## CryptoDB

### Papers from PKC 2023

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

PKC

A Generic Transform from Multi-Round Interactive Proof to NIZK
Abstract

We present a new generic transform that takes a multi-round interactive proof for the membership of a language L and outputs a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (not of knowledge) in the common reference string model. Similar to the Fiat-Shamir transform, it requires a hash function H. However, in our transform the zero-knowledge property is in the standard model, and the adaptive soundness is in the non-programmable random oracle model (NPROM).
Behind this new generic transform, we build a new generic OR-composition of two multi-round interactive proofs. Note that the two common techniques for building OR-proofs (parallel OR-proof and sequential OR-proof) cannot be naturally extended to the multi-round setting. We also give a proof of security for our OR-proof in the quantum oracle model (QROM), surprisingly the security loss in QROM is independent from the number of rounds.

2023

PKC

A Holistic Approach Towards Side-Channel Secure Fixed-Weight Polynomial Sampling
Abstract

The sampling of polynomials with fixed weight is a procedure required by round-4 Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs) for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) standardization (BIKE, HQC, McEliece) as well as NTRU, Streamlined NTRU Prime, and NTRU LPRrime. Recent attacks have shown in this context that side-channel leakage of sampling methods can be exploited for key recoveries. While countermeasures regarding such timing attacks have already been presented, still, there is no comprehensive work covering solutions that are also secure against power side channels.
To close this gap, the contribution of this work is threefold: First, we analyze requirements for the different use cases of fixed weight sampling. Second, we demonstrate how all known sampling methods can be implemented securely against timing and power/EM side channels and propose performance-enhancing modifications. Furthermore, we propose a new, comparison based methodology that outperforms existing methods in the masked setting for the three round-4 KEMs BIKE, HQC, and McEliece. Third, we present bitsliced and arbitrary-order masked software implementations and benchmarked them for all relevant cryptographic schemes to be able to infer recommendations for each use case. Additionally, we provide a hardware implementation of our new method as a case study and analyze the feasibility of implementing the other approaches in hardware.

2023

PKC

A Key-Recovery Attack against Mitaka in the t-Probing Model
Abstract

Mitaka is a lattice-based signature proposed at Eurocrypt 2022. A key advertised feature of Mitaka is that it can be masked at high orders eﬀiciently, making it attractive in scenarios where side-channel attacks are a concern. Mitaka comes with a claimed security proof in the t-probing model.
We uncover a flaw in the security proof of Mitaka, and subsequently show that it is not secure in the t-probing model. For any number of shares d ≥ 4, probing t < d variables per execution allows an attacker to recover the private key eﬀiciently with approximately 2^21 executions. Our analysis shows that even a constant number of probes suﬀices (t = 3), as long as the attacker has access to a number of executions that is linear in d/t.

2023

PKC

A Lightweight Identification Protocol Based on Lattices
Abstract

In this work we present a lightweight lattice-based identification protocol based on the CPA-secured public key encryption scheme Kyber. It is designed as a replacement for existing classical ECC- or RSA-based identification protocols in IoT, smart card applications, or for device authentication. The proposed protocol is simple, efficient, and implementations are supposed to be easy to harden against side-channel attacks. Compared to standard constructions for identification protocols based on lattice-based KEMs, our construction achieves this by avoiding the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform and its impact on implementation security.
Moreover, contrary to prior lattice-based identification protocols or standard constructions using signatures, our work does not require rejection sampling and can use more efficient parameters than signature schemes. We provide a generic construction from CPA-secured public key encryption schemes to identification protocols and give a security proof of the protocol in the ROM. Moreover, we instantiate the generic construction with Kyber, for which we use the proposed parameter sets for NIST security levels I, III, and V. To show that the protocol is suitable for constrained devices, we implemented one selected parameter set on an ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. As the protocol is based on existing algorithms for Kyber, we make use of existing SW components (e.g., fast NTT implementations) for our implementation.

2023

PKC

A Map of Witness Maps: New Definitions and Connections
Abstract

A \emph{witness map} deterministically maps a witness $w$ of some NP statement $x$ into computationally sound proof that $x$ is true, with respect to a public common reference string (CRS). In other words, it is a deterministic, non-interactive, computationally sound proof system in the CRS model. A \emph{unique witness map} (UWM) ensures that for any fixed statement $x$, the witness map should output the same \emph{unique} proof for $x$, no matter what witness $w$ it is applied to. More generally a \emph{compact witness map} (CWM) can only output one of at most $2^\alpha$ proofs for any given statement $x$, where $\alpha$ is some compactness parameter. Such compact/unique witness maps were proposed recently by Chakraborty, Prabhakaran and Wichs (PKC '20) as a tool for building tamper-resilient signatures, who showed how to construct UWMs from indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). In this work, we study CWMs and UWMs as primitives of independent interest and present a number of interesting connections to various notions in cryptography.
\begin{itemize}
\item First, we show that UWMs lie somewhere between witness PRFs (Zhandry; TCC '16) and iO -- they imply the former and are implied by the latter. In particular, we show that a relaxation of UWMs to the ``designated verifier (dv-UWM)'' setting is \emph{equivalent} to witness PRFs. Moreover, we consider two flavors of such dv-UWMs, which correspond to two flavors of witness PRFs previously considered in the literature, and show that they are all in fact equivalent to each other in terms of feasibility.
\item Next, we consider CWMs that are extremely compact, with $\alpha = O(\log \kappa)$, where $\kappa$ is the security parameter. We show that such CWMs imply \emph{pseudo-UWMs} where the witness map is allowed to be \emph{pseudo-deterministic} -- i.e., for every true statement $x$, there is a unique proof such that, on any witness $w$, the witness map outputs this proof with $1-1/p(\lambda)$ probability, for a polynomial $p$ that we can set arbitrarily large.
\item Lastly, we consider CWMs that are mildly compact, with $\alpha = p(\lambda)$ for some a-priori fixed polynomial $p$, independent of the length of the statement $x$ or witness $w$. Such CWMs are implied by succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs). We show that such CWMs imply NIZKs, and therefore lie somewhere between NIZKs and SNARGs.
\end{itemize}

