International Association for Cryptologic Research

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Papers from ASIACRYPT 2019

Year
Venue
Title
2019
ASIACRYPT
New proof systems for sustainable blockchains: proofs of space and verifiable delay functions
Invited talk
The distinctive feature of Bitcoin is that it achieves decentralisation in an open setting where everyone can join. This is achieved at a high price, honest parties must constantly dedicate more computational power towards securing Bitcoin's blockchain than is available to a potential adversary, which leads to a massive waste of energy; at its hitherto peak, the electricity used for Bitcoin mining equaled the electricity consumption of Austria. In this lecture I will discuss how disk-space, instead of computation, can be used as a resource to construct a more sustainable blockchain. We will see definitions and constructions of "proof of space" and "verifiable delay functions", and how they can be used to construct a Blockchain with similar dynamics and security properties as the Bitcoin blockchain.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Streamlined blockchains: A simple and elegant approach (tutorial)
Invited talk
A blockchain protocol (also called state machine replication) allows a set of nodes to agree on an ever-growing, linearly ordered log of transactions. In this tutorial, we present a new paradigm called “streamlined blockchains”. This paradigm enables a new family of protocols that are extremely simple and natural: every epoch, a proposer proposes a block extending from a notarized parent chain, and nodes vote if the proposal’s parent chain is not too old. Whenever a block gains enough votes, it becomes notarized. Whenever a node observes a notarized chain with several blocks of consecutive epochs at the end, then the entire chain chopping off a few blocks at the end is final. By varying the parameters highlighted in blue, we illustrate two variants for the partially synchronous and synchronous settings respectively. We present very simple proofs of consistency and liveness. We hope that this tutorial provides a compelling argument why this new family of protocols should be used in lieu of classical candidates (e.g., PBFT, Paxos, and their variants), both in practical implementation and for pedagogical purposes.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Towards Attribute-Based Encryption for RAMs from LWE: Sub-linear Decryption, and More
Attribute based encryption (ABE) is an advanced encryption system with a built-in mechanism to generate keys associated with functions which in turn provide restricted access to encrypted data. Most of the known candidates of attribute based encryption model the functions as circuits. This results in significant efficiency bottlenecks, especially in the setting where the function associated with the ABE key is represented by a random access machine (RAM) and a database, with the runtime of the RAM program being sublinear in the database size. In this work we study the notion of attribute based encryption for random access machines (RAMs), introduced in the work of Goldwasser, Kalai, Popa, Vaikuntanathan and Zeldovich (Crypto 2013). We present a construction of attribute based encryption for RAMs satisfying sublinear decryption complexity assuming learning with errors; this is the first construction based on standard assumptions. Previously, Goldwasser et al. achieved this result based on non-falsifiable knowledge assumptions. We also consider a dual notion of ABE for RAMs, where the database is in the ciphertext and we show how to achieve this dual notion, albeit with large attribute keys, also based on learning with errors.
2019
ASIACRYPT
On the Non-existence of Short Vectors in Random Module Lattices
Recently, Lyubashevsky & Seiler (Eurocrypt 2018) showed that small polynomials in the cyclotomic ring $$\mathbb {Z}_q[X]/(X^n+1)$$, where n is a power of two, are invertible under special congruence conditions on prime modulus q. This result has been used to prove certain security properties of lattice-based constructions against unbounded adversaries. Unfortunately, due to the special conditions, working over the corresponding cyclotomic ring does not allow for efficient use of the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) algorithm for fast multiplication of polynomials and hence, the schemes become less practical.In this paper, we present how to overcome this limitation by analysing zeroes in the Chinese Remainder (or NTT) representation of small polynomials. As a result, we provide upper bounds on the probabilities related to the (non)-existence of a short vector in a random module lattice with no assumptions on the prime modulus. We apply our results, along with the generic framework by Kiltz et al. (Eurocrypt 2018), to a number of lattice-based Fiat-Shamir signatures so they can both enjoy tight security in the quantum random oracle model and support fast multiplication algorithms (at the cost of slightly larger public keys and signatures), such as the Bai-Galbraith signature scheme (CT-RSA 2014), $$\mathsf {Dilithium\text {-}QROM}$$ (Kiltz et al., Eurocrypt 2018) and $$\mathsf {qTESLA}$$ (Alkim et al., PQCrypto 2017). Our techniques can also be applied to prove that recent commitment schemes by Baum et al. (SCN 2018) are statistically binding with no additional assumptions on q.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Non-Committing Encryption with Quasi-Optimal Ciphertext-Rate Based on the DDH Problem
Non-committing encryption (NCE) was introduced by Canetti et al. (STOC ’96). Informally, an encryption scheme is non-committing if it can generate a dummy ciphertext that is indistinguishable from a real one. The dummy ciphertext can be opened to any message later by producing a secret key and an encryption random coin which “explain” the ciphertext as an encryption of the message. Canetti et al. showed that NCE is a central tool to achieve multi-party computation protocols secure in the adaptive setting. An important measure of the efficiently of NCE is the ciphertext rate, that is the ciphertext length divided by the message length, and previous works studying NCE have focused on constructing NCE schemes with better ciphertext rates.We propose an NCE scheme satisfying the ciphertext rate based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem, where is the security parameter. The proposed construction achieves the best ciphertext rate among existing constructions proposed in the plain model, that is, the model without using common reference strings. Previously to our work, an NCE scheme with the best ciphertext rate based on the DDH problem was the one proposed by Choi et al. (ASIACRYPT ’09) that has ciphertext rate . Our construction of NCE is similar in spirit to that of the recent construction of the trapdoor function proposed by Garg and Hajiabadi (CRYPTO ’18).
2019
ASIACRYPT
4-Round Luby-Rackoff Construction is a qPRP
The Luby-Rackoff construction, or the Feistel construction, is one of the most important approaches to construct secure block ciphers from secure pseudorandom functions. The 3- and 4-round Luby-Rackoff constructions are proven to be secure against chosen-plaintext attacks (CPAs) and chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCAs), respectively, in the classical setting. However, Kuwakado and Morii showed that a quantum superposed chosen-plaintext attack (qCPA) can distinguish the 3-round Luby-Rackoff construction from a random permutation in polynomial time. In addition, Ito et al. recently showed a quantum superposed chosen-ciphertext attack (qCCA) that distinguishes the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction. Since Kuwakado and Morii showed the result, a problem of much interest has been how many rounds are sufficient to achieve provable security against quantum query attacks. This paper answers to this fundamental question by showing that 4-rounds suffice against qCPAs. Concretely, we prove that the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction is secure up to $$O(2^{n/12})$$ quantum queries. We also give a query upper bound for the problem of distinguishing the 4-round Luby-Rackoff construction from a random permutation by showing a distinguishing qCPA with $$O(2^{n/6})$$ quantum queries. Our result is the first to demonstrate the security of a typical block-cipher construction against quantum query attacks, without any algebraic assumptions. To give security proofs, we use an alternative formalization of Zhandry’s compressed oracle technique.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Forkcipher: A New Primitive for Authenticated Encryption of Very Short Messages
Highly efficient encryption and authentication of short messages is an essential requirement for enabling security in constrained scenarios such as the CAN FD in automotive systems (max. message size 64 bytes), massive IoT, critical communication domains of 5G, and Narrowband IoT, to mention a few. In addition, one of the NIST lightweight cryptography project requirements is that AEAD schemes shall be “optimized to be efficient for short messages (e.g., as short as 8 bytes)”.In this work we introduce and formalize a novel primitive in symmetric cryptography called forkcipher. A forkcipher is a keyed primitive expanding a fixed-lenght input to a fixed-length output. We define its security as indistinguishability under a chosen ciphertext attack (for n-bit inputs to 2n-bit outputs). We give a generic construction validation via the new iterate-fork-iterate design paradigm.We then propose $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ as a concrete forkcipher instance with a public tweak and based on SKINNY: a tweakable lightweight cipher following the TWEAKEY framework. We conduct extensive cryptanalysis of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ against classical and structure-specific attacks.We demonstrate the applicability of forkciphers by designing three new provably-secure nonce-based AEAD modes which offer performance and security tradeoffs and are optimized for efficiency of very short messages. Considering a reference block size of 16 bytes, and ignoring possible hardware optimizations, our new AEAD schemes beat the best SKINNY-based AEAD modes. More generally, we show forkciphers are suited for lightweight applications dealing with predominantly short messages, while at the same time allowing handling arbitrary messages sizes.Furthermore, our hardware implementation results show that when we exploit the inherent parallelism of $$ {\mathsf {ForkSkinny}} $$ we achieve the best performance when directly compared with the most efficient mode instantiated with SKINNY.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Structure-Preserving and Re-randomizable RCCA-Secure Public Key Encryption and Its Applications
Re-randomizable RCCA-secure public key encryption (Rand-RCCA PKE) schemes reconcile the property of re-randomizability of the ciphertexts with the need of security against chosen-ciphertexts attacks. In this paper we give a new construction of a Rand-RCCA PKE scheme that is perfectly re-randomizable. Our construction is structure-preserving, can be instantiated over Type-3 pairing groups, and achieves better computation and communication efficiency than the state of the art perfectly re-randomizable schemes (e.g., Prabhakaran and Rosulek, CRYPTO’07). Next, we revive the Rand-RCCA notion showing new applications where our Rand-RCCA PKE scheme plays a fundamental part: (1) We show how to turn our scheme into a publicly-verifiable Rand-RCCA scheme; (2) We construct a malleable NIZK with a (variant of) simulation soundness that allows for re-randomizability; (3) We propose a new UC-secure Verifiable Mix-Net protocol that is secure in the common reference string model. Thanks to the structure-preserving property, all these applications are efficient. Notably, our Mix-Net protocol is the most efficient universally verifiable Mix-Net (without random oracle) where the CRS is an uniformly random string of size independent of the number of senders. The property is of the essence when such protocols are used in large scale.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Indifferentiability of Truncated Random Permutations
One of natural ways of constructing a pseudorandom function from a pseudorandom permutation is to simply truncate the output of the permutation. When n is the permutation size and m is the number of truncated bits, the resulting construction is known to be indistinguishable from a random function up to $$2^{{n+m}\over 2}$$ queries, which is tight.In this paper, we study the indifferentiability of a truncated random permutation where a fixed prefix is prepended to the inputs. We prove that this construction is (regularly) indifferentiable from a public random function up to $$\min \{2^{{n+m}\over 3}, 2^{m}, 2^\ell \}$$ queries, while it is publicly indifferentiable up to $$\min \{ \max \{2^{{n+m}\over 3}, 2^{n \over 2}\}, 2^\ell \}$$ queries, where $$\ell $$ is the size of the fixed prefix. Furthermore, the regular indifferentiability bound is proved to be tight when $$m+\ell \ll n$$.Our results significantly improve upon the previous bound of $$\min \{ 2^{m \over 2}, 2^\ell \}$$ given by Dodis et al. (FSE 2009), allowing us to construct, for instance, an $$\frac{n}{2}$$-to-$$\frac{n}{2}$$ bit random function that makes a single call to an n-bit permutation, achieving $$\frac{n}{2}$$-bit security.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Anonymous AE
The customary formulation of authenticated encryption (AE) requires the decrypting party to supply the correct nonce with each ciphertext it decrypts. To enable this, the nonce is often sent in the clear alongside the ciphertext. But doing this can forfeit anonymity and degrade usability. Anonymity can also be lost by transmitting associated data (AD) or a session-ID (used to identify the operative key). To address these issues, we introduce anonymous AE, wherein ciphertexts must conceal their origin even when they are understood to encompass everything needed to decrypt (apart from the receiver’s secret state). We formalize a type of anonymous AE we call anAE, anonymous nonce-based AE, which generalizes and strengthens conventional nonce-based AE, nAE. We provide an efficient construction for anAE, NonceWrap, from an nAE scheme and a blockcipher. We prove NonceWrap secure. While anAE does not address privacy loss through traffic-flow analysis, it does ensure that ciphertexts, now more expansively construed, do not by themselves compromise privacy.
