## CryptoDB

### Papers from Transaction on Symmetric Cryptology 2023

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

TOSC

A Cipher-Agnostic Neural Training Pipeline with Automated Finding of Good Input Differences
Abstract

Neural cryptanalysis is the study of cryptographic primitives through machine learning techniques. Following Gohr’s seminal paper at CRYPTO 2019, a focus has been placed on improving the accuracy of such distinguishers against specific primitives, using dedicated training schemes, in order to obtain better key recovery attacks based on machine learning. These distinguishers are highly specialized and not trivially applicable to other primitives. In this paper, we focus on the opposite problem: building a generic pipeline for neural cryptanalysis. Our tool is composed of two parts. The first part is an evolutionary algorithm for the search of good input differences for neural distinguishers. The second part is DBitNet, a neural distinguisher architecture agnostic to the structure of the cipher. We show that this fully automated pipeline is competitive with a highly specialized approach, in particular for SPECK32, and SIMON32. We provide new neural distinguishers for several primitives (XTEA, LEA, HIGHT, SIMON128, SPECK128) and improve over the state-of-the-art for PRESENT, KATAN, TEA and GIMLI.

2023

TOSC

A Framework with Improved Heuristics to Optimize Low-Latency Implementations of Linear Layers
Abstract

In recent years, lightweight cryptography has been a hot field in symmetric cryptography. One of the most crucial problems is to find low-latency implementations of linear layers. The current main heuristic search methods include the Boyar-Peralta (BP) algorithm with depth limit and the backward search. In this paper we firstly propose two improved BP algorithms with depth limit mainly by minimizing the Euclidean norm of the new distance vector instead of maximizing it in the tie-breaking process of the BP algorithm. They can significantly increase the potential for finding better results. Furthermore, we give a new framework that combines forward search with backward search to expand the search space of implementations, where the forward search is one of the two improved BP algorithms. In the new framework, we make a minor adjustment of the priority of rules in the backward search process to enable the exploration of a significantly larger search space. As results, we find better results for the most of matrices studied in previous works. For example, we find an implementation of AES MixColumns of depth 3 with 99 XOR gates, which represents a substantial reduction of 3 XOR gates compared to the existing record of 102 XOR gates.

2023

TOSC

Algebraic Attacks on RAIN and AIM Using Equivalent Representations
Abstract

Designing novel symmetric-key primitives for advanced protocols like secure multiparty computation (MPC), fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) and zero-knowledge proof systems (ZK), has been an important research topic in recent years. Many such existing primitives adopt quite different design strategies from conventional block ciphers. Notable features include that many of these ciphers are defined over a large finite field, and that a power map is commonly used to construct the nonlinear component due to its efficiency in these applications as well as its strong resistance against the differential and linear cryptanalysis. In this paper, we target the MPC-friendly ciphers AIM and RAIN used for the post-quantum signature schemes AIMer (CCS 2023 and NIST PQC Round 1 Additional Signatures) and Rainier (CCS 2022), respectively. Specifically, we can find equivalent representations of 2-round RAIN and full-round AIM, respectively, which make them vulnerable to either the polynomial method, or the crossbred algorithm, or the fast exhaustive search attack. Consequently, we can break 2-round RAIN with the 128/192/256-bit key in only 2111/2170/2225 bit operations. For full-round AIM with the 128/192/256-bit key, we could break them in 2136.2/2200.7/2265 bit operations, which are equivalent to about 2115/2178/2241 calls of the underlying primitives. In particular, our analysis indicates that AIM does not reach the required security levels by the NIST competition.

2023

TOSC

Attacking the IETF/ISO Standard for Internal Re-keying CTR-ACPKM
Abstract

Encrypting too much data using the same key is a bad practice from a security perspective. Hence, it is customary to perform re-keying after a given amount of data is transmitted. While in many cases, the re-keying is done using a fresh execution of some key exchange protocol (e.g., in IKE or TLS), there are scenarios where internal re-keying, i.e., without exchange of information, is performed, mostly due to performance reasons.Originally suggested by Abdalla and Bellare, there are several proposals on how to perform this internal re-keying mechanism. For example, Liliya et al. offered the CryptoPro Key Meshing (CPKM) to be used together with GOST 28147-89 (known as the GOST block cipher). Later, ISO and the IETF adopted the Advanced CryptoPro Key Meshing (ACKPM) in ISO 10116 and RFC 8645, respectively.In this paper, we study the security of ACPKM and CPKM. We show that the internal re-keying suffers from an entropy loss in successive repetitions of the rekeying mechanism. We show some attacks based on this issue. The most prominent one has time and data complexities of O(2κ/2) and success rate of O(2−κ/4) for a κ-bit key.Furthermore, we show that a malicious block cipher designer or a faulty implementation can exploit the ACPKM (or the original CPKM) mechanism to significantly hinder the security of a protocol employing ACPKM (or CPKM). Namely, we show that in such cases, the entropy of the re-keyed key can be greatly reduced.

2023

TOSC

Automatic Preimage Attack Framework on Ascon Using a Linearize-and-Guess Approach
Abstract

Ascon is the final winner of the lightweight cryptography standardization competition (2018 − 2023). In this paper, we focus on preimage attacks against round-reduced Ascon. The preimage attack framework, utilizing the linear structure with the allocating model, was initially proposed by Guo et al. at ASIACRYPT 2016 and subsequently improved by Li et al. at EUROCRYPT 2019, demonstrating high effectiveness in breaking the preimage resistance of Keccak. In this paper, we extend this preimage attack framework to Ascon from two aspects. Firstly, we propose a linearize-and-guess approach by analyzing the algebraic properties of the Ascon permutation. As a result, the complexity of finding a preimage for 2-round Ascon-Xof with a 64-bit hash value can be significantly reduced from 239 guesses to 227.56 guesses. To support the effectiveness of our approach, we find an actual preimage of all ‘0’ hash in practical time. Secondly, we develop a SAT-based automatic preimage attack framework using the linearize-and-guess approach, which is efficient to search for the optimal structures exhaustively. Consequently, we present the best theoretical preimage attacks on 3-round and 4-round Ascon-Xof so far.