2023

PKC

A Thorough Treatment of Highly-Efficient NTRU Instantiations
Abstract

Cryptography based on the hardness of lattice problems over
polynomial rings currently provides the most practical solution for pub-
lic key encryption in the quantum era. Indeed, three of the four schemes
chosen by NIST in the recently-concluded post-quantum standardization
effort for encryption and signature schemes are based on the hardness of
these problems. While the first encryption scheme utilizing properties of
polynomial rings was NTRU (ANTS ’98), the scheme that NIST chose
for public key encryption (CRYSTALS-Kyber) is based on the hardness
of the somewhat-related Module-LWE problem. One of the reasons for
Kyber’s selection was the fact that it is noticeably faster than NTRU
and a little more compact. And indeed, the practical NTRU encryption
schemes in the literature generally lag their Ring/Module-LWE counter-
parts in either compactness or speed, or both.
In this paper, we put the efficiency of NTRU-based schemes on equal
(even slightly better, actually) footing with their Ring/Module-LWE
counterparts. We provide several instantiations and transformations, with
security given in the ROM and the QROM, that are on par, compactness-
wise, with their counterparts based on Ring/Module-LWE. Performance-
wise, the NTRU schemes instantiated in this paper over NTT-friendly
rings of the form Z_q[X]/(X^d − X^{d/2} + 1) are the fastest of all public key
encryption schemes, whether quantum-safe or not. When compared to
the NIST finalist NTRU-HRSS-701, our scheme is 15% more compact
and has a 15X improvement in the round-trip time of ephemeral key
exchange, with key generation being 35X faster, encapsulation being 6X
faster, and decapsulation enjoying a 9X speedup.

2023

PKC

A Universally Composable PAKE with Zero Communication Cost (And Why It Shouldn’t Be Considered UC-Secure)
Abstract

A Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocol allows two parties to agree upon a cryptographic key, when the only information shared in advance is a low-entropy password. The standard security notion for PAKE (Canetti et al., Eurocrypt 2005) is in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We show that unlike most UC security notions, UC PAKE does not imply correctness. While Canetti et al. seems to have implicitly noticed this issue, it has yet to be explicitly identified by the PAKE literature. We present a comprehensive study of correctness in UC PAKE:
1. We show that TrivialPAKE, a no-message protocol that does not satisfy correctness, is a UC PAKE;
2. We propose nine approaches to guaranteeing correctness in the UC security notion of PAKE, and show that seven of them are equivalent, whereas the other two are unachievable;
3. We prove that a direct solution, namely changing the UC PAKE functionality to incorporate correctness, is impossible;
4. Finally, we show how to naturally incorporate correctness by changing the model — we view PAKE as a three-party protocol, with the man-in-the-middle adversary as the third party.
In this way, we hope to shed some light on the very nature of UC-security in the man-in-the-middle setting.

2023

PKC

Almost Tightly-Secure Re-Randomizable and Replayable CCA-secure Public Key Encryption
Abstract

Re-randomizable Replayable CCA-secure public key encryption (Rand-RCCA PKE) schemes guarantee security against chosen-ciphertext attacks while ensuring the useful property of re-randomizable ciphertexts. We introduce the notion of multi-user and multi-ciphertext Rand-RCCA PKE and we give the first construction of such a PKE scheme with an almost tight security reduction to a standard assumption. Our construction is structure preserving and can be instantiated over Type-1 pairing groups. Technically, our work borrows ideas from the state of the art Rand-RCCA PKE scheme of Faonio et al. (ASIACRYPT’19) and the adaptive partitioning technique of Hofheinz (EUROCRYPT’17). Additionally, we show (1) how to turn our scheme into a publicly-verifiable (pv) Rand-RCCA scheme and (2) that plugging our pv-Rand-RCCA PKE scheme into the MixNet protocol of Faonio et al. we can obtain the first almost tightly-secure MixNet protocol.

2023

PKC

Backward-Leak Uni-Directional Updatable Encryption from (Homomorphic) Public Key Encryption
Abstract

The understanding of directionality for updatable encryption (UE) schemes is important, but not yet completed in the literature. We show that security in the backward-leak uni-directional key updates setting is equivalent to the no-directional one. Combining with the work of Jiang (ASIACRYPT 2020) and Nishimaki (PKC 2022), it is showed that the backward-leak notion is the strongest one among all known key update notions and more relevant in practice. We propose two novel generic constructions of UE schemes that are secure in the backward-leak uni-directional key update setting from public key encryption (PKE) schemes: the first one requires a key and message homomorphic PKE scheme and the second one requires a bootstrappable PKE scheme. These PKE can be constructed based on standard assumptions (such as the Decisional Diffie-Hellman and Learning With Errors assumptions).