2019
ASIACRYPT
iUC: Flexible Universal Composability Made Simple
Proving the security of complex protocols is a crucial and very challenging task. A widely used approach for reasoning about such protocols in a modular way is universal composability. A perfect model for universal composability should provide a sound basis for formal proofs and be very flexible in order to allow for modeling a multitude of different protocols. It should also be easy to use, including useful design conventions for repetitive modeling aspects, such as corruption, parties, sessions, and subroutine relationships, such that protocol designers can focus on the core logic of their protocols.While many models for universal composability exist, including the UC, GNUC, and IITM models, none of them has achieved this ideal goal yet. As a result, protocols cannot be modeled faithfully and/or using these models is a burden rather than a help, often even leading to underspecified protocols and formally incorrect proofs.Given this dire state of affairs, the goal of this work is to provide a framework for universal composability which combines soundness, flexibility, and usability in an unmatched way. Developing such a security framework is a very difficult and delicate task, as the long history of frameworks for universal composability shows.We build our framework, called iUC, on top of the IITM model, which already provides soundness and flexibility while lacking sufficient usability. At the core of iUC is a single simple template for specifying essentially arbitrary protocols in a convenient, formally precise, and flexible way. We illustrate the main features of our framework with example functionalities and realizations.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Anomalies and Vector Space Search: Tools for S-Box Analysis
S-boxes are functions with an input so small that the simplest way to specify them is their lookup table (LUT). How can we quantify the distance between the behavior of a given S-box and that of an S-box picked uniformly at random?To answer this question, we introduce various “anomalies”. These real numbers are such that a property with an anomaly equal to a should be found roughly once in a set of $$2^{a}$$ random S-boxes. First, we present statistical anomalies based on the distribution of the coefficients in the difference distribution table, linear approximation table, and for the first time, the boomerang connectivity table.We then count the number of S-boxes that have block-cipher like structures to estimate the anomaly associated to those. In order to recover these structures, we show that the most general tool for decomposing S-boxes is an algorithm efficiently listing all the vector spaces of a given dimension contained in a given set, and we present such an algorithm.Combining these approaches, we conclude that all permutations that are actually picked uniformly at random always have essentially the same cryptographic properties and the same lack of structure.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Sponges Resist Leakage: The Case of Authenticated Encryption
In this work we advance the study of leakage-resilient Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) and lay the theoretical groundwork for building such schemes from sponges. Building on the work of Barwell et al. (ASIACRYPT 2017), we reduce the problem of constructing leakage-resilient AEAD schemes to that of building fixed-input-length function families that retain pseudorandomness and unpredictability in the presence of leakage. Notably, neither property is implied by the other in the leakage-resilient setting. We then show that such a function family can be combined with standard primitives, namely a pseudorandom generator and a collision-resistant hash, to yield a nonce-based AEAD scheme. In addition, our construction is quite efficient in that it requires only two calls to this leakage-resilient function per encryption or decryption call. This construction can be instantiated entirely from the T-sponge to yield a concrete AEAD scheme which we call $${ \textsc {Slae}}$$. We prove this sponge-based instantiation secure in the non-adaptive leakage setting. $${ \textsc {Slae}}$$ bears many similarities and is indeed inspired by $${ \textsc {Isap}}$$, which was proposed by Dobraunig et al. at FSE 2017. However, while retaining most of the practical advantages of $${ \textsc {Isap}}$$, $${ \textsc {Slae}}$$ additionally benefits from a formal security treatment.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Wave: A New Family of Trapdoor One-Way Preimage Sampleable Functions Based on Codes
Best Paper
We present here a new family of trapdoor one-way functions that are Preimage Sampleable on Average (PSA) based on codes, the Wave-PSA family. The trapdoor function is one-way under two computational assumptions: the hardness of generic decoding for high weights and the indistinguishability of generalized $$(U,U+V)$$-codes. Our proof follows the GPV strategy [28]. By including rejection sampling, we ensure the proper distribution for the trapdoor inverse output. The domain sampling property of our family is ensured by using and proving a variant of the left-over hash lemma. We instantiate the new Wave-PSA family with ternary generalized $$(U,U+V)$$-codes to design a “hash-and-sign” signature scheme which achieves existential unforgeability under adaptive chosen message attacks (EUF-CMA) in the random oracle model.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Leakage Resilience of the Duplex Construction
Side-channel attacks, especially differential power analysis (DPA), pose a serious threat to cryptographic implementations deployed in a malicious environment. One way to counter side-channel attacks is to design cryptographic schemes to withstand them, an area that is covered amongst others by leakage resilient cryptography. So far, however, leakage resilient cryptography has predominantly focused on block cipher based designs, and insights in permutation based leakage resilient cryptography are scarce. In this work, we consider leakage resilience of the keyed duplex construction: we present a model for leakage resilient duplexing, derive a fine-grained bound on the security of the keyed duplex in said model, and map it to ideas of Taha and Schaumont (HOST 2014) and Dobraunig et al. (ToSC 2017) in order to use the duplex in a leakage resilient manner.
2019
ASIACRYPT
CSI-FiSh: Efficient Isogeny Based Signatures Through Class Group Computations
In this paper we report on a new record class group computation of an imaginary quadratic field having 154-digit discriminant, surpassing the previous record of 130 digits. This class group is central to the CSIDH-512 isogeny based cryptosystem, and knowing the class group structure and relation lattice implies efficient uniform sampling and a canonical representation of its elements. Both operations were impossible before and allow us to instantiate an isogeny based signature scheme first sketched by Stolbunov. We further optimize the scheme using multiple public keys and Merkle trees, following an idea by De Feo and Galbraith. We also show that including quadratic twists allows to cut the public key size in half for free. Optimizing for signature size, our implementation takes 390 ms to sign/verify and results in signatures of 263 bytes, at the expense of a large public key. This is 300 times faster and over 3 times smaller than an optimized version of SeaSign for the same parameter set. Optimizing for public key and signature size combined, results in a total size of 1468 bytes, which is smaller than any other post-quantum signature scheme at the 128-bit security level.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Dual Isogenies and Their Application to Public-Key Compression for Isogeny-Based Cryptography
The isogeny-based protocols SIDH and SIKE have received much attention for being post-quantum key agreement candidates that retain relatively small keys. A recent line of work has proposed and further improved compression of public keys, leading to the inclusion of public-key compression in the SIKE proposal for Round 2 of the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization effort. We show how to employ the dual isogeny to significantly increase performance of compression techniques, reducing their overhead from 160–182% to 77–86% for Alice’s key generation and from 98–104% to 59–61% for Bob’s across different SIDH parameter sets. For SIKE, we reduce the overhead of (1) key generation from 140–153% to 61–74%, (2) key encapsulation from 67–90% to 38–57%, and (3) decapsulation from 59–65% to 34–39%. This is mostly achieved by speeding up the pairing computations, which has until now been the main bottleneck, but we also improve (deterministic) basis generation.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Verifiable Delay Functions from Supersingular Isogenies and Pairings
We present two new Verifiable Delay Functions (VDF) based on assumptions from elliptic curve cryptography. We discuss both the advantages and drawbacks of our constructions, we study their security and we demonstrate their practicality with a proof-of-concept implementation.
2019
ASIACRYPT
New Code-Based Privacy-Preserving Cryptographic Constructions
Code-based cryptography has a long history but did suffer from periods of slow development. The field has recently attracted a lot of attention as one of the major branches of post-quantum cryptography. However, its subfield of privacy-preserving cryptographic constructions is still rather underdeveloped, e.g., important building blocks such as zero-knowledge range proofs and set membership proofs, and even proofs of knowledge of a hash preimage, have not been known under code-based assumptions. Moreover, almost no substantial technical development has been introduced in the last several years.This work introduces several new code-based privacy-preserving cryptographic constructions that considerably advance the state-of-the-art in code-based cryptography. Specifically, we present 3 major contributions, each of which potentially yields various other applications. Our first contribution is a code-based statistically hiding and computationally binding commitment scheme with companion zero-knowledge (ZK) argument of knowledge of a valid opening that can be easily extended to prove that the committed bits satisfy other relations. Our second contribution is the first code-based zero-knowledge range argument for committed values, with communication cost logarithmic in the size of the range. A special feature of our range argument is that, while previous works on range proofs/arguments (in all branches of cryptography) only address ranges of non-negative integers, our protocol can handle signed fractional numbers, and hence, can potentially find a larger scope of applications. Our third contribution is the first code-based Merkle-tree accumulator supported by ZK argument of membership, which has been known to enable various interesting applications. In particular, it allows us to obtain the first code-based ring signatures and group signatures with logarithmic signature sizes.