2023

TOSC

Automating Collision Attacks on RIPEMD-160
Abstract

As an ISO/IEC standard, the hash function RIPEMD-160 has been used to generate the Bitcoin address with SHA-256. However, due to the complex doublebranch structure of RIPEMD-160, the best collision attack only reaches 36 out of 80 steps of RIPEMD-160, and the best semi-free-start (SFS) collision attack only reaches 40 steps. To improve the 36-step collision attack proposed at EUROCRYPT 2023, we explored the possibility of using different message differences to increase the number of attacked steps, and we finally identified one choice allowing a 40-step collision attack. To find the corresponding 40-step differential characteristic, we re-implement the MILP-based method to search for signed differential characteristics with SAT/SMT. As a result, we can find a colliding message pair for 40-step RIPEMD-160 in practical time, which significantly improves the best collision attack on RIPEMD-160. For the best SFS collision attack published at ToSC 2019, we observe that the bottleneck is the probability of the right-branch differential characteristics as they are fully uncontrolled in the message modification. To address this issue, we utilize our SAT/SMT-based tool to search for high-probability differential characteristics for the right branch. Consequently, we can mount successful SFS collision attacks on 41, 42 and 43 steps of RIPEMD-160, thus significantly improving the SFS collision attacks. In addition, we also searched for a 44-step differential characteristic, but the differential probability is too low to allow a meaningful SFS collision attack.

2023

TOSC

Boosting Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis of ChaCha7 with MILP
Abstract

In this paper, we present an improved differential-linear cryptanalysis of the ChaCha stream cipher. Our main contributions are new differential-linear distinguishers that we were able to build thanks to the following improvements: a) we considered a larger search space, including 2-bit differences (besides 1-bit differences) for the difference at the beginning of the differential part of the differential-linear trail; b) a better choice of mask between the differential and linear parts; c) a carefully crafted MILP tool that finds linear trails with higher correlation for the linear part. We eventually obtain a new distinguisher for ChaCha reduced to 7 rounds that requires 2166.89 computations, improving the previous record (ASIACRYPT 2022) by a factor of 247. Also, we obtain a distinguisher for ChaCha reduced to 7.5 rounds that requires 2251.4 computations, being the first time of a distinguisher against ChaCha reduced to 7.5 rounds. Using our MILP tool, we also found a 5-round differential-linear distinguisher. When combined with the probabilistic neutral bits (PNB) framework, we obtain a key-recovery attack on ChaCha reduced to 7 rounds with a computational complexity of 2206.8, improving by a factor 214.2 upon the recent result published at EUROCRYPT 2022.

2023

TOSC

Bounded Surjective Quadratic Functions over Fnp for MPC-/ZK-/FHE-Friendly Symmetric Primitives
Abstract

Motivated by new applications such as secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC), Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), and Zero-Knowledge proofs (ZK), many MPC-, FHE- and ZK-friendly symmetric-key primitives that minimize the< number of multiplications over Fp for a large prime p have been recently proposed in the literature. These symmetric primitives are usually defined via invertible functions, including (i) Feistel and Lai-Massey schemes and (ii) SPN constructions instantiated with invertible non-linear S-Boxes. However, the “invertibility” property is actually never required in any of the mentioned applications.In this paper, we discuss the possibility to set up MPC-/FHE-/ZK-friendly symmetric primitives instantiated with non-invertible bounded surjective functions. In contrast to one-to-one functions, each output of a l-bounded surjective function admits at most l pre-images. The simplest example is the square map x → x2 over Fp for a prime p ≥ 3, which is (obviously) 2-bounded surjective. When working over Fnp for n ≥ 2, we set up bounded surjective functions by re-considering the recent results proposed by Grassi, Onofri, Pedicini and Sozzi at FSE/ToSC 2022 as starting points. Given a quadratic local map F : Fmp → Fp for m ∈ {1, 2, 3}, they proved that the shift-invariant non-linear function over Fnp defined as SF (x0, x1, . . . , xn−1) = y0∥y1∥ . . . ∥yn−1 where yi := F(xi, xi+1) is never invertible for any n ≥ 2 · m − 1. Here, we prove that • the quadratic function F : Fmp → Fp for m ∈ {1, 2} that minimizes the probability of having a collision for SF over Fnp is of the form F(x0, x1) = x20 + x1 (or equivalent);• the function SF over Fnp defined as before via F(x0, x1) = x20 +x1 (or equivalent) is 2n-bounded surjective.As concrete applications, we propose modified versions of the MPC-friendly schemes MiMC, HadesMiMC, and (partially of) Hydra, and of the FHE-friendly schemes Masta, Pasta, and Rubato. By instantiating them with the bounded surjective quadratic functions proposed in this paper, we are able to improve the security and/or the performances in the target applications/protocols.

2023

TOSC

Cascading Four Round LRW1 is Beyond Birthday Bound Secure
Abstract

In CRYPTO’02, Liskov et al. introduced the concept of a tweakable block cipher, a novel symmetric key primitive with promising applications. They put forth two constructions for designing such tweakable block ciphers from conventional block ciphers: LRW1 and LRW2. While subsequent efforts extended LRW2 to achieve security beyond the birthday bound (e.g., cascaded LRW2 in CRYPTO’12 by Landecker et al.), the extension of LRW1 remained unexplored until Bao et al.’s work in EUROCRYPT’20 that considered cascaded LRW1, a one-round extension of LRW1 - entailing masking the LRW1 output with the given tweak and re-encrypting it with the same block cipher. They showed that CLRW1 offers security up to 22n/3 queries. However, this result was challenged by Khairallah’s recent birthday bound distinguishing attack on cascaded LRW1, effectively refuting the security claim of Bao et al. Consequently, a pertinent research question emerges: How many rounds of cascaded LRW1 are required to obtain security beyond the birthday bound? This paper addresses this question by establishing that cascading LRW1 for four rounds suffices to ensure security beyond the birthday bound. Specifically, we demonstrate that 4 rounds of CLRW1 guarantees security for up to 23n/4 queries. Our security analysis is based from recent advancements in the mirror theory technique for tweakable random permutations, operating within the framework of the Expectation Method.

2023

TOSC

Chosen-Key Secure Even-Mansour Cipher from a Single Permutation
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2015, Cogliati and Seurin proved that the 4-round Iterated Even-Mansour (IEM) cipher with Independent random Permutations and no key schedule EMIP4(k, u) = k⊕p4 ( k⊕p3 ( k⊕p2 (k⊕p1 (k⊕u)))) is sequentially indifferentiable from an ideal cipher, which implies chosen-key security in the sense of correlation intractability. In practice, however, blockciphers such as the AES typically employ the same permutation at each round. To bridge the gap, we prove that the 4-round IEM cipher EMSP[φ]p4 (k, u) = k4⊕p (k3⊕p (k2⊕p(k1⊕p(k0⊕u)))), whose round keys ki = φi(k) are derived using an affine permutation φ : {0, 1}n → {0, 1}n with certain properties, is sequentially indifferentiable from an ideal cipher. The function φ can be a linear orthomorphism, or φ(k) := k≫a for some fixed integer a using cyclic shift. To our knowledge, this is the first indifferentiability-type result for blockciphers using identical round functions.