2023

PKC

Certifying Giant Nonprimes
Abstract

GIMPS and PrimeGrid are large-scale distributed projects dedicated to searching giant prime numbers, usually of special forms like Mersenne and Proth primes. The numbers in the current search-space are millions of digits large and the participating volunteers need to run resource-consuming primality tests. Once a candidate prime $N$ has been found, the only way for another party to independently verify the primality of $N$ used to be by repeating the expensive primality test. To avoid the need for second recomputation of each primality test, these projects have recently adopted certifying mechanisms that enable efficient verification of performed tests. However, the mechanisms presently in place only detect benign errors and there is no guarantee against adversarial behavior: a malicious volunteer can mislead the project to reject a giant prime as being non-prime.
In this paper, we propose a practical, cryptographically-sound mechanism for certifying the non-primality of Proth numbers. That is, a volunteer can -- parallel to running the primality test for $N$ -- generate an efficiently verifiable proof at a little extra cost certifying that $N$ is not prime. The interactive protocol has statistical soundness and can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic.
Our approach is based on a cryptographic primitive called Proof of Exponentiation (PoE) which, for a group $\G$, certifies that a tuple $(x,y,T)\in\G^2\times\mathbb{N}$ satisfies $x^{2^T}=y$ (Pietrzak, ITCS 2019 and Wesolowski, J. Cryptol. 2020). In particular, we show how to adapt Pietrzak's PoE at a moderate additional cost to make it a cryptographically-sound certificate of non-primality.

2023

PKC

CRAFT: Composable Randomness Beacons and Output-Independent Abort MPC From Time
Abstract

Recently, time-based primitives such as time-lock puzzles (TLPs) and verifiable delay functions (VDFs) have received a lot of attention due to their power as building blocks for cryptographic protocols. However, even though exciting improvements on their efficiency and security (\textit{e.g.} achieving non-malleability) have been made, most of the existing constructions do not offer general composability guarantees and thus have limited applicability. Baum \textit{et al.} (EUROCRYPT 2021) presented in TARDIS the first (im)possibility results on constructing TLPs with Universally Composable (UC) security and an application to secure two-party computation with output-independent abort (OIA-2PC), where an adversary has to decide to abort \emph{before} learning the output. While these results establish the feasibility of UC-secure TLPs and applications, they are limited to the two-party scenario and suffer from complexity overheads. In this paper, we introduce the first UC constructions of VDFs and of the related notion of publicly verifiable TLPs (PV-TLPs). We use our new UC VDF to prove a folklore result on VDF-based randomness beacons used in industry and build an improved randomness beacon from our new UC PV-TLPs. We moreover construct the first multiparty computation protocol with punishable output-independent aborts (POIA-MPC), \textit{i.e.} MPC with OIA and financial punishment for cheating. Our novel POIA-MPC both establishes the feasibility of (non-punishable) OIA-MPC and significantly improves on the efficiency of state-of-the-art OIA-2PC and (non-OIA) MPC with punishable aborts.

2023

PKC

Credibility in Private Set Membership
Abstract

A private set membership (PSM) protocol allows a ``receiver'' to learn whether its input $x$ is contained in a large database $\algo{DB}$ held by a ``sender''. In this work, we define and construct \emph{credible private set membership (C-PSM)} protocols: in addition to the conventional notions of privacy, C-PSM provides a soundness guarantee that it is hard for a sender (that does not know $x$) to convince the receiver that $x \in \algo{DB}$.
Furthermore, the communication complexity must be logarithmic in the size of $\algo{DB}$.
We provide 2-round (i.e., round-optimal) C-PSM constructions based on standard assumptions:
\begin{itemize}[itemsep=0pt]
\item We present a black-box construction in the plain model based on DDH or LWE.
\item Next, we consider protocols that support predicates $f$ beyond string equality, i.e., the receiver can learn if there exists $w \in \algo{DB}$ such that $f(x,w) = 1$. We present two results with transparent setups: (1) A black-box protocol, based on DDH or LWE, for the class of NC$^1$ functions $f$ which are efficiently searchable. (2) An LWE-based construction for all bounded-depth circuits. The only non-black-box use of cryptography in this construction is through the bootstrapping procedure in fully homomorphic encryption.
\end{itemize}
As an application, our protocols can be used to build enhanced leaked password notification services, where unlike existing solutions, a dubious sender {\em cannot} fool a receiver into changing its password.

2023

PKC

Decentralized Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Inner-Product FE: Large Universe and Unbounded
Abstract

This paper presents the first decentralized multi-authority attribute-based inner product functional encryption (MA-ABIPFE) schemes supporting vectors of a priori unbounded lengths. The notion of AB-IPFE, introduced by Abdalla et al. [ASIACRYPT 2020], combines the access control functionality of attribute-based encryption (ABE) with the possibility of evaluating linear functions on encrypted data. A decentralized MA-ABIPFE defined by Agrawal et al. [TCC 2021] essentially enhances the ABE component of AB-IPFE to the decentralized multi-authority setting where several authorities can independently issue user keys involving attributes under their control. In MA-ABIPFE for unbounded vectors (MA-ABUIPFE), encryptors can encrypt vectors of arbitrary length under access policies of their choice whereas authorities can issue secret keys to users involving attributes under their control and vectors of arbitrary lengths. Decryption works in the same way as for MA-ABIPFE provided the lengths of the vectors within the ciphertext and secret keys match.
We present two MA-ABUIPFE schemes supporting access policies realizable by linear secret sharing schemes (LSSS), in the significantly faster prime-order bilinear groups under decisional assumptions based on the target groups which are known to be weaker compared to their counterparts based in the source groups. The proposed schemes demonstrate different trade-offs between versatility and underlying assumptions. The first scheme allows each authority to control a bounded number of attributes and is proven secure under the well-studied decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption. On the other hand, the second scheme allows authorities to control exponentially many attributes, that is, supports large attribute universe, and is proven secure under a non-interactive q-type variant of the DBDH assumption called L-DBDH, similar to what was used in prior large-universe multi-authority ABE (MA-ABE) construction.
When compared with the only known MA-ABIPFE scheme due to Agrawal et al. [TCC 2021], our schemes offer significantly higher efficiency while offering greater flexibility and security under weaker assumptions at the same time. Moreover, unlike Agrawal et al., our schemes can support the appearance of the same attributes within an access policy arbitrarily many times. Since efficiency and practicality are the prime focus of this work, we prove the security of our constructions in the random oracle model against static adversaries similar to prior works on MA-ABE with similar motivations and assumptions. On the technical side, we extend the unbounded IPFE techniques of Dufour-Sans and Pointcheval [ACNS 2019] to the context of MA-ABUIPFE by introducing a novel hash-decomposition technique.