2019
ASIACRYPT
A Critical Analysis of ISO 17825 (‘Testing Methods for the Mitigation of Non-invasive Attack Classes Against Cryptographic Modules’)
The ISO standardisation of ‘Testing methods for the mitigation of non-invasive attack classes against cryptographic modules’ (ISO/IEC 17825:2016) specifies the use of the Test Vector Leakage Assessment (TVLA) framework as the sole measure to assess whether or not an implementation of (symmetric) cryptography is vulnerable to differential side-channel attacks. It is the only publicly available standard of this kind, and the first side-channel assessment regime to exclusively rely on a TVLA instantiation.TVLA essentially specifies statistical leakage detection tests with the aim of removing the burden of having to test against an ever increasing number of attack vectors. It offers the tantalising prospect of ‘conformance testing’: if a device passes TVLA, then, one is led to hope, the device would be secure against all (first-order) differential side-channel attacks.In this paper we provide a statistical assessment of the specific instantiation of TVLA in this standard. This task leads us to inquire whether (or not) it is possible to assess the side-channel security of a device via leakage detection (TVLA) only. We find a number of grave issues in the standard and its adaptation of the original TVLA guidelines. We propose some innovations on existing methodologies and finish by giving recommendations for best practice and the responsible reporting of outcomes.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Optimized Method for Computing Odd-Degree Isogenies on Edwards Curves
In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute arbitrary odd-degree isogenies on Edwards curves. By using the w-coordinate, we optimized the isogeny formula on Edwards curves by Moody and Shumow. We demonstrate that Edwards curves have an additional benefit when recovering the coefficient of the image curve during isogeny computation. For $$\ell $$-degree isogeny where $$\ell =2s+1$$, our isogeny formula on Edwards curves outperforms Montgomery curves when $$s \ge 2$$. To better represent the performance improvements when w-coordinate is used, we implement CSIDH using our isogeny formula. Our implementation is about 20% faster than the previous implementation. The result of our work opens the door for the usage of Edwards curves in isogeny-based cryptography, especially for CSIDH which requires higher degree isogenies.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Strongly Secure Authenticated Key Exchange from Supersingular Isogenies
This paper aims to address the open problem, namely, to find new techniques to design and prove security of supersingular isogeny-based authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols against the widest possible adversarial attacks, raised by Galbraith in 2018. Concretely, we present two AKEs based on a double-key PKE in the supersingular isogeny setting secure in the sense of CK$$^+$$, one of the strongest security models for AKE. Our contributions are summarised as follows. Firstly, we propose a strong OW-CPA secure PKE, $$\mathsf {2PKE_{sidh}}$$, based on SI-DDH assumption. By applying modified Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, we obtain a [OW-CCA, OW-CPA] secure KEM, $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$. Secondly, we propose a two-pass AKE, $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_2$$, based on SI-DDH assumption, using $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ as a building block. Thirdly, we present a modified version of $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ that is secure against leakage under the 1-Oracle SI-DH assumption. Using the modified $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ as a building block, we then propose a three-pass AKE, $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_3$$, based on 1-Oracle SI-DH assumption. Finally, we prove that both $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_2$$ and $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_3$$ are CK$$^+$$ secure in the random oracle model and supports arbitrary registration. We also provide an implementation to illustrate the efficiency of our schemes. Our schemes compare favourably against existing isogeny-based AKEs. To the best of our knowledge, they are the first of its kind to offer security against arbitrary registration, wPFS, KCI, and MEX simultaneously. Regarding efficiency, our schemes outperform existing schemes in terms of bandwidth as well as CPU cycle count.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Location, Location, Location: Revisiting Modeling and Exploitation for Location-Based Side Channel Leakages
Near-field microprobes have the capability to isolate small regions of a chip surface and enable precise measurements with high spatial resolution. Being able to distinguish the activity of small regions has given rise to the location-based side-channel attacks, which exploit the spatial dependencies of cryptographic algorithms in order to recover the secret key. Given the fairly uncharted nature of such leakages, this work revisits the location side-channel to broaden our modeling and exploitation capabilities. Our contribution is threefold. First, we provide a simple spatial model that partially captures the effect of location-based leakages. We use the newly established model to simulate the leakage of different scenarios/countermeasures and follow an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the security level achieved in every case. Second, we perform the first successful location-based attack on the SRAM of a modern ARM Cortex-M4 chip, using standard techniques such as difference of means and multivariate template attacks. Third, we put forward neural networks as classifiers that exploit the location side-channel and showcase their effectiveness on ARM Cortex-M4, especially in the context of single-shot attacks and small memory regions. Template attacks and neural network classifiers are able to reach high spacial accuracy, distinguishing between 2 SRAM regions of 128 bytes each with 100% success rate and distinguishing even between 256 SRAM byte-regions with 32% success rate. Such improved exploitation capabilities revitalize the interest for location vulnerabilities on various implementations, ranging from RSA/ECC with large memory footprint, to lookup-table-based AES with smaller memory usage.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Hard Isogeny Problems over RSA Moduli and Groups with Infeasible Inversion
We initiate the study of computational problems on elliptic curve isogeny graphs defined over RSA moduli. We conjecture that several variants of the neighbor-search problem over these graphs are hard, and provide a comprehensive list of cryptanalytic attempts on these problems. Moreover, based on the hardness of these problems, we provide a construction of groups with infeasible inversion, where the underlying groups are the ideal class groups of imaginary quadratic orders.Recall that in a group with infeasible inversion, computing the inverse of a group element is required to be hard, while performing the group operation is easy. Motivated by the potential cryptographic application of building a directed transitive signature scheme, the search for a group with infeasible inversion was initiated in the theses of Hohenberger and Molnar (2003). Later it was also shown to provide a broadcast encryption scheme by Irrer et al. (2004). However, to date the only case of a group with infeasible inversion is implied by the much stronger primitive of self-bilinear map constructed by Yamakawa et al. (2014) based on the hardness of factoring and indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). Our construction gives a candidate without using iO.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Streamlined Blockchains: A Simple and Elegant Approach (A Tutorial and Survey)
A blockchain protocol (also called state machine replication) allows a set of nodes to agree on an ever-growing, linearly ordered log of transactions. The classical consensus literature suggests two approaches for constructing a blockchain protocol: (1) through composition of single-shot consensus instances often called Byzantine Agreement; and (2) through direct construction of a blockchain where there is no clear-cut boundary between single-shot consensus instances. While conceptually simple, the former approach precludes cross-instance optimizations in a practical implementation. This perhaps explains why the latter approach has gained more traction in practice: specifically, well-known protocols such as Paxos and PBFT all follow the direct-construction approach.In this tutorial, we present a new paradigm called “streamlined blockchains” for directly constructing blockchain protocols. This paradigm enables a new family of protocols that are extremely simple and natural: every epoch, a proposer proposes a block extending from a notarized parent chain, and nodes vote if the proposal’s parent chain is not . Whenever a block gains votes, it becomes notarized. Whenever a node observes a notarized chain with blocks of consecutive epochs at the end, then the entire chain chopping off blocks at the end is final.By varying the parameters highlighted in , we illustrate two variants for the partially synchronous and synchronous settings respectively. We present very simple proofs of consistency and liveness. We hope that this tutorial provides a compelling argument why this new family of protocols should be used in lieu of classical candidates (e.g., PBFT, Paxos, and their variants), both in practical implementation and for pedagogical purposes.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Collision Resistant Hashing from Sub-exponential Learning Parity with Noise
The Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem has recently found many cryptographic applications such as authentication protocols, pseudorandom generators/functions and even asymmetric tasks including public-key encryption (PKE) schemes and oblivious transfer (OT) protocols. It however remains a long-standing open problem whether LPN implies collision resistant hash (CRH) functions. Inspired by the recent work of Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2017), we introduce a general construction of CRH from LPN for various parameter choices. We show that, just to mention a few notable ones, under any of the following hardness assumptions (for the two most common variants of LPN) 1.constant-noise LPN is $$2^{n^{0.5+\varepsilon }}$$-hard for any constant $$\varepsilon >0$$;2.constant-noise LPN is $$2^{\varOmega (n/\log n)}$$-hard given $$q=\mathsf {poly}(n)$$ samples;3.low-noise LPN (of noise rate $$1/\sqrt{n}$$) is $$2^{\varOmega (\sqrt{n}/\log n)}$$-hard given $$q=\mathsf {poly}(n)$$ samples. there exists CRH functions with constant (or even poly-logarithmic) shrinkage, which can be implemented using polynomial-size depth-3 circuits with NOT, (unbounded fan-in) AND and XOR gates. Our technical route LPN $$\rightarrow $$ bSVP $$\rightarrow $$ CRH is reminiscent of the known reductions for the large-modulus analogue, i.e., LWE $$\rightarrow $$ SIS $$\rightarrow $$ CRH, where the binary Shortest Vector Problem (bSVP) was recently introduced by Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2017) that enables CRH in a similar manner to Ajtai’s CRH functions based on the Short Integer Solution (SIS) problem.Furthermore, under additional (arguably minimal) idealized assumptions such as small-domain random functions or random permutations (that trivially imply collision resistance), we still salvage a simple and elegant collision-resistance-preserving domain extender combining the best of the two worlds, namely, maximized (depth one) parallelizability and polynomial shrinkage. In particular, assume $$2^{n^{0.5+\varepsilon }}$$-hard constant-noise LPN or $$2^{n^{0.25+\varepsilon }}$$-hard low-noise LPN, we obtain a collision resistant hash function that evaluates in parallel only a single layer of small-domain random functions (or random permutations) and shrinks polynomially.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Approximate Trapdoors for Lattices and Smaller Hash-and-Sign Signatures
We study a relaxed notion of lattice trapdoor called approximate trapdoor, which is defined to be able to invert Ajtai’s one-way function approximately instead of exactly. The primary motivation of our study is to improve the efficiency of the cryptosystems built from lattice trapdoors, including the hash-and-sign signatures.Our main contribution is to construct an approximate trapdoor by modifying the gadget trapdoor proposed by Micciancio and Peikert [Eurocrypt 2012]. In particular, we show how to use the approximate gadget trapdoor to sample short preimages from a distribution that is simulatable without knowing the trapdoor. The analysis of the distribution uses a theorem (implicitly used in past works) regarding linear transformations of discrete Gaussians on lattices.Our approximate gadget trapdoor can be used together with the existing optimization techniques to improve the concrete performance of the hash-and-sign signature in the random oracle model under (Ring-)LWE and (Ring-)SIS assumptions. Our implementation shows that the sizes of the public-key & signature can be reduced by half from those in schemes built from exact trapdoors.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Dual-Mode NIZKs from Obfuscation
Two standard security properties of a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) scheme are soundness and zero-knowledge. But while standard NIZK systems can only provide one of those properties against unbounded adversaries, dual-mode NIZK systems allow to choose dynamically and adaptively which of these properties holds unconditionally. The only known dual-mode NIZK schemes are Groth-Sahai proofs (which have proved extremely useful in a variety of applications), and the FHE-based NIZK constructions of Canetti et al. and Peikert et al, which are concurrent and independent to this work. However, all these constructions rely on specific algebraic settings.Here, we provide a generic construction of dual-mode NIZK systems for all of NP. The public parameters of our scheme can be set up in one of two indistinguishable ways. One way provides unconditional soundness, while the other provides unconditional zero-knowledge. Our scheme relies on subexponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation and subexponentially secure one-way functions, but otherwise only on comparatively mild and generic computational assumptions. These generic assumptions can be instantiated under any one of the DDH, $$k$$-LIN, DCR, or QR assumptions.As an application, we reduce the required assumptions necessary for several recent obfuscation-based constructions of multilinear maps. Combined with previous work, our scheme can be used to construct multilinear maps from obfuscation and a group in which the strong Diffie-Hellman assumption holds. We also believe that our work adds to the understanding of the construction of NIZK systems, as it provides a conceptually new way to achieve dual-mode properties.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Simple Refreshing in the Noisy Leakage Model
Masking schemes are a prominent countermeasure against power analysis and work by concealing the values that are produced during the computation through randomness. The randomness is typically injected into the masked algorithm using a so-called refreshing scheme, which is placed after each masked operation, and hence is one of the main bottlenecks for designing efficient masking schemes. The main contribution of our work is to investigate the security of a very simple and efficient refreshing scheme and prove its security in the noisy leakage model (EUROCRYPT’13). Compared to earlier constructions our refreshing is significantly more efficient and uses only n random values and $${<}2n$$ operations, where n is the security parameter. In addition we show how our refreshing can be used in more complex masked computation in the presence of noisy leakage. Our results are established using a new methodology for analyzing masking schemes in the noisy leakage model, which may be of independent interest.
