficiency aspects). We then give an efficient construction of traceable secret sharing assuming the existence of a secure two-party computation protocol. We also show an application of this primitive in constructing traceable protocols for multi-server delegation of computation.

2021

CRYPTO

On the Round Complexity of Black-Box Secure MPC
📺
Abstract

We consider the question of minimizing the round complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols that make a black-box use of simple cryptographic primitives in the setting of security against any number of malicious parties. In the plain model, previous black-box protocols required a high constant number of rounds (>15). This is far from the known lower bound of 4 rounds for protocols with black-box simulators.
When allowing a random oblivious transfer (OT) correlation setup, 2-round protocols making a black-box use of a pseudorandom generator were previously known. However, such protocols were obtained via a round-collapsing ``protocol garbling'' technique that has poor concrete efficiency and makes a non-black-box use of an underlying malicious-secure protocol.
We improve this state of affairs by presenting the following types of black-box protocols.
a. 4-round ``pairwise MPC'' in the plain model.
This round-optimal protocol enables each ordered pair of parties to compute a function of both inputs whose output is delivered to the second party. The protocol makes black-box use of any public-key encryption (PKE) with pseudorandom public keys. As a special case, we get a black-box round-optimal realization of secure (copies of) OT between every ordered pair of parties.
b. 2-round MPC from OT correlations.
This round-optimal protocol makes a black-box use of any general 2-round MPC protocol satisfying an augmented notion of semi-honest security. In the two-party case, this yields new kinds of 2-round black-box protocols.
c. 5-round MPC in the plain model.
This protocol makes a black-box use of PKE with pseudorandom public keys, and 2-round oblivious transfer with ``semi-malicious'' security.
A key technical tool for the first result is a novel combination of split-state non-malleable codes (Dziembowski, Pietrzak, and Wichs, JACM '18) with standalone secure {\em two-party} protocols. The second result is based on a new round-optimized variant of the ``IPS compiler'' (Ishai, Prabhakaran and Sahai, Crypto '08). The third result is obtained via a specialized combination of these two techniques.

2021

JOFC

Unconditionally Secure Computation Against Low-Complexity Leakage
Abstract

We consider the problem of constructing leakage-resilient circuit compilers that are secure against global leakage functions with bounded output length. By global, we mean that the leakage can depend on all circuit wires and output a low-complexity function (represented as a multi-output Boolean circuit) applied on these wires. In this work, we design compilers both in the stateless (a.k.a. single-shot leakage) setting and the stateful (a.k.a. continuous leakage) setting that are unconditionally secure against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ AC 0 leakage and similar low-complexity classes. In the stateless case, we show that the original private circuits construction of Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner (Crypto 2003) is actually secure against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ AC 0 leakage. In the stateful case, we modify the construction of Rothblum (Crypto 2012), obtaining a simple construction with unconditional security. Prior works that designed leakage-resilient circuit compilers against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ AC 0 leakage had to rely either on secure hardware components (Faust et al., Eurocrypt 2010, Miles-Viola, STOC 2013) or on (unproven) complexity-theoretic assumptions (Rothblum, Crypto 2012).

2020

CRYPTO

Nearly Optimal Robust Secret Sharing against Rushing Adversaries
📺
Abstract

Robust secret sharing is a strengthening of standard secret sharing that allows the shared secret to be recovered even if some of the shares being used in the reconstruction have been adversarially modified. In this work, we study the setting where out of all the $n$ shares, the adversary is allowed to adaptively corrupt and modify up to $t$ shares, where $n = 2t+1$.\footnote{Note that if the adversary is allowed to modify any more shares, then correct reconstruction would be impossible.} Further, we deal with \emph{rushing} adversaries, meaning that the adversary is allowed to see the honest parties' shares before modifying its own shares.
It is known that when $n = 2t+1$, to share a secret of length $m$ bits and recover it with error less than $2^{-\sec}$, shares of size at least $m+\sec$ bits are needed. Recently, Bishop, Pastro, Rajaraman, and Wichs (EUROCRYPT 2016) constructed a robust secret sharing scheme with shares of size $m + O(\sec\cdot\polylog(n,m,\sec))$ bits that is secure in this setting against non-rushing adversaries. Later, Fehr and Yuan (EUROCRYPT 2019) constructed a scheme that is secure against rushing adversaries, but has shares of size $m + O(\sec\cdot n^{\eps}\cdot \polylog(n,m,\sec))$ bits for an arbitrary constant $\eps > 0$. They also showed a variant of their construction with share size $m + O(\sec\cdot\polylog(n,m,\sec))$ bits, but with super-polynomial reconstruction time.
We present a robust secret sharing scheme that is simultaneously close-to-optimal in all of these respects -- it is secure against rushing adversaries, has shares of size $m+O(\sec \log{n} (\log{n}+\log{m}))$ bits, and has polynomial-time sharing and reconstruction. Central to our construction is a polynomial-time algorithm for a problem on semi-random graphs that arises naturally in the paradigm of local authentication of shares used by us and in the aforementioned work.