2023

TOSC

Classical and Quantum Meet-in-the-Middle Nostradamus Attacks on AES-like Hashing
Abstract

At EUROCRYPT 2006, Kelsey and Kohno proposed the so-called chosen target forced-prefix (CTFP) preimage attack, where for any challenge prefix P, the attacker can generate a suffix S such that H(P∥S) = y for some hash value y published in advance by the attacker. Consequently, the attacker can pretend to predict some event represented by P she did not know before, and thus this type of attack is also known as the Nostradamus attack. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Benedikt et al. convert Kelsey et al.’s attack to a quantum one, reducing the time complexity from O(√n · 22n/3) to O( 3√n · 23n/7). CTFP preimage attack is less investigated in the literature than (second-)preimage and collision attacks and lacks dedicated methods. In this paper, we propose the first dedicated Nostradamus attack based on the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, and the MITM Nostradamus attack could be up to quadratically accelerated in the quantum setting. According to the recent works on MITM preimage attacks on AES-like hashing, we build an automatic tool to search for optimal MITM Nostradamus attacks and model the tradeoff between the offline and online phases. We apply our method to AES-MMO and Whirlpool, and obtain the first dedicated attack on round-reduced version of these hash functions. Our method and automatic tool are applicable to other AES-like hashings.

2023

TOSC

Classification of All t-Resilient Boolean Functions with t + 4 Variables
Abstract

We apply Siegenthaler’s construction, along with several techniques, to classify all (n−4)-resilient Boolean functions with n variables, for all values of n ≥ 4, up to the extended variable-permutation equivalence. We show that, up to this equivalence, there are only 761 functions for any n larger than or equal to 10, and for smaller values of n, i.e., for n increasing from 4 to 9, there are 58, 256, 578, 720, 754, and 760 functions, respectively. Furthermore, we classify all 1-resilient 6-variable Boolean functions and show that there are 1 035 596 784 such functions up to the extended variable-permutation equivalence.

2023

TOSC

Committing Security of Ascon: Cryptanalysis on Primitive and Proof on Mode
Abstract

Context-committing security of authenticated encryption (AE) that prevents ciphertexts from being decrypted with distinct decryption contexts, (K,N,A) comprising a key K, a nonce N, and associate data A is an active research field motivated by several real-world attacks. In this paper, we study the context-committing security of Ascon, the lightweight permutation-based AE selected by the NIST LWC in 2023, for cryptanalysis on primitive and proof on mode. The attacker’s goal is to find a collision of a ciphertext and a tag with distinct decryption contexts in which an attacker can control all the parameters including the key. First, we propose new attacks with primitives that inject differences in N and A. The new attack on Ascon-128 improves the number of rounds from 2 to 3 and practically generates distinct decryption contexts. The new attack also works in a practical complexity on 3 rounds of Ascon-128a. Second, we prove the context-committing security of Ascon with zero padding, namely Ascon-zp, in the random permutation model. Ascon-zp achieves min {t+z/2 , n+t−k−ν/2 , c/2}-bit security with a t-bit tag, a z-bit padding, an n-bit state, a ν-bit nonce, and a c-bit inner part. This bound corresponds to min {64 + z/2 , 96} with Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a, and min {64 + z/2 , 80} with Ascon-80pq. The original Ascon (z = 0) achieves 64-bit security bounded by a generic birthday attack. By appending zeroes to the plaintext, the security can be enhanced up to 96 bits for Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a and 80 bits for Ascon-80pq.

2023

TOSC

Commutative Cryptanalysis Made Practical
Abstract

About 20 years ago, Wagner showed that most of the (then) known techniques used in the cryptanalysis of block ciphers were particular cases of what he called commutative diagram cryptanalysis. However, to the best of our knowledge, this general framework has not yet been leveraged to find concrete attacks.In this paper, we focus on a particular case of this framework and develop commutative cryptanalysis, whereby an attacker targeting a primitive E constructs affine permutations A and B such that E ○ A = B ○ E with a high probability, possibly for some weak keys. We develop the tools needed for the practical use of this technique: first, we generalize differential uniformity into “A-uniformity” and differential trails into “commutative trails”, and second we investigate the commutative behaviour of S-box layers, matrix multiplications, and key additions.Equipped with these new techniques, we find probability-one distinguishers using only two chosen plaintexts for large classes of weak keys in both a modified Midori and in Scream. For the same weak keys, we deduce high probability truncated differentials that can cover an arbitrary number of rounds, but which do not correspond to any high probability differential trails. Similarly, we show the existence of a trade-off in our variant of Midori whereby the probability of the commutative trail can be decreased in order to increase the weak key density. We also show some statistical patterns in the AES super S-box that have a much higher probability than the best differentials, and which hold for a class of weak keys of density about 2−4.5.

2023

TOSC

Cryptanalysis of HALFLOOP Block Ciphers: Destroying HALFLOOP-24
Abstract

HALFLOOP is a family of tweakable block ciphers that are used for encrypting automatic link establishment (ALE) messages in high frequency radio, a technology commonly used by the military, other government agencies and industries which require high robustness in long-distance communications. Recently, it was shown in [DDLS22] that the smallest version of the cipher, HALFLOOP-24, can be attacked within a practical time and memory complexity. However, in the real-word ALE setting, it turns out that this attack require to wait more than 500 years to collect the necessary amount of plaintext-tweak-ciphertext pairs fulfilling the conditions of the attack.In this paper, we present real-world practical attacks against HALFLOOP-24 which are based on a probability-one differential distinguisher. In our attacks, we significantly reduce the data complexity to three differential pairs in the chosen-plaintext (CPA) setting which is optimal in the sense that even a brute force attack needs at least six plaintext-tweak-ciphertext pairs to uniquely identify the correct key. Considering the same ALE setting as [DDLS22], this translates to a reduction from 541 years to 2 hours worth of intercepted traffic.Besides, we provide the first, non generic, public cryptanalysis of HALFLOOP-48 and HALFLOOP-96. More precisely, we present Demirci-Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attacks against full-round HALFLOOP-48 and round-reduced HALFLOOP-96 to recover the complete master key in a CPA setting. However, unlike the attacks on HALFLOOP-24, our attacks on the larger versions are only theoretical. Moreover for HALFLOOP-96 the known generic time-memory trade-off attack, based on a flawed tweak handling, remains the strongest attack vector.In conclusion, we iterate what was already stated in [DDLS22]: HALFLOOP does not provide adequate protection and should not be used.