2019
ASIACRYPT
On Kilian’s Randomization of Multilinear Map Encodings
Indistinguishability obfuscation constructions based on matrix branching programs generally proceed in two steps: first apply Kilian’s randomization of the matrix product computation, and then encode the matrices using a multilinear map scheme. In this paper we observe that by applying Kilian’s randomization after encoding, the complexity of the best attacks is significantly increased for CLT13 multilinear maps. This implies that much smaller parameters can be used, which improves the efficiency of the constructions by several orders of magnitude.As an application, we describe the first concrete implementation of multiparty non-interactive Diffie-Hellman key exchange secure against existing attacks. Key exchange was originally the most straightforward application of multilinear maps; however it was quickly broken for the three known families of multilinear maps (GGH13, CLT13 and GGH15). Here we describe the first implementation of key exchange that is resistant against known attacks, based on CLT13 multilinear maps. For $$N=4$$ users and a medium level of security, our implementation requires 18 GB of public parameters, and a few minutes for the derivation of a shared key.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Decisional Second-Preimage Resistance: When Does SPR Imply PRE?
There is a well-known gap between second-preimage resistance and preimage resistance for length-preserving hash functions. This paper introduces a simple concept that fills this gap. One consequence of this concept is that tight reductions can remove interactivity for multi-target length-preserving preimage problems, such as the problems that appear in analyzing hash-based signature systems. Previous reduction techniques applied to only a negligible fraction of all length-preserving hash functions, presumably excluding all off-the-shelf hash functions.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Output Compression, MPC, and iO for Turing Machines
In this work, we study the fascinating notion of output-compressing randomized encodings for Turing Machines, in a shared randomness model. In this model, the encoder and decoder have access to a shared random string, and the efficiency requirement is, the size of the encoding must be independent of the running time and output length of the Turing Machine on the given input, while the length of the shared random string is allowed to grow with the length of the output. We show how to construct output-compressing randomized encodings for Turing machines in the shared randomness model, assuming iO for circuits and any assumption in the set $$\{$$ LWE, DDH, N $$^{th}$$ Residuosity $$\}$$ .We then show interesting implications of the above result to basic feasibility questions in the areas of secure multiparty computation (MPC) and indistinguishability obfuscation (iO): 1.Compact MPC for Turing Machines in the Random Oracle Model. In the context of MPC, we consider the following basic feasibility question: does there exist a malicious-secure MPC protocol for Turing Machines whose communication complexity is independent of the running time and output length of the Turing Machine when executed on the combined inputs of all parties? We call such a protocol as a compact MPC protocol. Hubácek and Wichs [HW15] showed via an incompressibility argument, that, even for the restricted setting of circuits, it is impossible to construct a malicious secure two party computation protocol in the plain model where the communication complexity is independent of the output length. In this work, we show how to evade this impossibility by compiling any (non-compact) MPC protocol in the plain model to a compact MPC protocol for Turing Machines in the Random Oracle Model, assuming output-compressing randomized encodings in the shared randomness model.2.Succinct iO for Turing Machines in the Shared Randomness Model. In all existing constructions of iO for Turing Machines, the size of the obfuscated program grows with a bound on the input length. In this work, we show how to construct an iO scheme for Turing Machines in the shared randomness model where the size of the obfuscated program is independent of a bound on the input length, assuming iO for circuits and any assumption in the set $$\{$$ LWE, DDH, N $$^{th}$$ Residuosity $$\}$$ .
2019
ASIACRYPT
The Exchange Attack: How to Distinguish Six Rounds of AES with $2^{88.2}$Chosen Plaintexts
In this paper we present exchange-equivalence attacks which is a new cryptanalytic attack technique suitable for SPN-like block cipher designs. Our new technique results in the first secret-key chosen plaintext distinguisher for 6-round AES. The complexity of the distinguisher is about $$2^{88.2}$$ in terms of data, memory and computational complexity. The distinguishing attack for AES reduced to six rounds is a straight-forward extension of an exchange attack for 5-round AES that requires $$2^{30}$$ in terms of chosen plaintexts and computation. This is also a new record for AES reduced to five rounds. The main result of this paper is that AES up to at least six rounds is biased when restricted to exchange-invariant sets of plaintexts.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of CLT13 Multilinear Maps with Independent Slots
Many constructions based on multilinear maps require independent slots in the plaintext, so that multiple computations can be performed in parallel over the slots. Such constructions are usually based on CLT13 multilinear maps, since CLT13 inherently provides a composite encoding space, with a plaintext ring $$\bigoplus _{i=1}^n \mathbb {Z}/g_i\mathbb {Z}$$ for small primes $$g_i$$ ’s. However, a vulnerability was identified at Crypto 2014 by Gentry, Lewko and Waters, with a lattice-based attack in dimension 2, and the authors have suggested a simple countermeasure. In this paper, we identify an attack based on higher dimension lattice reduction that breaks the author’s countermeasure for a wide range of parameters. Combined with the Cheon et al. attack from Eurocrypt 2015, this leads to the recovery of all the secret parameters of CLT13, assuming that low-level encodings of almost zero plaintexts are available. We show how to apply our attack against various constructions based on composite-order CLT13. For the [FRS17] construction, our attack enables to recover the secret CLT13 plaintext ring for a certain range of parameters; however, breaking the indistinguishability of the branching program remains an open problem.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic Cryptanalysis of STARK-Friendly Designs: Application to MARVELlous and MiMC
The block cipher Jarvis and the hash function Friday, both members of the MARVELlous family of cryptographic primitives, are among the first proposed solutions to the problem of designing symmetric-key algorithms suitable for transparent, post-quantum secure zero-knowledge proof systems such as ZK-STARKs. In this paper we describe an algebraic cryptanalysis of Jarvis and Friday and show that the proposed number of rounds is not sufficient to provide adequate security. In Jarvis, the round function is obtained by combining a finite field inversion, a full-degree affine permutation polynomial and a key addition. Yet we show that even though the high degree of the affine polynomial may prevent some algebraic attacks (as claimed by the designers), the particular algebraic properties of the round function make both Jarvis and Friday vulnerable to Gröbner basis attacks. We also consider MiMC, a block cipher similar in structure to Jarvis. However, this cipher proves to be resistant against our proposed attack strategy. Still, our successful cryptanalysis of Jarvis and Friday does illustrate that block cipher designs for “algebraic platforms” such as STARKs, FHE or MPC may be particularly vulnerable to algebraic attacks.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Collusion Resistant Watermarking Schemes for Cryptographic Functionalities
A cryptographic watermarking scheme embeds a message into a program while preserving its functionality. Recently, a number of watermarking schemes have been proposed, which are proven secure in the sense that given one marked program, any attempt to remove the embedded message will substantially change its functionality.In this paper, we formally initiate the study of collusion attacks for watermarking schemes, where the attacker’s goal is to remove the embedded messages given multiple copies of the same program, each with a different embedded message. This is motivated by practical scenarios, where a program may be marked multiple times with different messages.The results of this work are twofold. First, we examine existing cryptographic watermarking schemes and observe that all of them are vulnerable to collusion attacks. Second, we construct collusion resistant watermarking schemes for various cryptographic functionalities (e.g., pseudorandom function evaluation, decryption, etc.). To achieve our second result, we present a new primitive called puncturable functional encryption scheme, which may be of independent interest.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic XOR-RKA-Secure Pseudorandom Functions from Post-Zeroizing Multilinear Maps
Due to the vast number of successful related-key attacks against existing block-ciphers, related-key security has become a common design goal for such primitives. In these attacks, the adversary is not only capable of seeing the output of a function on inputs of its choice, but also on related keys. At Crypto 2010, Bellare and Cash proposed the first construction of a pseudorandom function that could provably withstand such attacks based on standard assumptions. Their construction, as well as several others that appeared more recently, have in common the fact that they only consider linear or polynomial functions of the secret key over complex groups. In reality, however, most related-key attacks have a simpler form, such as the XOR of the key with a known value. To address this problem, we propose the first construction of RKA-secure pseudorandom function for XOR relations. Our construction relies on multilinear maps and, hence, can only be seen as a feasibility result. Nevertheless, we remark that it can be instantiated under two of the existing multilinear-map candidates since it does not reveal any encodings of zero. To achieve this goal, we rely on several techniques that were used in the context of program obfuscation, but we also introduce new ones to address challenges that are specific to the related-key-security setting.