2019

EUROCRYPT

Revisiting Non-Malleable Secret Sharing
📺
Abstract

A threshold secret sharing scheme (with threshold t) allows a dealer to share a secret among a set of parties such that any group of t or more parties can recover the secret and no group of at most
$$t-1$$
t-1 parties learn any information about the secret. A non-malleable threshold secret sharing scheme, introduced in the recent work of Goyal and Kumar (STOC’18), additionally protects a threshold secret sharing scheme when its shares are subject to tampering attacks. Specifically, it guarantees that the reconstructed secret from the tampered shares is either the original secret or something that is unrelated to the original secret.In this work, we continue the study of threshold non-malleable secret sharing against the class of tampering functions that tamper each share independently. We focus on achieving greater efficiency and guaranteeing a stronger security property. We obtain the following results:Rate Improvement. We give the first construction of a threshold non-malleable secret sharing scheme that has rate
$$> 0$$
>0. Specifically, for every
$$n,t \ge 4$$
n,t≥4, we give a construction of a t-out-of-n non-malleable secret sharing scheme with rate
$$\varTheta (\frac{1}{t\log ^2 n})$$
Θ(1tlog2n). In the prior constructions, the rate was
$$\varTheta (\frac{1}{n\log m})$$
Θ(1nlogm) where m is the length of the secret and thus, the rate tends to 0 as
$$m \rightarrow \infty $$
m→∞. Furthermore, we also optimize the parameters of our construction and give a concretely efficient scheme.Multiple Tampering. We give the first construction of a threshold non-malleable secret sharing scheme secure in the stronger setting of bounded tampering wherein the shares are tampered by multiple (but bounded in number) possibly different tampering functions. The rate of such a scheme is
$$\varTheta (\frac{1}{k^3t\log ^2 n})$$
Θ(1k3tlog2n) where k is an apriori bound on the number of tamperings. We complement this positive result by proving that it is impossible to have a threshold non-malleable secret sharing scheme that is secure in the presence of an apriori unbounded number of tamperings.General Access Structures. We extend our results beyond threshold secret sharing and give constructions of rate-efficient, non-malleable secret sharing schemes for more general monotone access structures that are secure against multiple (bounded) tampering attacks.

2019

CRYPTO

Unconditionally Secure Computation Against Low-Complexity Leakage
📺
Abstract

We consider the problem of constructing leakage-resilient circuit compilers that are secure against global leakage functions with bounded output length. By global, we mean that the leakage can depend on all circuit wires and output a low-complexity function (represented as a multi-output Boolean circuit) applied on these wires. In this work, we design compilers both in the stateless (a.k.a. single-shot leakage) setting and the stateful (a.k.a. continuous leakage) setting that are unconditionally secure against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ leakage and similar low-complexity classes.In the stateless case, we show that the original private circuits construction of Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner (Crypto 2003) is actually secure against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ leakage. In the stateful case, we modify the construction of Rothblum (Crypto 2012), obtaining a simple construction with unconditional security. Prior works that designed leakage-resilient circuit compilers against $$\mathsf {AC}^0$$ leakage had to rely either on secure hardware components (Faust et al., Eurocrypt 2010, Miles-Viola, STOC 2013) or on (unproven) complexity-theoretic assumptions (Rothblum, Crypto 2012).