2023

TOSC

Cryptanalysis of Reduced Round ChaCha – New Attack & Deeper Analysis
Abstract

In this paper we present several analyses on ChaCha, a software stream cipher. First, we consider a divide-and-conquer approach on the secret key bits by partitioning them. The partitions are based on multiple input-output differentials to obtain a significantly improved attack on 6-round ChaCha256 with a complexity of 299.48. It is 240 times faster than the currently best known attack. This is the first time an attack on a round reduced ChaCha with a complexity smaller than 2k/2, where the secret key is of k bits, has been successful.Further, all the attack complexities related to ChaCha are theoretically estimated in general and there are several questions in this regard as pointed out by Dey, Garai, Sarkar and Sharma in Eurocrypt 2022. In this regard, we propose a toy version of ChaCha, with a 32-bit secret key, on which the attacks can be implemented completely to verify whether the theoretical estimates are justified. This idea is implemented for our proposed attack on 6 rounds. Finally, we show that it is possible to estimate the success probabilities of these kinds of PNB-based differential attacks more accurately. Our methodology explains how different cryptanalytic results can be evaluated with better accuracy rather than claiming that the success probability is significantly better than 50%.

2023

TOSC

EliMAC: Speeding Up LightMAC by around 20%
Abstract

Universal hash functions play a prominent role in the design of message authentication codes and the like. Whereas it is known how to build highly efficient sequential universal hash functions, parallel non-algebraic universal hash function designs are always built on top of a PRP. In such case, one employs a relatively strong primitive to obtain a function with a relatively weak security model. In this work, we present EliHash, a construction of a parallel universal hash function from non-compressing universal hash functions, and we back it up with supporting security analysis. We use this construction to design EliMAC, a message authentication code similar to LightMAC. We consider a heuristic instantiation of EliMAC with roundreduced AES, and argue that this instantiation of EliMAC is much more efficient than LightMAC, it is around 21% faster, and additionally allows for precomputation of the keys, albeit with a stronger assumption on the AES primitive than in LightMAC. These observations are backed up with an implementation of our scheme.

2023

TOSC

Finding Collisions for Round-Reduced Romulus-H
Abstract

The hash function Romulus-H is a finalist in the NIST Lightweight Cryptography competition. It is based on the Hirose double block-length (DBL) construction which is provably secure when used with an ideal block cipher. However, in practice, ideal block ciphers can only be approximated. Therefore, the security of concrete instantiations must be cryptanalyzed carefully; the security margin may be higher or lower than in the secret-key setting. So far, the Hirose DBL construction has been studied with only a few other block ciphers, like IDEA and AES. However, Romulus-H uses Hirose DBL with the SKINNY block cipher where only very little analysis has been published so far. In this work, we present the first practical analysis of Romulus-H. We propose a new framework for finding collisions in hash functions based on the Hirose DBL construction. This is in contrast to previous work that only focused on free-start collisions. Our framework is based on the idea of joint differential characteristics which capture the relationship between the two block cipher calls in the Hirose DBL construction. To identify good joint differential characteristics, we propose a combination of MILP and CP models. Then, we use these characteristics in another CP model to find collisions. Finally, we apply this framework to Romulus-H and find practical collisions of the hash function for 10 out of 40 rounds and practical semi-free-start collisions for up to 14 rounds.

2023

TOSC

Improved Attacks on LowMC with Algebraic Techniques
Abstract

The LowMC family of SPN block cipher proposed by Albrecht et al. was designed specifically for MPC-/FHE-/ZKP-friendly use cases. It is especially used as the underlying block cipher of PICNIC, one of the alternate third-round candidate digital signature algorithms for NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization. The security of PICNIC is highly related to the difficulty of recovering the secret key of LowMC from a given plaintext/ciphertext pair, which raises new challenges for security evaluation under extremely low data complexity.In this paper, we improve the attacks on LowMC under low data complexity, i.e. 1 or 2 chosen plaintext/ciphertext pairs. For the difference enumeration attack with 2 chosen plaintexts, we propose new algebraic methods to better exploit the nonlinear relation inside the introduced variables based on the attack framework proposed by Liu et al. at ASIACRYPT 2022. With this technique, we significantly extend the number of attack rounds for LowMC with partial nonlinear layers and improve the success probability from around 0.5 to over 0.9. The security margin of some instances can be reduced to only 3/4 rounds. For the key-recovery attack using a single plaintext, we adopt a different linearization strategy to reduce the huge memory consumption caused by the polynomial methods for solving multivariate equation systems. The memory complexity reduces drastically for all 5-/6-round LowMC instances with full nonlinear layers at the sacrifice of a small factor of time complexity. For 5-round LowMC instances with a block size of 129, the memory complexity decreases from 286.46 bits to 248.18 bits while the time complexity even slightly reduces. Our results indicate that the security for different instances of LowMC under extremely low data complexity still needs further exploration.

2023

TOSC

Improved Fast Correlation Attacks on the Sosemanuk Stream Cipher
Abstract

In this paper, we present a new algorithm for fast correlation attacks on stream ciphers with improved cryptanalysis results on the Sosemanuk stream cipher, one of the 7 finalists in the eSTREAM project in 2008. The new algorithm exploits the direct sum construction of covering codes in decoding phase which approximates the random vectors to a nearest codeword in a linear code. The new strategy provides large flexibility for the adversary and could reduce the time/memory/data complexities significantly. As a case study, we carefully revisit Sosemanuk and demonstrate a state recovery attack with a time complexity of 2134.8, which is 220 times faster than achievable before by the same kind of attack and is the fastest one among all known attacks so far. Our result indicates an inefficiency in longer keys than 135 bits and depicts that the security margin of Sosemanuk is around 28 for the 128-bit security for the first time.

2023

TOSC

Indifferentiability of the Sponge Construction with a Restricted Number of Message Blocks
Abstract

The sponge construction is a popular method for hashing. Quickly after its introduction, the sponge was proven to be tightly indifferentiable from a random oracle up to ≈ 2c/2 queries, where c is the capacity. However, this bound is not tight when the number of message blocks absorbed is restricted to ℓ < ⌈ c / 2(b−c) ⌉ + 1 (but still an arbitrary number of blocks can be squeezed). In this work, we show that this restriction leads to indifferentiability from a random oracle up to ≈ min { 2b/2, max { 2c/2, 2b−ℓ×(b−c) }} queries, where b > c is the permutation size. Depending on the parameters chosen, this result allows to have enhanced security or to absorb at a larger rate for applications that require a fixed-length input hash function.