2019
ASIACRYPT
MILP-aided Method of Searching Division Property Using Three Subsets and Applications
Division property is a generalized integral property proposed by Todo at EUROCRYPT 2015, and then conventional bit-based division property (CBDP) and bit-based division property using three subsets (BDPT) were proposed by Todo and Morii at FSE 2016. At the very beginning, the two kinds of bit-based division properties once couldn’t be applied to ciphers with large block size just because of the huge time and memory complexity. At ASIACRYPT 2016, Xiang et al. extended Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) method to search integral distinguishers based on CBDP. BDPT can find more accurate integral distinguishers than CBDP, but it couldn’t be modeled efficiently.This paper focuses on the feasibility of searching integral distinguishers based on BDPT. We propose the pruning techniques and fast propagation of BDPT for the first time. Based on these, an MILP-aided method for the propagation of BDPT is proposed. Then, we apply this method to some block ciphers. For SIMON64, PRESENT, and RECTANGLE, we find more balanced bits than the previous longest distinguishers. For LBlock, we find a better 16-round integral distinguisher with less active bits. For other block ciphers, our results are in accordance with the previous longest distinguishers.Cube attack is an important cryptanalytic technique against symmetric cryptosystems, especially for stream ciphers. And the most important step in cube attack is superpoly recovery. Inspired by the CBDP based cube attack proposed by Todo at CRYPTO 2017, we propose a method which uses BDPT to recover the superpoly in cube attack. We apply this new method to round-reduced Trivium. To be specific, the time complexity of recovering the superpoly of 832-round Trivium at CRYPTO 2017 is reduced from $$2^{77}$$ to practical, and the time complexity of recovering the superpoly of 839-round Trivium at CRYPTO 2018 is reduced from $$2^{79}$$ to practical. Then, we propose a theoretical attack which can recover the superpoly of Trivium up to 841 round.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Valiant’s Universal Circuits Revisited: An Overall Improvement and a Lower Bound
A universal circuit (UC) is a general-purpose circuit that can simulate arbitrary circuits (up to a certain size n). At STOC 1976 Valiant presented a graph theoretic approach to the construction of UCs, where a UC is represented by an edge universal graph (EUG) and is recursively constructed using a dedicated graph object (referred to as supernode). As a main end result, Valiant constructed a 4-way supernode of size 19 and an EUG of size $$4.75n\log n$$ (omitting smaller terms), which remained the most size-efficient even to this day (after more than 4 decades).Motivated by the emerging applications of UCs in various privacy preserving computation scenarios, we revisit Valiant’s universal circuits, and propose a 4-way supernode of size 18, and an EUG of size $$4.5n\log n$$. As confirmed by our implementations, we reduce the size of universal circuits (and the number of AND gates) by more than 5% in general, and thus improve upon the efficiency of UC-based cryptographic applications accordingly. Our approach to the design of optimal supernodes is computer aided (rather than by hand as in previous works), which might be of independent interest. As a complement, we give lower bounds on the size of EUGs and UCs in Valiant’s framework, which significantly improves upon the generic lower bound on UC size and therefore reduces the gap between theory and practice of universal circuits.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Numerical Method for Comparison on Homomorphically Encrypted Numbers
We propose a new method to compare numbers which are encrypted by Homomorphic Encryption (HE). Previously, comparison and min/max functions were evaluated using Boolean functions where input numbers are encrypted bit-wise. However, the bit-wise encryption methods require relatively expensive computations for basic arithmetic operations such as addition and multiplication.In this paper, we introduce iterative algorithms that approximately compute the min/max and comparison operations of several numbers which are encrypted word-wise. From the concrete error analyses, we show that our min/max and comparison algorithms have $$\varTheta (\alpha )$$ and $$\varTheta (\alpha \log \alpha )$$ computational complexity to obtain approximate values within an error rate $$2^{-\alpha }$$, while the previous minimax polynomial approximation method requires the exponential complexity $$\varTheta (2^{\alpha /2})$$ and $$\varTheta (\sqrt{\alpha }\cdot 2^{\alpha /2})$$, respectively. Our algorithms achieve (quasi-)optimality in terms of asymptotic computational complexity among polynomial approximations for min/max and comparison operations. The comparison algorithm is extended to several applications such as computing the top-k elements and counting numbers over the threshold in encrypted state.Our method enables word-wise HEs to enjoy comparable performance in practice with bit-wise HEs for comparison operations while showing much better performance on polynomial operations. Computing an approximate maximum value of any two $$\ell $$-bit integers encrypted by HEAAN, up to error $$2^{\ell -10}$$, takes only 1.14 ms in amortized running time, which is comparable to the result based on bit-wise HEs.
2019
ASIACRYPT
The Broadcast Message Complexity of Secure Multiparty Computation
We study the broadcast message complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC), namely, the total number of messages that are required for securely computing any functionality in the broadcast model of communication.MPC protocols are traditionally designed in the simultaneous broadcast model, where each round consists of every party broadcasting a message to the other parties. We show that this method of communication is sub-optimal; specifically, by eliminating simultaneity, it is, in fact, possible to reduce the broadcast message complexity of MPC.More specifically, we establish tight lower and upper bounds on the broadcast message complexity of n-party MPC for every $$t<n$$ corruption threshold, both in the plain model as well as common setup models. For example, our results show that the optimal broadcast message complexity of semi-honest MPC can be much lower than 2n, but necessarily requires at least three rounds of communication. We also extend our results to the malicious setting in setup models.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of GSM Encryption in 2G/3G Networks Without Rainbow Tables
The GSM standard developed by ETSI for 2G networks adopts the A5/1 stream cipher to protect the over-the-air privacy in cell phone and has become the de-facto global standard in mobile communications, though the emerging of subsequent 3G/4G standards. There are many cryptanalytic results available so far and the most notable ones share the need of a heavy pre-computation with large rainbow tables or distributed cracking network. In this paper, we present a fast near collision attack on GSM encryption in 2G/3G networks, which is completely new and more threatening compared to the previous best results. We adapt the fast near collision attack proposed at Eurocrypt 2018 with the concrete irregular clocking manner in A5/1 to have a state recovery attack with a low complexity. It is shown that if the first 64 bits of one keystream frame are available, the secret key of A5/1 can be reliably found in $$2^{31.79}$$ cipher ticks, given around 1 MB memory and after the pre-computation of $$2^{20.26}$$ cipher ticks. Our current implementation clearly certified the validity of the suggested attack. Due to the fact that A5/3 and GPRS share the same key with A5/1, this can be converted into attacks against any GSM network eventually.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption from TFHE
In this paper, we propose a Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption (MKHE) scheme by generalizing the low-latency homomorphic encryption by Chillotti et al. (ASIACRYPT 2016). Our scheme can evaluate a binary gate on ciphertexts encrypted under different keys followed by a bootstrapping.The biggest challenge to meeting the goal is to design a multiplication between a bootstrapping key of a single party and a multi-key RLWE ciphertext. We propose two different algorithms for this hybrid product. Our first method improves the ciphertext extension by Mukherjee and Wichs (EUROCRYPT 2016) to provide better performance. The other one is a whole new approach which has advantages in storage, complexity, and noise growth.Compared to previous work, our construction is more efficient in terms of both asymptotic and concrete complexity. The length of ciphertexts and the computational costs of a binary gate grow linearly and quadratically on the number of parties, respectively. We provide experimental results demonstrating the running time of a homomorphic NAND gate with bootstrapping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in the literature to implement an MKHE scheme.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Beyond Honest Majority: The Round Complexity of Fair and Robust Multi-party Computation
Two of the most sought-after properties of Multi-party Computation (MPC) protocols are fairness and guaranteed output delivery (GOD), the latter also referred to as robustness. Achieving both, however, brings in the necessary requirement of malicious-minority. In a generalised adversarial setting where the adversary is allowed to corrupt both actively and passively, the necessary bound for a n-party fair or robust protocol turns out to be $$t_a + t_p < n$$, where $$t_a,t_p$$ denote the threshold for active and passive corruption with the latter subsuming the former. Subsuming the malicious-minority as a boundary special case, this setting, denoted as dynamic corruption, opens up a range of possible corruption scenarios for the adversary. While dynamic corruption includes the entire range of thresholds for $$(t_a,t_p)$$ starting from $$(\lceil \frac{n}{2} \rceil - 1, \lfloor n/2 \rfloor )$$ to $$(0,n-1)$$, the boundary corruption restricts the adversary only to the boundary cases of $$(\lceil \frac{n}{2} \rceil - 1, \lfloor n/2 \rfloor )$$ and $$(0,n-1)$$. Notably, both corruption settings empower an adversary to control majority of the parties, yet ensuring the count on active corruption never goes beyond $$\lceil \frac{n}{2} \rceil - 1$$. We target the round complexity of fair and robust MPC tolerating dynamic and boundary adversaries. As it turns out, $$\lceil n/2 \rceil + 1$$ rounds are necessary and sufficient for fair as well as robust MPC tolerating dynamic corruption. The non-constant barrier raised by dynamic corruption can be sailed through for a boundary adversary. The round complexity of 3 and 4 is necessary and sufficient for fair and GOD protocols respectively, with the latter having an exception of allowing 3 round protocols in the presence of a single active corruption. While all our lower bounds assume pair-wise private and broadcast channels and are resilient to the presence of both public (CRS) and private (PKI) setup, our upper bounds are broadcast-only and assume only public setup. The traditional and popular setting of malicious-minority, being restricted compared to both dynamic and boundary setting, requires 3 and 2 rounds in the presence of public and private setup respectively for both fair as well as GOD protocols.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Tightly Secure Inner Product Functional Encryption: Multi-input and Function-Hiding Constructions
Tightly secure cryptographic schemes have been extensively studied in the fields of chosen-ciphertext secure public-key encryption, identity-based encryption, signatures and more. We extend tightly secure cryptography to inner product functional encryption (IPFE) and present the first tightly secure schemes related to IPFE.We first construct a new IPFE scheme that is tightly secure in the multi-user and multi-challenge setting. In other words, the security of our scheme does not degrade even if an adversary obtains many ciphertexts generated by many users. Our scheme is constructible on a pairing-free group and secure under the matrix decisional Diffie-Hellman (MDDH) assumption, which is the generalization of the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. Applying the known conversions by Lin (CRYPTO 2017) and Abdalla et al. (CRYPTO 2018) to our scheme, we can obtain the first tightly secure function-hiding IPFE scheme and multi-input IPFE (MIPFE) scheme respectively.Our second main contribution is the proposal of a new generic conversion from function-hiding IPFE to function-hiding MIPFE, which was left as an open problem by Abdalla et al. (CRYPTO 2018). We obtain the first tightly secure function-hiding MIPFE scheme by applying our conversion to the tightly secure function-hiding IPFE scheme described above.Finally, the security reductions of all our schemes are fully tight, which means that the security of our schemes is reduced to the MDDH assumption with a constant security loss.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Homomorphic Encryption for Finite Automata
We describe a somewhat homomorphic GSW-like encryption scheme, natively encrypting matrices rather than just single elements. This scheme offers much better performance than existing homomorphic encryption schemes for evaluating encrypted (nondeterministic) finite automata (NFAs). Differently from GSW, we do not know how to reduce the security of this scheme from LWE, instead we reduce it from a stronger assumption, that can be thought of as an inhomogeneous variant of the NTRU assumption. This assumption (that we term iNTRU) may be useful and interesting in its own right, and we examine a few of its properties. We also examine methods to encode regular expressions as NFAs, and in particular explore a new optimization problem, motivated by our application to encrypted NFA evaluation. In this problem, we seek to minimize the number of states in an NFA for a given expression, subject to the constraint on the ambiguity of the NFA.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Card-Based Cryptography Meets Formal Verification