2023

PKC

Dew: A Transparent Constant-sized Polynomial Commitment Scheme
Abstract

We construct a polynomial commitment scheme
with constant (i.e., independent of the degree) sized evaluation proofs and logarithmic (in the degree) verification time in the transparent setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result achieving this combination of properties.
We build our scheme from an inner product commitment scheme with constant-sized proofs but with linear verification time. To improve the verification time to logarithmic for polynomial commitments, we prove a new extremal combinatorial bound.
Our constructions rely on groups of unknown order instantiated by class groups. We prove security of our constructions in the Generic Group Model.
Compiling known information-theoretic proof systems using our polynomial commitment scheme yields transparent and constant-sized zkSNARKs (Zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge) with logarithmic verification.

2023

PKC

Discretization Error Reduction for High Precision Torus Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Abstract

In recent history of fully homomorphic encryption, bootstrapping has been actively studied throughout many HE schemes. As bootstrapping is an essential process to transform somewhat homomorphic encryption schemes into fully homomorphic, enhancing its performance is one of the key factors of improving the utility of homomorphic encryption.
In this paper, we propose an extended bootstrapping for TFHE, which we name it by \EBS. One of the main drawback of TFHE bootstrapping was that the precision of bootstrapping is mainly decided by the polynomial dimension $N$. Thus if one wants to bootstrap with high precision, one must enlarge $N$, or take alternative method. Our \EBS enables to use small $N$ for parameter selection, but to bootstrap in higher dimension to keep high precision. Moreover, it can be easily parallelized for faster computation. Also, the \EBS can be easily adapted to other known variants of TFHE bootstrappings based on the original bootstrapping algorithm.
We implement our \EBS along with the full domain bootstrapping methods known ($\mathsf{FDFB}$, $\mathsf{TOTA}$, $\mathsf{Comp}$), and show how much our \EBS can improve the precision for those bootstrapping methods. We provide experimental results and thorough analysis with our \EBS, and show that \EBS is capable of bootstrapping with high precision even with small $N$, thus small key size, and small complexity than selecting large $N$ by birth.

2023

PKC

Efficient and Universally Composable Single Secret Leader Election from Pairings
Abstract

Single Secret Leader Election (SSLE) protocols allow a set of users to elect a leader among them so that the identity of the winner remains secret until she decides to reveal herself. This notion was formalized and implemented in a recent result by Boneh, et al. (ACM Advances on Financial Technology 2020) and finds important applications in the area of Proof of Stake blockchains.
In this paper we put forward new SSLE solutions that advance the state of the art both from a theoretical and a practical front. On the theoretical side we propose a new definition of SSLE in the universal composability framework. We believe this to be the right way to model security in highly concurrent contexts such as those of many blockchain related applications. Next, we propose a UC-realization of SSLE from public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) and based on the ability of distributing the PEKS key generation and encryption algorithms. Finally, we give a concrete PEKS scheme with efficient distributed algorithms for key generation and encryption and that allows us to efficiently instantiate our abstract SSLE construction.
Our resulting SSLE protocol is very efficient, does not require participants to store any state information besides their secret keys and guarantees so called on-chain efficiency:
the information to verify an election in the new block should be of size at most logarithmic in the number of participants.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient SSLE scheme achieving this property.

2023

PKC

EKE Meets Tight Security in the Universally Composable Framework
Abstract

(Asymmetric) Password-based Authenticated Key Exchange ((a)PAKE) protocols allow two parties establish a session key with a pre-shared low-entropy password. In this paper, we show how Encrypted Key Exchange (EKE) compiler [Bellovin and Merritt, S&P 1992] meets tight security in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We propose a strong 2DH variant of EKE, denoted by 2DH-EKE, and prove its tight security in the UC framework based on the CDH assumption. The efficiency of 2DH-EKE is comparable to the original EKE, with only O(\lambda) bits growth in communication (\lambda the security parameter), and two (resp., one) extra exponentiation in computation for client (resp., server).
We also develop an asymmetric PAKE scheme 2DH-aEKE from 2DH-EKE. The security reduction loss of 2DH-aEKE is N, the total number of client-server pairs. With a meta-reduction, we formally prove that such a factor N is inevitable in aPAKE. Namely, our 2DH-aEKE meets the optimal security loss. As a byproduct, we further apply our technique to PAKE protocols like SPAKE2 and PPK in the relaxed UC framework, resulting in their 2DH variants with tight security from the CDH assumption.