2023

TOSC

Integral Cryptanalysis Using Algebraic Transition Matrices
Abstract

In this work we introduce algebraic transition matrices as the basis for a new approach to integral cryptanalysis that unifies monomial trails (Hu et al., Asiacrypt 2020) and parity sets (Boura and Canteaut, Crypto 2016). Algebraic transition matrices allow for the computation of the algebraic normal form of a primitive based on the algebraic normal forms of its components by means of wellunderstood operations from linear algebra. The theory of algebraic transition matrices leads to better insight into the relation between integral properties of F and F−1. In addition, we show that the link between invariants and eigenvectors of correlation matrices (Beyne, Asiacrypt 2018) carries over to algebraic transition matrices. Finally, algebraic transition matrices suggest a generalized definition of integral properties that subsumes previous notions such as extended division properties (Lambin, Derbez and Fouque, DCC 2020). On the practical side, a new algorithm is described to search for these generalized properties and applied to Present, resulting in new properties. The algorithm can be instantiated with any existing automated search method for integral cryptanalysis.

2023

TOSC

Key Committing Security of AEZ and More
Abstract

For an Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) scheme, the key committing security refers to the security notion of whether the adversary can produce a pair of distinct input tuples, including the key, that result in the same output. While the key committing security of various nonce-based AEAD schemes is known, the security analysis of Robust AE (RAE) is largely unexplored. In particular, we are interested in the key committing security of AEAD schemes built on the Encode-then-Encipher (EtE) approach from a wide block cipher. We first consider AEZ v5, the classical and the first dedicated RAE that employs the EtE approach. We focus our analysis on the core part of AEZ to show our best attacks depending on the length of the ciphertext expansion. In the general case where the Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) is assumed to be ideal, we show a birthday attack and a matching provable security result. AEZ adopts a simpler key schedule and the prove-then-prune approach in the full specification, and we show a practical attack against it by exploiting the simplicity of the key schedule. The complexity is 227, and we experimentally verify the correctness with a concrete example. We also cover two AEAD schemes based on EtE. One is built on Adiantum, and the other one is built on HCTR2, which are two wide block ciphers that are used in real applications. We present key committing attacks against these schemes when used in EtE and matching proofs for particular cases.

2023

TOSC

Multidimensional Linear Cryptanalysis of Feistel Ciphers
Abstract

This paper presents new generic attacks on Feistel ciphers that incorporate the key addition at the input of the non-invertible round function only. This feature leads to a specific vulnerability that can be exploited using multidimensional linear cryptanalysis. More specifically, our approach involves using key-independent linear trails so that the distribution of a combination of the plaintext and ciphertext can be computed. This makes it possible to use the likelihood-ratio test as opposed to the χ2 test. We provide theoretical estimates of the cost of our generic attacks and verify these experimentally by applying the attacks to CAST-128 and LOKI91. The theoretical and experimental findings demonstrate that the proposed attacks lead to significant reductions in data-complexity in several interesting cases.

2023

TOSC

Multimixer-128: Universal Keyed Hashing Based on Integer Multiplication
Abstract

In this paper we introduce a new keyed hash function based on 32-bit integer multiplication that we call Multimixer-128. In our approach, we follow the key-then-hash parallel paradigm. So, we first add a variable length input message to a secret key and split the result into blocks. A fixed length public function based on integer multiplication is then applied on each block and their results are added to form the digest. We prove an upper bound of 2−127 for the universality of Multimixer-128 by means of the differential probability and image probability of the underlying public function.There are vector instructions for fast 32-bit integer multiplication on many CPUs and in such platforms, Multimixer-128 is very efficient. We compare our implementation of Multimixer-128 with NH hash function family that offers similar levels of security and with two fastest NIST LWC candidates. To the best of our knowledge, NH hash function is the fastest keyed hash function on software and Multimixer-128 outperforms NH while providing same levels of security.

2023

TOSC

On Boomerang Attacks on Quadratic Feistel Ciphers: New results on KATAN and Simon
Abstract

The recent introduction of the Boomerang Connectivity Table (BCT) at Eurocrypt 2018 revived interest in boomerang cryptanalysis and in the need to correctly build boomerang distinguishers. Several important advances have been made on this matter, with in particular the study of the extension of the BCT theory to multiple rounds and to different types of ciphers.In this paper, we pursue these investigations by studying the specific case of quadratic Feistel ciphers, motivated by the need to look at two particularly lightweight ciphers, KATAN and Simon. Our analysis shows that their light round function leads to an extreme case, as a one-round boomerang can only have a probability of 0 or 1. We identify six papers presenting boomerang analyses of KATAN or Simon and all use the naive approach to compute the distinguisher’s probability. We are able to prove that several results are theoretically incorrect and we run experiments to check the probability of the others. Many do not have the claimed probability: it fails distinguishing in some cases, but we also identify instances where the experimental probability turns out to be better than the claimed one.To address this shortfall, we propose an SMT model taking into account the boomerang constraints. We present several experimentally-verified related-key distinguishers obtained with our new technique: on KATAN32 a 151-round boomerang and on Simon-32/64 a 17-round boomerang, a 19-round rotational-xor boomerang and a 15-round rotational-xor-differential boomerang.Furthermore, we extend our 19-round distinguisher into a 25-round rotational-xor rectangle attack on Simon-32/64. To the best of our knowledge this attack reaches one more round than previously published results.

2023

TOSC

On Large Tweaks in Tweakable Even-Mansour with Linear Tweak and Key Mixing
Abstract

In this paper, we provide the first analysis of the Iterated Tweakable Even-Mansour cipher with linear tweak and key (or tweakey) mixing, henceforth referred as TEML, for an arbitrary tweak(ey) size kn for all k ≥ 1, and arbitrary number of rounds r ≥ 2. Note that TEML captures the high-level design paradigm of most of the existing tweakable block ciphers (TBCs), including SKINNY, Deoxys, TweGIFT, TweAES etc. from a provable security point of view. At ASIACRYPT 2015, Cogliati and Seurin initiated the study of TEML by showing that 4-round TEML with a 2n-bit uniform at random key, and n-bit tweak is secure up to 22n/3 queries. In this work, we extend this line of research in two directions. First, we propose a necessary and sufficient class of linear tweakey schedules to absorb mn-bit tweak(ey) material in a minimal number of rounds, for all m ≥ 1. Second, we give a rigorous provable security treatment for r-round TEML, for all r ≥ 2. In particular, we first show that the 2r-round TEML with a (2r + 1)n-bit key, αn-bit tweak, and a special class of tweakey schedule is IND-CCA secure up to O(2r−α/r n) queries. Our proof crucially relies on the use of the coupling technique to upper-bound the statistical distance of the outputs of TEML cipher from the uniform distribution. Our main echnical contribution is a novel approach for computing the probability of failure in coupling, which could be of independent interest for deriving tighter bounds in coupling-based security proofs. Next, we shift our focus to the chosen-key setting, and show that (r + 3)-round TEML, with rn bits of tweakey material and a special class of tweakey schedule, offers some form of resistance to chosen-key attacks. We prove this by showing that r + 3 rounds of TEML are both necessary and sufficient for sequential indifferentiability. As a consequence of our results, we provide a sound provable security footing for the TWEAKEY framework, a high level design rationale of popular TBC.