2019

CRYPTO

Leakage Resilient Secret Sharing and Applications
📺
Abstract

A secret sharing scheme allows a dealer to share a secret among a set of n parties such that any authorized subset of the parties can recover the secret, while any unauthorized subset learns no information about the secret. A leakage-resilient secret sharing scheme (introduced in independent works by Goyal and Kumar, STOC ’18 and Benhamouda, Degwekar, Ishai and Rabin, CRYPTO ’18) additionally requires the secrecy to hold against every unauthorized set of parties even if they obtain some bounded leakage from every other share. The leakage is said to be local if it is computed independently for each share. So far, the only known constructions of local leakage resilient secret sharing schemes are for threshold access structures for very low (O(1)) or very high (
$$n -o(\log n)$$
) thresholds.In this work, we give a compiler that takes a secret sharing scheme for any monotone access structure and produces a local leakage resilient secret sharing scheme for the same access structure, with only a constant-factor asymptotic blow-up in the sizes of the shares. Furthermore, the resultant secret sharing scheme has optimal leakage-resilience rate, i.e., the ratio between the leakage tolerated and the size of each share can be made arbitrarily close to 1. Using this secret sharing scheme as the main building block, we obtain the following results:Rate Preserving Non-Malleable Secret Sharing. We give a compiler that takes any secret sharing scheme for a 4-monotone access structure (A 4-monotone access structure has the property that any authorized set has size at least 4.) with rate R and converts it into a non-malleable secret sharing scheme for the same access structure with rate
$$\varOmega (R)$$
. The previous such non-zero rate construction (Badrinarayanan and Srinivasan, EUROCRYPT ’19) achieved a rate of
$$\varTheta (R/{t_{\max }\log ^2 n})$$
, where
$$t_{\max }$$
is the maximum size of any minimal set in the access structure. As a special case, for any threshold
$$t \ge 4$$
and an arbitrary
$$n \ge t$$
, we get the first constant-rate construction of t-out-of-n non-malleable secret sharing.Leakage-Tolerant Multiparty Computation for General Interaction Patterns. For any function f, we give a reduction from constructing a leakage-tolerant secure multi-party computation protocol for computing f that obeys any given interaction pattern to constructing a secure (but not necessarily leakage-tolerant) protocol for a related function that obeys the star interaction pattern. Together with the known results for the star interaction pattern, this gives leakage tolerant MPC for any interaction pattern with statistical/computational security. This improves upon the result of (Halevi et al., ITCS 2016), who presented such a reduction in a leak-free environment.

2018

CRYPTO

Two-Round Multiparty Secure Computation Minimizing Public Key Operations
📺
Abstract

We show new constructions of semi-honest and malicious two-round multiparty secure computation protocols using only (a fixed)
$$\mathsf {poly}(n,\lambda )$$
poly(n,λ) invocations of a two-round oblivious transfer protocol (which use expensive public-key operations) and
$$\mathsf {poly}(\lambda , |C|)$$
poly(λ,|C|) cheaper one-way function calls, where
$$\lambda $$
λ is the security parameter, n is the number of parties, and C is the circuit being computed. All previously known two-round multiparty secure computation protocols required
$$\mathsf {poly}(\lambda ,|C|)$$
poly(λ,|C|) expensive public-key operations.

2018

CRYPTO

Adaptive Garbled RAM from Laconic Oblivious Transfer
Abstract

We give a construction of an adaptive garbled RAM scheme. In the adaptive setting, a client first garbles a “large” persistent database which is stored on a server. Next, the client can provide garbling of multiple adaptively and adversarially chosen RAM programs that execute and modify the stored database arbitrarily. The garbled database and the garbled program should reveal nothing more than the running time and the output of the computation. Furthermore, the sizes of the garbled database and the garbled program grow only linearly in the size of the database and the running time of the executed program respectively (up to poly logarithmic factors). The security of our construction is based on the assumption that laconic oblivious transfer (Cho et al., CRYPTO 2017) exists. Previously, such adaptive garbled RAM constructions were only known using indistinguishability obfuscation or in random oracle model. As an additional application, we note that this work yields the first constant round secure computation protocol for persistent RAM programs in the malicious setting from standard assumptions. Prior works did not support persistence in the malicious setting.

2018

TCC

Round Optimal Black-Box “Commit-and-Prove”
Abstract

Motivated by theoretical and practical considerations, an important line of research is to design secure computation protocols that only make black-box use of cryptography. An important component in nearly all the black-box secure computation constructions is a black-box commit-and-prove protocol. A commit-and-prove protocol allows a prover to commit to a value and prove a statement about this value while guaranteeing that the committed value remains hidden. A black-box commit-and-prove protocol implements this functionality while only making black-box use of cryptography.In this paper, we build several tools that enable constructions of round-optimal, black-box commit and prove protocols. In particular, assuming injective one-way functions, we design the first round-optimal, black-box commit-and-prove arguments of knowledge satisfying strong privacy against malicious verifiers, namely:Zero-knowledge in four rounds and,Witness indistinguishability in three rounds.
Prior to our work, the best known black-box protocols achieving commit-and-prove required more rounds.We additionally ensure that our protocols can be used, if needed, in the delayed-input setting, where the statement to be proven is decided only towards the end of the interaction. We also observe simple applications of our protocols towards achieving black-box four-round constructions of extractable and equivocal commitments.We believe that our protocols will provide a useful tool enabling several new constructions and easy round-efficient conversions from non-black-box to black-box protocols in the future.