2023

PKC

Extendable Threshold Ring Signatures with Enhanced Anonymity
Abstract

Threshold ring signatures are digital signatures that allow $t$ parties to sign a message while hiding their identity in a larger set of $n$ users called ``ring''.
Recently, Aranha et al. [PKC 2022] introduced the notion of \emph{extendable} threshold ring signatures ($\etrs$).
$\etrs$ allow one to update, in a non-interactive manner, a threshold ring signature on a certain message so that the updated signature has a greater threshold, and/or an augmented set of potential signers.
An application of this primitive is anonymous count me in.
A first signer creates a ring signature with a sufficiently large ring announcing a proposition in the signed message. After such cause becomes \emph{public}, other parties can anonymously decide to support that proposal by producing an updated signature. Crucially, such applications rely on partial signatures being posted on a \emph{publicly accessible} bulletin board since users may not know/trust each other.
In this paper, we first point out that even if anonymous count me in was suggested as an application of $\etrs$, the anonymity notion proposed in the previous work is insufficient in many application scenarios. Indeed, the existing notion guarantees anonymity only against adversaries who just see the last signature, and are not allowed to access the ``full evolution" of an $\etrs$. This is in stark contrast with applications where partial signatures are posted in a public bulletin board.
We therefore propose stronger anonymity definitions and construct a new $\etrs$ that satisfies such definitions. Interestingly, while satisfying stronger anonymity properties, our $\etrs$ asymptotically improves on the two $\etrs$ presented in prior work [PKC 2022] in terms of both time complexity and signature size.
Our $\etrs$ relies on extendable non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proof of knowledge ($\ps$ PoK), a novel technical tool that we formalize and construct, and that may be of independent interest. We build our constructions from pairing groups under the SXDH assumption.

2023

PKC

Fine-grained Verifier NIZK and Its Applications
Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new type of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK), called Fine-grained Verifier NIZK (FV-NIZK), which provides more flexible and more fine-grained verifiability of proofs than standard NIZK that supports public verifiability and designated-verifier NIZK (DV-NIZK) that supports private verifiability. FV-NIZK has two statistically equivalent verification approaches:
-- a master verification using the master secret key msk;
-- a fine-grained verification using a derived secret key sk_d, which is derived from msk w.r.t. d (which may stand for user identity, email address, vector, etc.).
We require unbounded simulation soundness (USS) of FV-NIZK to hold, even if an adversary obtains derived secret keys sk_d with d of its choices, and define proof pseudorandomness which stipulates the pseudorandomness of proofs for adversaries that are not given any secret key.
We present two instantiations of FV-NIZK for linear subspace languages, based on the matrix decisional Diffie-Hellman (MDDH) assumption. One of the FV-NIZK instantiations is pairing-free and achieves almost tight USS and proof pseudorandomness.
We illustrate the usefulness of FV-NIZK by showing two applications and obtain the following pairing-free schemes:
-- the first almost tightly multi-challenge CCA (mCCA)-secure inner-product functional encryption (IPFE) scheme without pairings;
-- the first public-key encryption (PKE) scheme that reconciles the inherent contradictions between public verifiability and anonymity. We formalize such PKE as Fine-grained Verifiable PKE (FV-PKE), which derives a special key from the decryption secret key, such that for those who obtain the derived key, they can check the validity of ciphertexts but the anonymity is lost from their views (CCA-security still holds for them), while for others who do not get the derived key, they cannot do the validity check but the anonymity holds for them.
Our FV-PKE scheme achieves almost tight mCCA-security for adversaries who obtain the derived keys, and achieves almost tight ciphertext pseudorandomness (thus anonymity) for others who do not get any derived key.

2023

PKC

Functional Encryption against Probabilistic Queries: Definition, Construction and Applications
Abstract

Functional encryption (FE for short) can be used to calculate a function output of a message, without revealing other information about the message. There are mainly two types of security definitions for FE, exactly simulation-based security (SIM-security) and indistinguishability-based security (IND-security). The two types of security definitions both suffer from their own drawbacks: FE with SIM-security supporting all circuits cannot be constructed for unbounded number of ciphertext and/or key queries, while IND-security is sometimes not enough: there are examples where an FE scheme is IND-secure but not intuitively secure. In this paper, we present a new security definition which can avoid the drawbacks of both SIM-security and IND-security, called indistinguishability-based security against probabilistic queries (pIND-security for short), and we give an FE construction for all circuits which is secure for unbounded key/ciphertext queries under this new security definition. We prove that this new security definition is strictly between SIM-security and IND-security, and provide new applications for FE which were not known to be constructed from IND-secure or SIM-secure FE.

2023

PKC

Generic Models for Group Actions
Abstract

We define the Generic Group Action Model (GGAM), an adaptation of the Generic Group Model to the setting of group actions (such as CSIDH). Compared to a previously proposed definition by Montgomery and Zhandry (ASIACRYPT~'22), our GGAM more accurately abstracts the security properties of group actions.
We are able to prove information-theoretic lower bounds in the GGAM for the discrete logarithm assumption, as well as for non-standard assumptions recently introduced in the setting of threshold and identification schemes on group actions. Unfortunately, in a natural quantum version of the GGAM, the discrete logarithm assumption does not hold.
To this end we also introduce the weaker Quantum Algebraic Group Action Model (QAGAM), where every set element (in superposition) output by an adversary is required to have an explicit representation relative to known elements. In contrast to the Quantum Generic Group Action Model, in the QAGAM we are able to analyze the hardness of group action assumptions: We prove (among other things) the equivalence between the discrete logarithm assumption and non-standard assumptions recently introduced in the setting of QROM security for Password-Authenticated Key Exchange, Non-Interactive Key Exchange, and Public-Key Encryption.