Card-based cryptography provides simple and practicable protocols for performing secure multi-party computation (MPC) with just a deck of cards. For the sake of simplicity, this is often done using cards with only two symbols, e.g., and . Within this paper, we target the setting where all cards carry distinct symbols, catering for use-cases with commonly available standard decks and a weaker indistinguishability assumption. As of yet, the literature provides for only three protocols and no proofs for non-trivial lower bounds on the number of cards. As such complex proofs (handling very large combinatorial state spaces) tend to be involved and error-prone, we propose using formal verification for finding protocols and proving lower bounds. In this paper, we employ the technique of software bounded model checking (SBMC), which reduces the problem to a bounded state space, which is automatically searched exhaustively using a SAT solver as a backend.Our contribution is twofold: (a) We identify two protocols for converting between different bit encodings with overlapping bases, and then show them to be card-minimal. This completes the picture of tight lower bounds on the number of cards with respect to runtime behavior and shuffle properties of conversion protocols. For computing , we show that there is no protocol with finite runtime using four cards with distinguishable symbols and fixed output encoding, and give a four-card protocol with an expected finite runtime using only random cuts. (b) We provide a general translation of proofs for lower bounds to a bounded model checking framework for automatically finding card- and length-minimal protocols and to give additional confidence in lower bounds. We apply this to validate our method and, as an example, confirm our new protocol to have a shortest run for protocols using this number of cards.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Public-Key Function-Private Hidden Vector Encryption (and More)
We construct public-key function-private predicate encryption for the “small superset functionality,” recently introduced by Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019). This functionality captures several important classes of predicates:Point functions. For point function predicates, our construction is equivalent to public-key function-private anonymous identity-based encryption.Conjunctions. If the predicate computes a conjunction, our construction is a public-key function-private hidden vector encryption scheme. This addresses an open problem posed by Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (ASIACRYPT 2013).d-CNFs and read-once conjunctions of d-disjunctions for constant-size d. Our construction extends the group-based obfuscation schemes of Bishop et al. (CRYPTO 2018), Beullens and Wee (PKC 2019), and Bartusek et al. (EUROCRYPT 2019) to the setting of public-key function-private predicate encryption. We achieve an average-case notion of function privacy, which guarantees that a decryption key $$\mathsf {sk} _f$$ reveals nothing about f as long as f is drawn from a distribution with sufficient entropy. We formalize this security notion as a generalization of the (enhanced) real-or-random function privacy definition of Boneh, Raghunathan, and Segev (CRYPTO 2013). Our construction relies on bilinear groups, and we prove security in the generic bilinear group model.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Explicit Constructions of Multipartite Secret Sharing Schemes
Multipartite secret sharing schemes are those having a multipartite access structure, in which the set of participants is divided into several parts and all participants in the same part play an equivalent role. Secret sharing schemes for multipartite access structures have received considerable attention due to the fact that multipartite secret sharing can be seen as a natural and useful generalization of threshold secret sharing.This work deals with efficient and explicit constructions of ideal multipartite secret sharing schemes, while most of the known constructions are either inefficient or randomized. Most ideal multipartite secret sharing schemes in the literature can be classified as either hierarchical or compartmented. The main results are the constructions for ideal hierarchical access structures, a family that contains every ideal hierarchical access structure as a particular case such as the disjunctive hierarchical threshold access structure and the conjunctive hierarchical threshold access structure, and the constructions for compartmented access structures with upper bounds and compartmented access structures with lower bounds, two families of compartmented access structures.On the basis of the relationship between multipartite secret sharing schemes, polymatroids, and matroids, the problem of how to construct a scheme realizing a multipartite access structure can be transformed to the problem of how to find a representation of a matroid from a presentation of its associated polymatroid. In this paper, we give efficient algorithms to find representations of the matroids associated to the three families of multipartite access structures. More precisely, based on know results about integer polymatroids, for each of the three families of access structures, we give an efficient method to find a representation of the integer polymatroid over some finite field, and then over some finite extension of that field, we give an efficient method to find a presentation of the matroid associated to the integer polymatroid. Finally, we construct ideal linear schemes realizing the three families of multipartite access structures by efficient methods.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Multi-Client Functional Encryption for Linear Functions in the Standard Model from LWE
Multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) allows $$\ell $$ clients to encrypt ciphertexts $$(\mathbf {C}_{t,1},\mathbf {C}_{t,2},\ldots ,\mathbf {C}_{t,\ell })$$ under some label. Each client can encrypt his own data $$X_i$$ for a label t using a private encryption key $$\mathsf {ek}_i$$ issued by a trusted authority in such a way that, as long as all $$\mathbf {C}_{t,i}$$ share the same label t, an evaluator endowed with a functional key $$\mathsf {dk}_f$$ can evaluate $$f(X_1,X_2,\ldots ,X_\ell )$$ without learning anything else on the underlying plaintexts $$X_i$$. Functional decryption keys can be derived by the central authority using the master secret key. Under the Decision Diffie-Hellman assumption, Chotard et al. (Asiacrypt 2018) recently described an adaptively secure MCFE scheme for the evaluation of linear functions over the integers. They also gave a decentralized variant (DMCFE) of their scheme which does not rely on a centralized authority, but rather allows encryptors to issue functional secret keys in a distributed manner. While efficient, their constructions both rely on random oracles in their security analysis. In this paper, we build a standard-model MCFE scheme for the same functionality and prove it fully secure under adaptive corruptions. Our proof relies on the Learning-With-Errors ($$\mathsf {LWE}$$) assumption and does not require the random oracle model. We also provide a decentralized variant of our scheme, which we prove secure in the static corruption setting (but for adaptively chosen messages) under the $$\mathsf {LWE}$$ assumption.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Algorithms for the Approximate k-List Problem and Their Application to Lattice Sieving
The Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) is one of the mathematical foundations of lattice based cryptography. Lattice sieve algorithms are amongst the foremost methods of solving SVP. The asymptotically fastest known classical and quantum sieves solve SVP in a d-dimensional lattice in $$2^{\mathsf {c}d + o(d)}$$ time steps with $$2^{\mathsf {c}' d + o(d)}$$ memory for constants $$c, c'$$ . In this work, we give various quantum sieving algorithms that trade computational steps for memory.We first give a quantum analogue of the classical k-Sieve algorithm [Herold–Kirshanova–Laarhoven, PKC’18] in the Quantum Random Access Memory (QRAM) model, achieving an algorithm that heuristically solves SVP in $$2^{0.2989d + o(d)}$$ time steps using $$2^{0.1395d + o(d)}$$ memory. This should be compared to the state-of-the-art algorithm [Laarhoven, Ph.D Thesis, 2015] which, in the same model, solves SVP in $$2^{0.2653d + o(d)}$$ time steps and memory. In the QRAM model these algorithms can be implemented using $$\mathrm {poly}(d)$$ width quantum circuits.Secondly, we frame the k-Sieve as the problem of k-clique listing in a graph and apply quantum k-clique finding techniques to the k-Sieve.Finally, we explore the large quantum memory regime by adapting parallel quantum search [Beals et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. A’13] to the 2-Sieve, and give an analysis in the quantum circuit model. We show how to solve SVP in $$2^{0.1037d + o(d)}$$ time steps using $$2^{0.2075d + o(d)}$$ quantum memory.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Perfectly Secure Oblivious RAM with Sublinear Bandwidth Overhead
Oblivious RAM (ORAM) has established itself as a fundamental cryptographic building block. Understanding which bandwidth overheads are possible under which assumptions has been the topic of a vast amount of previous works. In this work, we focus on perfectly secure ORAM and we present the first construction with sublinear bandwidth overhead in the worst-case. All prior constructions with perfect security require linear communication overhead in the worst-case and only achieve sublinear bandwidth overheads in the amortized sense. We present a fundamentally new approach for constructing ORAM and our results significantly advance our understanding of what is possible with perfect security.Our main construction, Lookahead ORAM, is perfectly secure, has a worst-case bandwidth overhead of , and a total storage cost of on the server-side, where N is the maximum number of stored data elements. In terms of concrete server-side storage costs, our construction has the smallest storage overhead among all perfectly and statistically secure ORAMs and is only a factor 3 worse than the most storage efficient computationally secure ORAM. Assuming a client-side position map, our construction is the first, among all ORAMs with worst-case sublinear overhead, that allows for a online bandwidth overhead without server-side computation. Along the way, we construct a conceptually extremely simple statistically secure ORAM with a worst-case bandwidth overhead of , which may be of independent interest.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Middle-Product Learning with Rounding Problem and Its Applications
At CRYPTO 2017, Roşca et al. introduce a new variant of the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem, called the Middle-Product LWE ( $${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$ ). The hardness of this new assumption is based on the hardness of the Polynomial LWE (P-LWE) problem parameterized by a set of polynomials, making it more secure against the possible weakness of a single defining polynomial. As a cryptographic application, they also provide an encryption scheme based on the $${\mathrm {MP}\text {-}\mathrm{LWE}}$$ problem. In this paper, we propose a deterministic variant of their encryption scheme, which does not need Gaussian sampling and is thus simpler than the original one. Still, it has the same quasi-optimal asymptotic key and ciphertext sizes. The main ingredient for this purpose is the Learning With Rounding (LWR) problem which has already been used to derandomize LWE type encryption. The hardness of our scheme is based on a new assumption called Middle-Product Computational Learning With Rounding, an adaption of the computational LWR problem over rings, introduced by Chen et al. at ASIACRYPT 2018. We prove that this new assumption is as hard as the decisional version of MP-LWE and thus benefits from worst-case to average-case hardness guarantees.
2019
ASIACRYPT
From Single-Input to Multi-client Inner-Product Functional Encryption
We present a new generic construction of multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) for inner products from single-input functional inner-product encryption and standard pseudorandom functions. In spite of its simplicity, the new construction supports labels, achieves security in the standard model under adaptive corruptions, and can be instantiated from the plain DDH, LWE, and Paillier assumptions. Prior to our work, the only known constructions required discrete-log-based assumptions and the random-oracle model. Since our new scheme is not compatible with the compiler from Abdalla et al. (PKC 2019) that decentralizes the generation of the functional decryption keys, we also show how to modify the latter transformation to obtain a decentralized version of our scheme with similar features.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Attacks Without Superposition Queries: The Offline Simon’s Algorithm
In symmetric cryptanalysis, the model of superposition queries has led to surprising results, with many constructions being broken in polynomial time thanks to Simon’s period-finding algorithm. But the practical implications of these attacks remain blurry. In contrast, the results obtained so far for a quantum adversary making classical queries only are less impressive.In this paper, we introduce a new quantum algorithm which uses Simon’s subroutines in a novel way. We manage to leverage the algebraic structure of cryptosystems in the context of a quantum attacker limited to classical queries and offline quantum computations. We obtain improved quantum-time/classical-data tradeoffs with respect to the current literature, while using only as much hardware requirements (quantum and classical) as a standard exhaustive search with Grover’s algorithm. In particular, we are able to break the Even-Mansour construction in quantum time $$\tilde{O}(2^{n/3})$$, with $$O(2^{n/3})$$ classical queries and $$O(n^2)$$ qubits only. In addition, we improve some previous superposition attacks by reducing the data complexity from exponential to polynomial, with the same time complexity.Our approach can be seen in two complementary ways: reusing superposition queries during the iteration of a search using Grover’s algorithm, or alternatively, removing the memory requirement in some quantum attacks based on a collision search, thanks to their algebraic structure.We provide a list of cryptographic applications, including the Even-Mansour construction, the FX construction, some Sponge authenticated modes of encryption, and many more.