2023

TOSC

Optimally Secure Tweakable Block Ciphers with a Large Tweak from n-bit Block Ciphers
Abstract

We consider the design of a tweakable block cipher from a block cipher whose inputs and outputs are of size n bits. The main goal is to achieve 2n security with a large tweak (i.e., more than n bits). Previously, Mennink at FSE’15 and Wang et al. at Asiacrypt’16 proposed constructions that can achieve 2n security. Yet, these constructions can have a tweak size up to n-bit only. As evident from recent research, a tweakable block cipher with a large tweak is generally helpful as a building block for modes of operation, typical applications including MACs, authenticated encryption, leakage-resistant cryptography and full-disk encryption.We begin with how to design a tweakable block cipher with 2n-bit tweak and n-bit security from two block cipher calls. For this purpose, we do an exhaustive search for tweakable block ciphers with 2n-bit tweaks from two block cipher calls, and show that all of them suffer from birthday-bound attacks. Next, we investigate the possibility to design a tweakable block cipher with 2n-bit tweak and n-bit security from three block cipher calls. We start with some conditions to build such a tweakable block cipher and propose a natural construction, called G̃1, that likely meets them. After inspection, we find a weakness in G̃1 which leads to a birthday-bound attack. Based on G̃1, we then propose another construction, called G̃2, that can avoid this weakness. We finally prove that G̃2 can achieve n-bit security with 2n-bit tweak.

2023

TOSC

Practical Related-Key Forgery Attacks on Full-Round TinyJAMBU-192/256
Abstract

TinyJAMBU is one of the finalists in the NIST lightweight cryptography competition. It is considered to be one of the more efficient ciphers in the competition and has undergone extensive analysis in recent years as both the keyed permutation as well as the mode are new designs. In this paper we present a related-key forgery attack on the updated TinyJAMBU-v2 scheme with 256- and 192-bit keys. We introduce a high probability related-key differential attack where the differences are only introduced into the key state. Therefore, the characteristic is applicable to the TinyJAMBU mode and can be used to mount a forgery attack. The time and data complexity of the forgery are 233 using 214 related-keys for the 256-bit key version, and 243 using 216 related-keys for the 192-bit key version.For the 128-bit key we construct a related-key differential characteristic on the full keyed permutation of TinyJAMBU with a probability of 2−16. We extend the relatedkey differential characteristics on TinyJAMBU to practical-time key-recovery attacks that extract the full key from the keyed permutation with a time and data complexity of 224, 221, and 219 for respectively the 128-, 192-, and 256-bit key variants.All characteristics are experimentally verified and we provide key nonce pairs that produce the same tag to show the feasibility of the forgery attack. We note that the designers do not claim related-key security, however, the attacks proposed in this paper suggest that the scheme is not key-commiting, which has been recently identified as a favorable property for AEAD schemes.

2023

TOSC

Propagation of Subspaces in Primitives with Monomial Sboxes: Applications to Rescue and Variants of the AES
Abstract

Motivated by progress in the field of zero-knowledge proofs, so-called Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) symmetric primitives have started to appear in the literature, such as MiMC, Poseidon or Rescue. Due to the design constraints implied by this setting, these algorithms are defined using simple operations over large (possibly prime) fields. In particular, many rely on simple low-degree monomials for their non-linear layers, essentially using x ↦ x3 as an S-box.In this paper, we show that the structure of the material injected in each round (be it subkeys in a block cipher or round constants in a public permutation) could allow a specific pattern, whereby a well-defined affine space is mapped to another by the round function, and then to another, etc. Such chains of one-dimensional subspaces always exist over 2 rounds, and they can be extended to an arbitrary number of rounds, for any linear layer, provided that the round-constants are well chosen.As a consequence, for several ciphers like Rescue, or a variant of AES with a monomial Sbox, there exist some round-key sequences for which the cipher has an abnormally high differential uniformity, exceeding the size of the Sbox alphabet.Well-known security arguments, in particular based on the wide-trail strategy, have been reused in the AO setting by many designers. Unfortunately, our results show that such a traditional study may not be sufficient to guarantee security. To illustrate this, we present two new primitives (the tweakable block cipher Snare and the permutation-based hash function Stir) that are built using state-of-the-art security arguments, but which are actually deeply flawed. Indeed, the key schedule of Snare ensures the presence of a subspace chain that significantly simplifies an algebraic attack against it, and the round constants of Stir force the presence of a subspace chain aligned with the rate and capacity of the permutation. This in turns implies the existence of many easy-to-find solutions to the so-called CICO problem.

2023

TOSC

Related-Key Differential Analysis of the AES
Abstract

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is considered to be the most important and widely deployed symmetric primitive. While the cipher was designed to be immune against differential and other classical attacks, this immunity does not hold in the related-key setting, and various related-key attacks have appeared over time. This work presents tools and algorithms to search for related-key distinguishers and attacks of differential nature against the AES. First, we propose two entirely different approaches to find optimal truncated differential characteristics and bounds on the minimum number of active S-boxes for all variants of the AES. In the first approach, we propose a simple MILP model that handles better linear inconsistencies with respect to the AES system of equations and that compares particularly well to previous tool-based approaches to solve this problem. The main advantage of this tool is that it can easily be used as the core algorithm to search for any attack on AES exploiting related-key differentials. Then, we design a fast and low-memory algorithm based on dynamic programming that has a very simple to understand complexity analysis and does not depend on any generic solver. This second algorithm provides us useful insight on the related-key differential search problem for AES and shows that the search space is not as big as one would expect. Finally, we build on the top of our MILP model a fully automated tool to search for the best differential MITM attacks against the AES. We apply our tool on AES-256 and find an attack on 13 rounds with only two related keys. This attack can be seen as the best known cryptanalysis against this variant if only 2 related keys are permitted.

2023

TOSC

Revisiting Randomness Extraction and Key Derivation Using the CBC and Cascade Modes
Abstract

In this paper, we revisit a celebrated result by Dodis et al. from CRYPTO 2004, in relation with the suitability of CBC-MAC and cascade construction for randomness extraction. We first observe that the proof of three key sub-results are missing in the paper, which makes it difficult to verify the authors’ claims. Then, using a detailed and thorough analysis of the collision probability for both the CBC function and the cascade construction, we provide the missing proofs, thereby establishing the veracity of this old result. As a side-effect, we have made a significant advancement in the characterization of graph-based analysis of CBC and cascade construction, which could be of independent interest.