2023

PKC

GLUE: Generalizing Unbounded Attribute-Based Encryption for Flexible Efficiency Trade-Offs
Abstract

Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption is a versatile primitive that has been considered extensively to securely manage data in practice. Especially completely unbounded schemes are attractive, because they do not restrict the sets of attributes and policies. So far, any such schemes that support negations in the access policy or that have online/offline extensions have an inefficient decryption algorithm.
In this work, we propose GLUE (Generalized, Large-universe, Unbounded and Expressive), which is a novel scheme that allows for the efficient implementation of the decryption while allowing the support of both negations and online/offline extensions. We achieve these properties simultaneously by uncovering an underlying dependency between encryption and decryption, which allows for a flexible trade-off in their efficiency. For the security proof, we devise a new technique that enables us to generalize multiple existing schemes. As a result, we obtain a completely unbounded scheme supporting negations that, to the best of our knowledge, outperforms all existing such schemes in the decryption algorithm.

2023

PKC

Hardening Signature Schemes via Derive-then-Derandomize: Stronger Security Proofs for EdDSA
Abstract

We consider a transform, called Derive-then-Derandomize, that hardens a given
signature scheme against randomness failure and implementation error.
We prove that it works. We then give a general lemma showing indifferentiability of a class of constructions that apply a shrinking output transform to an MD-style hash function.
Armed with these tools, we give new proofs for the widely standardized
and used $\EdDSA$ signature scheme, improving prior work in two ways:
(1) we give proofs for the case that the hash function is an MD-style one, reflecting the use of SHA512 in the NIST standard, and (2) we improve the tightness of the reduction so that one has guarantees for group sizes in actual use.

2023

PKC

Hull Attacks on the Lattice Isomorphism Problem
Abstract

The lattice isomorphism problem (LIP) asks one to find an isometry between two lattices. It has recently been proposed as a foundation for cryptography in two independant works [Ducas & van Worden, EUROCRYPT 2022, Bennett et al. preprint 2021]. This problem is the lattice variant of the code equivalence problem, where the notion of the hull of a code can lead to devastating attacks.
In this work we study the cryptanalytic role of an adaptation of the hull to the lattice setting, namely, the s-hull. We first show that the s-hull is not helpful for creating an arithmetic distinguisher. More specifically, the genus of the s-hull can be efficiently predicted from s and the original genus and therefore carries no extra information.
However, we also show that the hull can be helpful to geometric attacks: for certain lattices the minimal distance of the hull is relatively smaller than that of the original lattice, and this can be exploited. The attack cost remains exponential, but the constant in the exponent is halved. This second result gives a counterexample to the general hardness conjecture of LIP proposed by Ducas & van Woerden.
Our results suggests that one should be very considerate about the geometry of hulls when instantiating LIP for cryptography. They also point to unimodular lattices as attractive options, as they are equal to their dual and their hulls, leaving only the original lattice to an attacker. Remarkably, this is already the case in proposed instantiations, namely the trivial lattice Z^n and the Barnes-Wall lattices.

2023

PKC

Improved Private Set Intersection for Sets with Small Entries
Abstract

We introduce new protocols for private set intersection (PSI), building upon recent constructions of pseudorandom correlation generators, such as vector-OLE and ring-OLE. Our new constructions improve over the state of the art on several aspects, and perform especially well
in the setting where the parties have databases with small entries. We obtain three main contributions:
1. We introduce a new semi-honest PSI protocol that combines subfield vector-OLE with hash-based PSI. Our protocol is the first PSI protocol to achieve communication complexity independent of the computational security parameter κ, and has communication lower than all previous known protocols for input sizes ℓ below 70 bits.
2. We enhance the security of our protocol to the malicious setting, using two different approaches. In particular, we show that applying the dual execution technique yields a malicious PSI whose communication remains independent of κ, and improves over all known PSI protocols
for small values of ℓ.
3. As most previous protocols, our above protocols are in the random oracle model. We introduce a third protocol which relies on subfield ring-OLE to achieve maliciously secure PSI in the standard model, under the ring-LPN assumption. Our protocol enjoys extremely low communication, reasonable computation, and standard model security. Furthermore, it is batchable: the message of a client can be reused to compute the intersection of their set with that of multiple servers, yielding further reduction in the overall amortized communication.

2023

PKC

Laconic Function Evaluation for Turing Machines
Abstract

Laconic function evaluation (LFE) allows Alice to compress a large circuit C into a small digest d. Given Alice’s digest, Bob can encrypt some input x under d in a way that enables Alice to recover C(x), without learning anything beyond that. The scheme is said to be laconic if the size of d, the runtime of the encryption algorithm, and the size of the ciphertext are all sublinear in the size of C.
Until now, all known LFE constructions have ciphertexts whose size depends on the depth of the circuit C, akin to the limitation of levelled homomorphic encryption. In this work we close this gap and present the first LFE scheme (for Turing machines) with asymptotically optimal parameters. Our scheme assumes the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation and somewhere statistically binding hash functions. As further contributions, we show how our scheme enables a wide range of new applications, including two previously unknown constructions:
– Non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs with optimal prover complexity.
– Witness encryption and attribute-based encryption (ABE) for Turing machines from falsifiable assumptions.