2019
ASIACRYPT
How to Correct Errors in Multi-server PIR
Suppose that there exist a user and $$\ell $$ servers $$S_1,\ldots ,S_{\ell }$$. Each server $$S_j$$ holds a copy of a database $$\mathbf {x}=(x_1, \ldots , x_n) \in \{0,1\}^n$$, and the user holds a secret index $$i_0 \in \{1, \ldots , n\}$$. A b error correcting $$\ell $$ server PIR (Private Information Retrieval) scheme allows a user to retrieve $$x_{i_0}$$ correctly even if and b or less servers return false answers while each server learns no information on $$i_0$$ in the information theoretic sense. Although there exists such a scheme with the total communication cost $$ O(n^{1/(2k-1)} \times k\ell \log {\ell } ) $$ where $$k=\ell -2b$$, the decoding algorithm is very inefficient.In this paper, we show an efficient decoding algorithm for this b error correcting $$\ell $$ server PIR scheme. It runs in time $$O(\ell ^3)$$.
2019
ASIACRYPT
UC-Secure Multiparty Computation from One-Way Functions Using Stateless Tokens
We revisit the problem of universally composable (UC) secure multiparty computation in the stateless hardware token model. We construct a three round multi-party computation protocol for general functions based on one-way functions where each party sends two tokens to every other party. Relaxing to the two-party case, we also construct a two round protocol based on one-way functions where each party sends a single token to the other party, and at the end of the protocol, both parties learn the output.One of the key components in the above constructions is a new two-round oblivious transfer protocol based on one-way functions using only one token, which can be reused an unbounded polynomial number of times. All prior constructions required either stronger complexity assumptions, or larger number of rounds, or a larger number of tokens.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Random Oracle Model with Auxiliary Input
The random oracle model (ROM) is an idealized model where hash functions are modeled as random functions that are only accessible as oracles. Although the ROM has been used for proving many cryptographic schemes, it has (at least) two problems. First, the ROM does not capture quantum adversaries. Second, it does not capture non-uniform adversaries that perform preprocessings. To deal with these problems, Boneh et al. (Asiacrypt’11) proposed using the quantum ROM (QROM) to argue post-quantum security, and Unruh (CRYPTO’07) proposed the ROM with auxiliary input (ROM-AI) to argue security against preprocessing attacks. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has dealt with the above two problems simultaneously.In this paper, we consider a model that we call the QROM with (classical) auxiliary input (QROM-AI) that deals with the above two problems simultaneously and study security of cryptographic primitives in the model. That is, we give security bounds for one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, (post-quantum) pseudorandom functions, and (post-quantum) message authentication codes in the QROM-AI.We also study security bounds in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. In other words, we show a security bound for one-wayness of random permutations (instead of random functions) in the presence of quantum auxiliary inputs. This resolves an open problem posed by Nayebi et al. (QIC’15). In a context of complexity theory, this implies $$ \mathsf {NP}\cap \mathsf {coNP} \not \subseteq \mathsf {BQP/qpoly}$$ relative to a random permutation oracle, which also answers an open problem posed by Aaronson (ToC’05).
2019
ASIACRYPT
Rate-1 Trapdoor Functions from the Diffie-Hellman Problem
Trapdoor functions (TDFs) are one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography. Studying the underlying assumptions and the efficiency of the resulting instantiations is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. In this work we improve the input-to-image rate of TDFs based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Specifically, we present: (a)A rate-1 TDF from the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, improving the result of Garg, Gay, and Hajiabadi [EUROCRYPT 2019], which achieved linear-size outputs but with large constants. Our techniques combine non-binary alphabets and high-rate error-correcting codes over large fields.(b)A rate-1 deterministic public-key encryption satisfying block-source security from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. While this question was recently settled by Döttling et al. [CRYPTO 2019], our scheme is conceptually simpler and concretely more efficient. We demonstrate this fact by implementing our construction.
2019
ASIACRYPT
An LLL Algorithm for Module Lattices
The LLL algorithm takes as input a basis of a Euclidean lattice, and, within a polynomial number of operations, it outputs another basis of the same lattice but consisting of rather short vectors. We provide a generalization to R-modules contained in  $$K^n$$ for arbitrary number fields K and dimension n, with R denoting the ring of integers of K. Concretely, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-n modules when given access to an oracle that finds short vectors in rank-2 modules, and an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-2 modules given access to a Closest Vector Problem oracle for a lattice that depends only on K. The second algorithm relies on quantum computations and its analysis is heuristic.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Efficient UC Commitment Extension with Homomorphism for Free (and Applications)
Homomorphic universally composable (UC) commitments allow for the sender to reveal the result of additions and multiplications of values contained in commitments without revealing the values themselves while assuring the receiver of the correctness of such computation on committed values. In this work, we construct essentially optimal additively homomorphic UC commitments from any (not necessarily UC or homomorphic) extractable commitment, while the previous best constructions require oblivious transfer. We obtain amortized linear computational complexity in the length of the input messages and rate 1. Next, we show how to extend our scheme to also obtain multiplicative homomorphism at the cost of asymptotic optimality but retaining low concrete complexity for practical parameters. Moreover, our techniques yield public coin protocols, which are compatible with the Fiat-Shamir heuristic. These results come at the cost of realizing a restricted version of the homomorphic commitment functionality where the sender is allowed to perform any number of commitments and operations on committed messages but is only allowed to perform a single batch opening of a number of commitments. Although this functionality seems restrictive, we show that it can be used as a building block for more efficient instantiations of recent protocols for secure multiparty computation and zero knowledge non-interactive arguments of knowledge.
2019
ASIACRYPT
The Local Forking Lemma and Its Application to Deterministic Encryption
We bypass impossibility results for the deterministic encryption of public-key-dependent messages, showing that, in this setting, the classical Encrypt-with-Hash scheme provides message-recovery security, across a broad range of message distributions. The proof relies on a new variant of the forking lemma in which the random oracle is reprogrammed on just a single fork point rather than on all points past the fork.
2019
ASIACRYPT
QFactory: Classically-Instructed Remote Secret Qubits Preparation
The functionality of classically-instructed remotely prepared random secret qubits was introduced in (Cojocaru et al. 2018) as a way to enable classical parties to participate in secure quantum computation and communications protocols. The idea is that a classical party (client) instructs a quantum party (server) to generate a qubit to the server’s side that is random, unknown to the server but known to the client. Such task is only possible under computational assumptions. In this contribution we define a simpler (basic) primitive consisting of only BB84 states, and give a protocol that realizes this primitive and that is secure against the strongest possible adversary (an arbitrarily deviating malicious server). The specific functions used, were constructed based on known trapdoor one-way functions, resulting to the security of our basic primitive being reduced to the hardness of the Learning With Errors problem. We then give a number of extensions, building on this basic module: extension to larger set of states (that includes non-Clifford states); proper consideration of the abort case; and verifiablity on the module level. The latter is based on “blind self-testing”, a notion we introduced, proved in a limited setting and conjectured its validity for the most general case.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Structure-Preserving Signatures on Equivalence Classes from Standard Assumptions
Structure-preserving signatures on equivalence classes (SPS-EQ) introduced at ASIACRYPT 2014 are a variant of SPS where a message is considered as a projective equivalence class, and a new representative of the same class can be obtained by multiplying a vector by a scalar. Given a message and corresponding signature, anyone can produce an updated and randomized signature on an arbitrary representative from the same equivalence class. SPS-EQ have proven to be a very versatile building block for many cryptographic applications.In this paper, we present the first EUF-CMA secure SPS-EQ scheme under standard assumptions. So far only constructions in the generic group model are known. One recent candidate under standard assumptions are the weakly secure equivalence class signatures by Fuchsbauer and Gay (PKC’18), a variant of SPS-EQ satisfying only a weaker unforgeability and adaption notion. Fuchsbauer and Gay show that this weaker unforgeability notion is sufficient for many known applications of SPS-EQ. Unfortunately, the weaker adaption notion is only proper for a semi-honest (passive) model and as we show in this paper, makes their scheme unusable in the current models for almost all of their advertised applications of SPS-EQ from the literature.We then present a new EUF-CMA secure SPS-EQ scheme with a tight security reduction under the SXDH assumption providing the notion of perfect adaption (under malicious keys). To achieve the strongest notion of perfect adaption under malicious keys, we require a common reference string (CRS), which seems inherent for constructions under standard assumptions. However, for most known applications of SPS-EQ we do not require a trusted CRS (as the CRS can be generated by the signer during key generation). Technically, our construction is inspired by a recent work of Gay et al. (EUROCRYPT’18), who construct a tightly secure message authentication code and translate it to an SPS scheme adapting techniques due to Bellare and Goldwasser (CRYPTO’89).