2023

TOSC

Revisiting Yoyo Tricks on AES
Abstract

At Asiacrypt 2017, Rønjom et al. presented key-independent distinguishers for different numbers of rounds of AES, ranging from 3 to 6 rounds, in their work titled “Yoyo Tricks with AES”. The reported data complexities for these distinguishers were 3, 4, 225.8, and 2122.83, respectively. In this work, we revisit those key-independent distinguishers and analyze their success probabilities.We show that the distinguishing algorithms provided for 5 and 6 rounds of AES in the paper of Rønjom et al. are ineffective with the proposed data complexities. Our thorough theoretical analysis has revealed that the success probability of these distinguishers for both 5-round and 6-round AES is approximately 0.5, with the corresponding data complexities mentioned earlier.We investigate the reasons behind this seemingly random behavior of those reported distinguishers. Based on our theoretical findings, we have revised the distinguishing algorithm for 5-round AES. Our revised algorithm demonstrates success probabilities of approximately 0.55 and 0.81 for 5-round AES, with data complexities of 229.95 and 230.65, respectively. We have also conducted experimental tests to validate our theoretical findings, which further support our findings.Additionally, we have theoretically demonstrated that improving the success probability of the distinguisher for 6-round AES from 0.50000 to 0.50004 would require a data complexity of 2129.15. This finding invalidates the reported distinguisher by Rønjom et al. for 6-round AES.

2023

TOSC

SAT-aided Automatic Search of Boomerang Distinguishers for ARX Ciphers
Abstract

In Addition-Rotation-Xor (ARX) ciphers, the large domain size obstructs the application of the boomerang connectivity table. In this paper, we explore the problem of computing this table for a modular addition and the automatic search of boomerang characteristics for ARX ciphers. We provide dynamic programming algorithms to efficiently compute this table and its variants. These algorithms are the most efficient up to now. For the boomerang connectivity table, the execution time is 42(n − 1) simple operations while the previous algorithm costs 82(n − 1) simple operations, which generates a smaller model in the searching phase. After rewriting these algorithms with boolean expressions, we construct the corresponding Boolean Satisfiability Problem models. Two automatic search frameworks are also proposed based on these models. This is the first time bringing the SAT-aided automatic search techniques into finding boomerang attacks on ARX ciphers. Finally, under these frameworks, we find out the first verifiable 10-round boomerang trail for SPECK32/64 with probability 2−29.15 and a 12-round trail for SPECK48/72 with probability 2−44.15. These are the best distinguishers for them so far. We also perceive that the previous boomerang attacks on LEA are constructed with an incorrect computation of the boomerang connection probability. The result is then fixed by our frameworks.

2023

TOSC

Secure Message Authentication in the Presence of Leakage and Faults
Abstract

Security against side-channels and faults is a must for the deployment of embedded cryptography. A wide body of research has investigated solutions to secure implementations against these attacks at different abstraction levels. Yet, to a large extent, current solutions focus on one or the other threat. In this paper, we initiate a mode-level study of cryptographic primitives that can ensure security in a (new and practically-motivated) adversarial model combining leakage and faults. Our goal is to identify constructions that do not require a uniform protection of all their operations against both attack vectors. For this purpose, we first introduce a versatile and intuitive model to capture leakage and faults. We then show that a MAC from Asiacrypt 2021 natively enables a leveled implementation for fault resilience where only its underlying tweakable block cipher must be protected, if only the tag verification can be faulted. We finally describe two approaches to amplify security for fault resilience when also the tag generation can be faulted. One is based on iteration and requires the adversary to inject increasingly large faults to succeed. The other is based on randomness and allows provable security against differential faults.

2023

TOSC

Simplified Modeling of MITM Attacks for Block Ciphers: New (Quantum) Attacks
Abstract

The meet-in-the-middle (MITM) technique has led to many key-recovery attacks on block ciphers and preimage attacks on hash functions. Nowadays, cryptographers use automatic tools that reduce the search of MITM attacks to an optimization problem. Bao et al. (EUROCRYPT 2021) introduced a low-level modeling based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) for MITM attacks on hash functions, which was extended to key-recovery attacks by Dong et al. (CRYPTO 2021). However, the modeling only covers AES-like designs. Schrottenloher and Stevens (CRYPTO 2022) proposed a different approach aiming at higher-level simplified models. However, this modeling was limited to cryptographic permutations.In this paper, we extend the latter simplified modeling to also cover block ciphers with simple key schedules. The resulting modeling enables us to target a large array of primitives, typically lightweight SPN ciphers where the key schedule has a slow diffusion, or none at all. We give several applications such as full breaks of the PIPO-256 and FUTURE block ciphers, and reduced-round classical and quantum attacks on SATURNIN-Hash.

2023

TOSC

SoK: Modeling for Large S-boxes Oriented to Differential Probabilities and Linear Correlations
Abstract

Automatic methods for differential and linear characteristic search are well-established at the moment. Typically, the designers of novel ciphers also give preliminary analytical findings for analysing the differential and linear properties using automatic techniques. However, neither MILP-based nor SAT/SMT-based approaches have fully resolved the problem of searching for actual differential and linear characteristics of ciphers with large S-boxes. To tackle the issue, we present three strategies for developing SAT models for 8-bit S-boxes that are geared toward differential probabilities and linear correlations. While these approaches cannot guarantee a minimum model size, the time needed to obtain models is drastically reduced. The newly proposed SAT model for large S-boxes enables us to establish that the upper bound on the differential probability for 14 rounds of SKINNY-128 is 2−131, thereby completing the unsuccessful work of Abdelkhalek et al. We also analyse the seven AES-based constructions C1 - C7 designed by Jean and Nikolić and compute the minimum number of active S-boxes necessary to cause an internal collision using the SAT method. For two constructions C3 and C5, the current lower bound on the number of active S-boxes is increased, resulting in a more precise security analysis for these two structures.

2023

TOSC

Subverting Telegram’s End-to-End Encryption
Abstract

Telegram is a popular secure messaging service with third biggest user base as of 2021. In this paper, we analyze the security of Telegram’s end-to-end encryption (E2EE) protocol in presence of mass-surveillance. Specifically, we show >that Telegram’s E2EE protocol is susceptible to fairly efficient algorithm substitution attacks. While official Telegram clients should be protected against this type of attack due their open-source nature and reproducible builds, this could potentially lead to a very efficient state sponsored surveillance of private communications over Telegram, either on individuals through a targeted attack or massively through some compromised third-party clients. We provide an efficient algorithm substitution attack against MTProto2.0 — the underlying authenticated encryption scheme — that recovers significant amount of encryption key material with a very high probability with few queries and fairly low latency. This could potentially lead to a very efficient state sponsored surveillance of private communications over Telegram, either through a targeted attack or a compromised third-party app. Our attack exploits MTProto2.0’s degree of freedom in choosing the random padding length and padding value. Accordingly, we strongly recommend that Telegram should revise MTProto2.0’s padding methodology. In particular, we show that a minor change in the padding description of MTProto2.0 makes it subversion-resistant in most of the practical scenarios. As a side-effect, we generalize the underlying mode of operation in MTProto2.0, as MTProto-G, and show that this generalization is a multi-user secure deterministic authenticated encryption scheme.