2023

PKC

Multi-Authority ABE for Non-Monotonic Access Structures
Abstract

Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) is a cryptographic primitive which supports fine-grained access control on encrypted data, making it an appealing building block for many applications. Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption (MA-ABE) is a generalization of ABE where the central authority is distributed across several independent parties.
We provide the first MA-ABE scheme from asymmetric prime-order pairings where no trusted setup is needed and where the attribute universe of each authority is unbounded. Moreover, it is the first to handle non-monotonic access structures. These features broaden the applicability and improve the efficiency of our scheme. Our construction makes a modular use of Functional Encryption schemes with fine-grained access control.

2023

PKC

Multi-Client Inner Product Encryption: Function-Hiding Instantiations Without Random Oracles
Abstract

In a Multi-Client Functional Encryption (MCFE) scheme, n clients each obtain a secret encryption key from a trusted authority. During each time step t, each client i can encrypt its data using its secret key. The authority can use its master secret key to compute a functional key given a function f, and the functional key can be applied to a collection of n clients’ ciphertexts encrypted to the same time step, resulting in the outcome of f on the clients’ data. In this paper, we focus on MCFE for inner-product computations.
If an MCFE scheme hides not only the clients’ data, but also the function f, we say it is function hiding. Although MCFE for inner-product computation has been extensively studied, how to achieve function privacy is still poorly understood. The very recent work of Agrawal et al. showed how to construct a function-hiding MCFE scheme for inner-product assuming standard bilinear group assumptions; however, they assume the existence of a random oracle and prove only a relaxed, selective security notion. An intriguing open question is whether we can achieve function-hiding MCFE for inner-product without random oracles.
In this work, we are the first to show a function-hiding MCFE scheme for inner products, relying on standard bilinear group assumptions. Further, we prove adaptive security without the use of a random oracle. Our scheme also achieves succinct ciphertexts, that is, each coordinate in the plaintext vector encrypts to only O(1) group elements.
Our main technical contribution is a new upgrade from single-input functional encryption for inner-products to a multi-client one. Our upgrade preserves function privacy, that is, if the original single-input scheme is function-hiding, so is the resulting multi-client construction. Further, this new upgrade allows us to obtain a conceptually simple construction.

2023

PKC

Multi-Instance Secure Public-Key Encryption
Abstract

Mass surveillance targets many users at the same time with the goal of learning as much as possible. Intuitively, breaking many users’ cryptography simultaneously should be at least as hard as that of only breaking a single one, but ideally security degradation is gradual: an adversary ought to work harder to break more. Bellare, Ristenpart and Tessaro (Crypto’12) introduced the notion of multi-instance security to capture the related concept for password hashing with salts. Auerbach, Giacon and Kiltz (Eurocrypt’20) motivated the study of public key encryption (PKE) in the multi-instance setting, yet their technical results are exclusively stated in terms of key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs), leaving a considerable gap.
We investigate the multi-instance security of public key encryption. Our contributions are twofold. Firstly, we define and compare possible security notions for multi-instance PKE, where we include PKE schemes whose correctness is not perfect. Secondly, we observe that, in general, a hybrid encryption scheme of a multi-instance secure KEM and an arbitrary data encapsulation mechanism (DEM) is unlikely to inherit the KEM’s multi-instance security. Yet, we show how with a suitable information-theoretic DEM, and a computationally secure key derivation function if need be, inheritance is possible. As far as we are aware, ours is the first inheritance result in the challenging multi-bit scenario.

2023

PKC

Non-Interactive Publicly-Verifiable Delegation of Committed Programs
Abstract

In this work, we present the first construction of a fully non-interactive publicly-verifiable delegation scheme for committed programs. More specifically, we consider a setting where Alice is a trusted author who delegates to an untrusted worker the task of hosting a program $P$, represented as a Boolean circuit. Alice also commits to a succinct value based on $P$.
Any arbitrary user/verifier without knowledge of $P$ should be convinced that they are receiving from the worker an actual computation of Alice's program on a given input $x$.
Before our work, the only object known to imply this challenging form of delegation was a SNARG/SNARK for $\mathcal{NP}$. This is because from the point of view of the user/verifier, the program $P$ is an unknown witness to the computation. However, constructing a SNARG for
$\mathcal{NP}$ from standard assumptions remains a major open problem.
In our work, we show how to achieve delegation in this challenging context assuming only the hardness of the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption, bypassing the apparent need for a SNARG for $\mathcal{NP}$.

2023

PKC

On Homomorphic Secret Sharing from Polynomial-Modulus LWE
Abstract

Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) is a form of secret sharing that supports the local evaluation of functions on the shares, with applications to multi-server private information retrieval, secure computation, and more.
Insisting on additive reconstruction, all known instantiations of HSS from "Learning with Error (LWE)"-type assumptions either have to rely on LWE with superpolynomial modulus, come with non-negligible error probability, and/or have to perform expensive ciphertext multiplications, resulting in bad concrete efficiency.
In this work, we present a new 2-party local share conversion procedure, which allows to locally convert noise encoded shares to non-noise plaintext shares such that the parties can detect whenever a (potential) error occurs and in that case resort to an alternative conversion procedure.
Building on this technique, we present the first HSS for branching programs from (Ring-)LWE with polynomial input share size which can make use of the efficient multiplication procedure of Boyle et al. (Eurocrypt 2019) and and has no correctness error. Our construction comes at the cost of a - on expectation - slightly increased output share size (which is insignificant compared to the input share size) and a more involved reconstruction procedure.
More concretely, we show that in the setting of 2-server private information retrieval we can choose ciphertext sizes of only a quarter of the size of the scheme of Boyle et al. at essentially no extra cost.