2018

TCC

Two-Round MPC: Information-Theoretic and Black-Box
Abstract

We continue the study of protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC) that require only two rounds of interaction. The recent works of Garg and Srinivasan (Eurocrypt 2018) and Benhamouda and Lin (Eurocrypt 2018) essentially settle the question by showing that such protocols are implied by the minimal assumption that a two-round oblivious transfer (OT) protocol exists. However, these protocols inherently make a non-black-box use of the underlying OT protocol, which results in poor concrete efficiency. Moreover, no analogous result was known in the information-theoretic setting, or alternatively based on one-way functions, given an OT correlations setup or an honest majority.Motivated by these limitations, we study the possibility of obtaining information-theoretic and “black-box” implementations of two-round MPC protocols. We obtain the following results:Two-round MPC from OT correlations. Given an OT correlations setup, we get protocols that make a black-box use of a pseudorandom generator (PRG) and are secure against a malicious adversary corrupting an arbitrary number of parties. For a semi-honest adversary, we get similar information-theoretic protocols for branching programs.New NIOT constructions. Towards realizing OT correlations, we extend the DDH-based non-interactive OT (NIOT) protocol of Bellare and Micali (Crypto’89) to the malicious security model, and present new NIOT constructions from the Quadratic Residuosity Assumption (QRA) and the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption.Two-round black-box MPC with strong PKI setup. Combining the two previous results, we get two-round MPC protocols that make a black-box use of any DDH-hard or QRA-hard group. The protocols can offer security against a malicious adversary, and require a PKI setup that depends on the number of parties and the size of computation, but not on the inputs or the identities of the participating parties.Two-round honest-majority MPC from secure channels. Given secure point-to-point channels, we get protocols that make a black-box use of a pseudorandom generator (PRG), as well as information-theoretic protocols for branching programs. These protocols can tolerate a semi-honest adversary corrupting a strict minority of the parties, where in the information-theoretic case the complexity is exponential in the number of parties.

2018

TCC

A Simple Construction of iO for Turing Machines
Abstract

We give a simple construction of indistinguishability obfuscation for Turing machines where the time to obfuscate grows only with the description size of the machine and otherwise, independent of the running time and the space used. While this result is already known [Koppula, Lewko, and Waters, STOC 2015] from
$$i\mathcal {O}$$
for circuits and injective pseudorandom generators, our construction and its analysis are conceptually much simpler. In particular, the main technical component in the proof of our construction is a simple combinatorial pebbling argument [Garg and Srinivasan, EUROCRYPT 2018]. Our construction makes use of indistinguishability obfuscation for circuits and
$$\mathrm {somewhere\, statistically\, binding\, hash\, functions}$$
.

#### Program Committees

- Asiacrypt 2024
- TCC 2023
- Crypto 2022
- PKC 2022
- Asiacrypt 2022
- PKC 2021

#### Coauthors

- Saikrishna Badrinarayanan (1)
- James Bartusek (2)
- Andrej Bogdanov (4)
- Pedro Branco (3)
- Nico Döttling (3)
- Sanjam Garg (11)
- Vipul Goyal (3)
- James Hulett (1)
- Yuval Ishai (11)
- Ruta Jawale (1)
- Dakshita Khurana (9)
- Pasin Manurangsi (1)
- Peihan Miao (1)
- Eric Miles (1)
- Pratyay Mukherjee (1)
- Varun Narayanan (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (2)
- Omkant Pandey (2)
- Arpita Patra (2)
- Sikhar Patranabis (1)
- Shubham Vivek Pawar (1)
- Divya Ravi (1)
- Amit Sahai (6)
- Yifan Song (1)
- Akshayaram Srinivasan (36)
- Prashant Nalini Vasudevan (2)
- Mingyuan Wang (1)
- Riccardo Zanotto (1)
- Mark Zhandry (2)
- Yinuo Zhang (1)
- Chenzhi Zhu (1)