2023

TOSC

The QARMAv2 Family of Tweakable Block Ciphers
Abstract

We introduce the QARMAv2 family of tweakable block ciphers. It is a redesign of QARMA (from FSE 2017) to improve its security bounds and allow for longer tweaks, while keeping similar latency and area. The wider tweak input caters to both specific use cases and the design of modes of operation with higher security bounds. This is achieved through new key and tweak schedules, revised S-Box and linear layer choices, and a more comprehensive security analysis. QARMAv2 offers competitive latency and area in fully unrolled hardware implementations.Some of our results may be of independent interest. These include: new MILP models of certain classes of diffusion matrices; the comparative analysis of a full reflection cipher against an iterative half-cipher; our boomerang attack framework; and an improved approach to doubling the width of a block cipher.

2023

TOSC

Tight Multi-User Security Bound of DbHtS
Abstract

In CRYPTO’21, Shen et al. proved that Two-Keyed-DbHtS construction is secure up to 22n/3 queries in the multi-user setting independent of the number of users. Here the underlying double-block hash function H of the construction realized as the concatenation of two independent n-bit keyed hash functions (HKh,1,HKh,2), and the security holds under the assumption that each of the n-bit keyed hash function is universal and regular. The authors have also demonstrated the applicability of their result to the key-reduced variants of DbHtS MACs, including 2K-SUM-ECBC, 2K-PMAC_Plus and 2K-LightMAC_Plus without requiring domain separation technique and proved 2n/3-bit multi-user security of these constructions in the ideal cipher model. Recently, Guo and Wang have invalidated the security claim of Shen et al.’s result by exhibiting three constructions, which are instantiations of the Two-Keyed-DbHtS framework, such that each of their n-bit keyed hash functions are O(2−n) universal and regular, while the constructions themselves are secure only up to the birthday bound. In this work, we show a sufficient condition on the underlying Double-block Hash (DbH) function, under which we prove an improved 3n/4-bit multi-user security of the Two-Keyed-DbHtS construction in the ideal-cipher model. To be more precise, we show that if each of the n-bit keyed hash function is universal, regular, and cross-collision resistant then it achieves the desired security. As an instantiation, we show that two-keyed Polyhash-based DbHtS construction is multi-user secure up to 23n/4 queries in the ideal-cipher model. Furthermore, due to the generic attack on DbHtS constructions by Leurent et al. in CRYPTO’18, our derived bound for the construction is tight.

2023

TOSC

Tighter Trail Bounds for Xoodoo
Abstract

Determining bounds on the differential probability of differential trails and the squared correlation contribution of linear trails forms an important part of the security evaluation of a permutation. For Xoodoo, such bounds were proven using the trail core tree search technique, with a dedicated tool (XooTools) that scans the space of all r-round trails with weight below a given threshold Tr. The search space grows exponentially with the value of Tr and XooTools appeared to have reached its limit, requiring huge amounts of CPU time to push the bounds a little further. The bottleneck was the phase called trail extension where short trails are extended to more rounds, especially in the backward direction. In this work, we present a number of techniques that allowed us to make extension much more efficient and as such to increase the bounds significantly. Notably, we prove that the minimum weight of any 4-round trail is 80, the minimum weight of any 6-round trail is at least 132 and the minimum weight of any 12-round trail is at least 264, both for differential and linear trails. As a byproduct we found families of trails that have predictable weight once extended to more rounds and use them to compute upper bounds for the minimum weight of trails for arbitrary numbers of rounds.

2023

TOSC

Towards the Links of Cryptanalytic Methods on MPC/FHE/ZK-Friendly Symmetric-Key Primitives
Abstract

Symmetric-key primitives designed over the prime field Fp with odd characteristics, rather than the traditional Fn2 , are becoming the most popular choice for MPC/FHE/ZK-protocols for better efficiencies. However, the security of Fp is less understood as there are highly nontrivial gaps when extending the cryptanalysis tools and experiences built on Fn2 in the past few decades to Fp.At CRYPTO 2015, Sun et al. established the links among impossible differential, zero-correlation linear, and integral cryptanalysis over Fn2 from the perspective of distinguishers. In this paper, following the definition of linear correlations over Fp by Baignères, Stern and Vaudenay at SAC 2007, we successfully establish comprehensive links over Fp, by reproducing the proofs and offering alternatives when necessary. Interesting and important differences between Fp and Fn2 are observed.- Zero-correlation linear hulls can not lead to integral distinguishers for some cases over Fp, while this is always possible over Fn2proven by Sun et al..- When the newly established links are applied to GMiMC, its impossible differential, zero-correlation linear hull and integral distinguishers can be increased by up to 3 rounds for most of the cases, and even to an arbitrary number of rounds for some special and limited cases, which only appeared in Fp. It should be noted that all these distinguishers do not invalidate GMiMC’s security claims.The development of the theories over Fp behind these links, and properties identified (be it similar or different) will bring clearer and easier understanding of security of primitives in this emerging Fp field, which we believe will provide useful guides for future cryptanalysis and design.

2023

TOSC

Understanding the Duplex and Its Security
Abstract

At SAC 2011, Bertoni et al. introduced the keyed duplex construction as a tool to build permutation based authenticated encryption schemes. The construction was generalized to full-state absorption by Mennink et al. (ASIACRYPT 2015). Daemen et al. (ASIACRYPT 2017) generalized it further to cover much more use cases, and proved security of this general construction, and Dobraunig and Mennink (ASIACRYPT 2019) derived a leakage resilience security bound for this construction. Due to its generality, the full-state keyed duplex construction that we know today has plethora applications, but the flip side of the coin is that the general construction is hard to grasp and the corresponding security bounds are very complex. Consequently, the state-of-the-art results on the full-state keyed duplex construction are not used to the fullest. In this work, we revisit the history of the duplex construction, give a comprehensive discussion of its possibilities and limitations, and demonstrate how the two security bounds (of Daemen et al. and Dobraunig and Mennink) can be interpreted in particular applications of the duplex.