2019
ASIACRYPT
Scalable Private Set Union from Symmetric-Key Techniques
We present a new efficient protocol for computing private set union (PSU). Here two semi-honest parties, each holding a dataset of known size (or of a known upper bound), wish to compute the union of their sets without revealing anything else to either party. Our protocol is in the OT hybrid model. Beyond OT extension, it is fully based on symmetric-key primitives. We motivate the PSU primitive by its direct application to network security and other areas.At the technical core of our PSU construction is the reverse private membership test (RPMT) protocol. In RPMT, the sender with input $$x^*$$ interacts with a receiver holding a set X. As a result, the receiver learns (only) the bit indicating whether $$x^* \in X$$, while the sender learns nothing about the set X. (Previous similar protocols provide output to the opposite party, hence the term “reverse” private membership.) We believe our RPMT abstraction and constructions may be a building block in other applications as well.We demonstrate the practicality of our proposed protocol with an implementation. For input sets of size $$2^{20}$$ and using a single thread, our protocol requires 238 s to securely compute the set union, regardless of the bit length of the items. Our protocol is amenable to parallelization. Increasing the number of threads from 1 to 32, our protocol requires only 13.1 s, a factor of $$18.25{\times }$$ improvement.To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first protocol that reports on large-size experiments, makes code available, and avoids extensive use of computationally expensive public-key operations. (No PSU code is publicly available for prior work, and the only prior symmetric-key-based work reports on small experiments and focuses on the simpler 3-party, 1-corruption setting.) Our work improves reported PSU state of the art by factor up to $$7,600{\times }$$ for large instances.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Fine-Grained Cryptography Revisited
Fine-grained cryptographic primitives are secure against adversaries with bounded resources and can be computed by honest users with less resources than the adversaries. In this paper, we revisit the results by Degwekar, Vaikuntanathan, and Vasudevan in Crypto 2016 on fine-grained cryptography and show the constructions of three key fundamental fine-grained cryptographic primitives: one-way permutations, hash proof systems (which in turn implies a public-key encryption scheme against chosen chiphertext attacks), and trapdoor one-way functions. All of our constructions are computable in $$\mathsf {NC^1}$$ and secure against (non-uniform) $$\mathsf {NC^1}$$ circuits under the widely believed worst-case assumption $$\mathsf {NC^1}\subsetneq \mathsf{\oplus L/poly}$$.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Quisquis: A New Design for Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Despite their usage of pseudonyms rather than persistent identifiers, most existing cryptocurrencies do not provide users with any meaningful levels of privacy. This has prompted the creation of privacy-enhanced cryptocurrencies such as Monero and Zcash, which are specifically designed to counteract the tracking analysis possible in currencies like Bitcoin. These cryptocurrencies, however, also suffer from some drawbacks: in both Monero and Zcash, the set of potential unspent coins is always growing, which means users cannot store a concise representation of the blockchain. Additionally, Zcash requires a common reference string and the fact that addresses are reused multiple times in Monero has led to attacks to its anonymity.In this paper we propose a new design for anonymous cryptocurrencies, Quisquis, that achieves provably secure notions of anonymity. Quisquis stores a relatively small amount of data, does not require trusted setup, and in Quisquis each address appears on the blockchain at most twice: once when it is generated as output of a transaction, and once when it is spent as input to a transaction. Our result is achieved by combining a DDH-based tool (that we call updatable keys) with efficient zero-knowledge arguments.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Shorter QA-NIZK and SPS with Tighter Security
Quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (QA-NIZK) systems and structure-preserving signature (SPS) schemes are two powerful tools for constructing practical pairing-based cryptographic schemes. Their efficiency directly affects the efficiency of the derived advanced protocols.We construct more efficient QA-NIZK and SPS schemes with tight security reductions. Our QA-NIZK scheme is the first one that achieves both tight simulation soundness and constant proof size (in terms of number of group elements) at the same time, while the recent scheme from Abe et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) achieved tight security with proof size linearly depending on the size of the language and the witness. Assuming the hardness of the Symmetric eXternal Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) problem, our scheme contains only 14 elements in the proof and remains independent of the size of the language and the witness. Moreover, our scheme has tighter simulation soundness than the previous schemes.Technically, we refine and extend a partitioning technique from a recent SPS scheme (Gay et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of the tightly secure SPS schemes by using a relaxation of NIZK proof system for OR languages, called designated-prover NIZK system. Under the SXDH assumption, our SPS scheme contains 11 group elements in the signature, which is shortest among the tight schemes and is the same as an early non-tight scheme (Abe et al., ASIACRYPT 2012). Compared to the shortest known non-tight scheme (Jutla and Roy, PKC 2017), our scheme achieves tight security at the cost of 5 additional elements.All the schemes in this paper are proven secure based on the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumptions (Escala et al., CRYPTO 2013). These are a class of assumptions which include the well-known SXDH and DLIN assumptions and provide clean algebraic insights to our constructions. To the best of our knowledge, our schemes achieve the best efficiency among schemes with the same functionality and security properties. This naturally leads to improvement of the efficiency of cryptosystems based on simulation-sound QA-NIZK and SPS.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Divisible E-Cash from Constrained Pseudo-Random Functions
Electronic cash (e-cash) is the digital analogue of regular cash which aims at preserving users’ privacy. Following Chaum’s seminal work, several new features were proposed for e-cash to address the practical issues of the original primitive. Among them, divisibility has proved very useful to enable efficient storage and spendings. Unfortunately, it is also very difficult to achieve and, to date, quite a few constructions exist, all of them relying on complex mechanisms that can only be instantiated in one specific setting. In addition security models are incomplete and proofs sometimes hand-wavy.In this work, we first provide a complete security model for divisible e-cash, and we study the links with constrained pseudo-random functions (PRFs), a primitive recently formalized by Boneh and Waters. We exhibit two frameworks of divisible e-cash systems from constrained PRFs achieving some specific properties: either key homomorphism or delegability. We then formally prove these frameworks, and address two main issues in previous constructions: two essential security notions were either not considered at all or not fully proven. Indeed, we introduce the notion of clearing, which should guarantee that only the recipient of a transaction should be able to do the deposit, and we show the exculpability, that should prevent an honest user to be falsely accused, was wrong in most proofs of the previous constructions. Some can easily be repaired, but this is not the case for most complex settings such as constructions in the standard model. Consequently, we provide the first construction secure in the standard model, as a direct instantiation of our framework.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Noninteractive Certification of RSA Moduli and Beyond
In many applications, it is important to verify that an RSA public key (N, e) specifies a permutation over the entire space $$\mathbb {Z}_N$$ , in order to prevent attacks due to adversarially-generated public keys. We design and implement a simple and efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge protocol (in the random oracle model) for this task. Applications concerned about adversarial key generation can just append our proof to the RSA public key without any other modifications to existing code or cryptographic libraries. Users need only perform a one-time verification of the proof to ensure that raising to the power e is a permutation of the integers modulo N. For typical parameter settings, the proof consists of nine integers modulo N; generating the proof and verifying it both require about nine modular exponentiations.We extend our results beyond RSA keys and also provide efficient noninteractive zero-knowledge proofs for other properties of N, which can be used to certify that N is suitable for the Paillier cryptosystem, is a product of two primes, or is a Blum integer. As compared to the recent work of Auerbach and Poettering (PKC 2018), who provide two-message protocols for similar languages, our protocols are more efficient and do not require interaction, which enables a broader class of applications.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Shorter Pairing-Based Arguments Under Standard Assumptions
This paper constructs efficient non-interactive arguments for correct evaluation of arithmetic and boolean circuits with proof size O(d) group elements, where d is the multiplicative depth of the circuit, under falsifiable assumptions. This is achieved by combining techniques from SNARKs and QA-NIZK arguments of membership in linear spaces. The first construction is very efficient (the proof size is $$\approx 4d$$ group elements and the verification cost is $$\approx 4d$$ pairings and $$O(n+n'+d)$$ exponentiations, where n is the size of the input and $$n'$$ of the output) but one type of attack can only be ruled out assuming the knowledge soundness of QA-NIZK arguments of membership in linear spaces. We give an alternative construction which replaces this assumption with a decisional assumption in bilinear groups at the cost of approximately doubling the proof size. The construction for boolean circuits can be made zero-knowledge with Groth-Sahai proofs, resulting in a NIZK argument for circuit satisfiability based on falsifiable assumptions in bilinear groups of proof size $$O(n+d)$$.Our main technical tool is what we call an “argument of knowledge transfer”. Given a commitment $$C_1$$ and an opening x, such an argument allows to prove that some other commitment $$C_2$$ opens to f(x), for some function f, even if $$C_2$$ is not extractable. We construct very short, constant-size, pairing-based arguments of knowledge transfer with constant-time verification for any linear function and also for Hadamard products. These allow to transfer the knowledge of the input to lower levels of the circuit.
2019
ASIACRYPT
A Novel CCA Attack Using Decryption Errors Against LAC
Cryptosystems based on Learning with Errors or related problems are central topics in recent cryptographic research. One main witness to this is the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization effort. Many submitted proposals rely on problems related to Learning with Errors. Such schemes often include the possibility of decryption errors with some very small probability. Some of them have a somewhat larger error probability in each coordinate, but use an error correcting code to get rid of errors. In this paper we propose and discuss an attack for secret key recovery based on generating decryption errors, for schemes using error correcting codes. In particular we show an attack on the scheme LAC, a proposal to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization that has advanced to round 2.In a standard setting with CCA security, the attack first consists of a precomputation of special messages and their corresponding error vectors. This set of messages are submitted for decryption and a few decryption errors are observed. In a statistical analysis step, these vectors causing the decryption errors are processed and the result reveals the secret key. The attack only works for a fraction of the secret keys. To be specific, regarding LAC256, the version for achieving the 256-bit classical security level, we recover one key among approximately $$2^{64}$$ public keys with complexity $$2^{79}$$, if the precomputation cost of $$2^{162}$$ is excluded. We also show the possibility to attack a more probable key (say with probability $$2^{-16}$$). This attack is verified via extensive simulation.We further apply this attack to LAC256-v2, a new version of LAC256 in round 2 of the NIST PQ-project and obtain a multi-target attack with slightly increased precomputation complexity (from $$2^{162}$$ to $$2^{171}$$). One can also explain this attack in the single-key setting as an attack with precomputation complexity of $$2^{171}$$ and success probability of $$2^{-64}$$.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Order-LWE and the Hardness of Ring-LWE with Entropic Secrets
We propose a generalization of the celebrated Ring Learning with Errors (RLWE) problem (Lyubashevsky, Peikert and Regev, Eurocrypt 2010, Eurocrypt 2013), wherein the ambient ring is not the ring of integers of a number field, but rather an order (a full rank subring). We show that our Order-LWE problem enjoys worst-case hardness with respect to short-vector problems in invertible-ideal lattices of the order.The definition allows us to provide a new analysis for the hardness of the abundantly used Polynomial-LWE (PLWE) problem (Stehlé et al., Asiacrypt 2009), different from the one recently proposed by Rosca, Stehlé and Wallet (Eurocrypt 2018). This suggests that Order-LWE may be used to analyze and possibly design useful relaxations of RLWE.We show that Order-LWE can naturally be harnessed to prove security for RLWE instances where the “RLWE secret” (which often corresponds to the secret-key of a cryptosystem) is not sampled uniformly as required for RLWE hardness. We start by showing worst-case hardness even if the secret is sampled from a subring of the sample space. Then, we study the case where the secret is sampled from an ideal of the sample space or a coset thereof (equivalently, some of its CRT coordinates are fixed or leaked). In the latter, we show an interesting threshold phenomenon where the amount of RLWE noise determines whether the problem is tractable.Lastly, we address the long standing question of whether high-entropy secret is sufficient for RLWE to be intractable. Our result on sampling from ideals shows that simply requiring high entropy is insufficient. We therefore propose a broad class of distributions where we conjecture that hardness should hold, and provide evidence via reduction to a concrete lattice problem.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Simple and Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public Key Encryption
We propose two efficient public key encryption (PKE) schemes satisfying key dependent message security against chosen ciphertext attacks (KDM-CCA security). The first one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to affine functions. The other one is KDM-CCA secure with respect to polynomial functions. Both of our schemes are based on the KDM-CPA secure PKE schemes proposed by Malkin, Teranishi, and Yung (EUROCRYPT 2011). Although our schemes satisfy KDM-CCA security, their efficiency overheads compared to Malkin et al.’s schemes are very small. Thus, efficiency of our schemes is drastically improved compared to the existing KDM-CCA secure schemes.We achieve our results by extending the construction technique by Kitagawa and Tanaka (ASIACRYPT 2018). Our schemes are obtained via semi-generic constructions using an IND-CCA secure PKE scheme as a building block. We prove the KDM-CCA security of our schemes based on the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption and the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme.Moreover, our security proofs are tight if the IND-CCA security of the building block PKE scheme is tightly reduced to its underlying computational assumption. By instantiating our schemes using existing tightly IND-CCA secure PKE schemes, we obtain the first tightly KDM-CCA secure PKE schemes whose ciphertext consists only of a constant number of group elements.