2023

PKC

Pattern Matching in Encrypted Stream from Inner Product Encryption
Abstract

Functional encryption features secret keys, each associated with a key function f, which allow to directly recover f(x) from an encryption of x, without learning anything more about x. This property is particularly useful when delegating data processing to a third party as it allows the latter to perfom its task while ensuring minimum data leakage. However, this generic term conceals a great diversity in the cryptographic constructions that strongly differ according to the functions f they support.
A recent series of works has focused on the ability to search a pattern within a data stream, which can be expressed as a function f. One of the conclusions of these works was that this function f was not supported by the current state-of-the-art, which incited their authors to propose a new primitive called Stream Encryption supporting Pattern Matching (SEPM). Some concrete constructions were proposed but with some limitations such as selective security or reliance on non-standard assumptions.
In this paper, we revisit the relations between this primitive and two major subclasses of functional encryption, namely Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE) and Inner Product Encryption (IPE). We indeed first exhibit a generic transformation from HVE to SEPM, which immediately yields new efficient SEPM constructions with better features than existing ones. We then revisit the relations between HVE and IPE and show that we can actually do better than the transformation proposed by Katz, Sahai and Waters in their seminal paper on predicate encryption. This allows to fully leverage the vast state-of-the-art on IPE which contains adaptively secure constructions proven under standard assumptions. This results in countless new SEPM constructions, with all the features one can wish for. Beyond that, we believe that our work sheds a new light on the relations between IPE schemes and HVE schemes and in particular shows that some of the former are more suitable to construct the latter.

2023

PKC

POLKA: Towards Leakage-Resistant Post-Quantum CCA-Secure Public Key Encryption
Abstract

As for any cryptographic algorithm, the deployment of post-quantum CCA-secure public key encryption schemes may come with the need to be protected against side-channel attacks. For existing post-quantum schemes that have not been developed with leakage in mind, recent results showed that the cost of these protections can make their implementations more expensive by orders of magnitude. In this paper, we describe a new design, coined POLKA, that is specifically tailored for this purpose. It leverages various ingredients in order to enable efficient side-channel protected implementations such as: (i) the rigidity property (which intuitively means that de-randomized encryption and decryption are injective functions) to avoid the very leaky re-encryption step of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform, (ii) the randomization of the decryption thanks to the incorporation of a dummy ciphertext, removing the adversary's control of its intermediate computations and making these computations ephemeral, (iii) key-homomorphic computations that can be masked against side-channel attacks with overheads that scale linearly in the number of shares, (iv) hard physical learning problem to argue about the security of some critical unmasked operations. Furthermore, we use an explicit rejection mechanism (returning an error symbol for invalid ciphertexts) to avoid the additional leakage caused by implicit rejection. As a result, all the operations of POLKA can be protected against leakage in a much cheaper way than state-of-the-art designs, opening the way towards schemes that are both quantum-safe and leakage-resistant.

2023

PKC

Post-Quantum Anonymity of Kyber
Abstract

Kyber is a key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) that was recently selected by NIST in its PQC standardization process; it is also the only scheme to be selected in the context of public-key encryption (PKE) and key establishment. The main security target for KEMs, and their associated PKE schemes, in the NIST PQC context has been IND-CCA security. However, some important modern applications also require their underlying KEMs/PKE schemes to provide anonymity (Bellare et al., ASIACRYPT 2001). Examples of such applications include anonymous credential systems, cryptocurrencies, broadcast encryption schemes, authenticated key exchange, and auction protocols. It is hence important to analyze the compatibility of NIST's new PQC standard in such "beyond IND-CCA" applications.
Some starting steps were taken by Grubbs et al. (EUROCRYPT 2022) and Xagawa (EUROCRYPT 2022) wherein they studied the anonymity properties of most NIST PQC third round candidate KEMs. Unfortunately, they were unable to show the anonymity of Kyber because of certain technical barriers.
In this paper, we overcome said barriers and resolve the open problems posed by Grubbs et al.(EUROCRYPT 2022) and Xagawa (EUROCRYPT 2022) by establishing the anonymity of Kyber, and the (hybrid) PKE schemes derived from it, in a post-quantum setting. Along the way, we also provide an approach to obtain tight IND-CCA security proofs for Kyber with concrete bounds; this resolves another issue identified by the aforementioned works related to the post-quantum IND-CCA security claims of Kyber from a provable security point-of-view. Our results also extend to Saber, a NIST PQC third round finalist, in a similar fashion.

2023

PKC

Private Polynomial Commitments and Applications to MPC
Abstract

Polynomial commitment schemes allow a prover to commit to a polynomial and later reveal the evaluation of the polynomial on an arbitrary point along with proof of validity. This object is central in the design of many cryptographic schemes such as zero-knowledge proofs and verifiable secret sharing. In the standard definition, the polynomial is known to the prover whereas the evaluation points are not private. In this paper, we put forward the notion of \emph{private polynomial commitments} that capture additional privacy guarantees, where the evaluation points are hidden from the verifier while the polynomial is hidden from both.
We provide concretely efficient constructions that allow simultaneously batch the verification of many evaluations with a small additive overhead. As an application, we design a new concretely efficient multi-party private set-intersection with malicious security and improved asymptotic communication and space complexities.
We demonstrate the concrete efficiency of our construction via an implementation. Our scheme can prove $2^{10}$ evaluations of a private polynomial of degree $2^{10}$ in 157s. The proof size is only 169KB and the verification time is 11.8s. Moreover, we also implemented the multi-party private set intersection protocol and scale it to 1000 parties (which has not been shown before). The total running time for $2^{14}$ elements per party is 2,410 seconds. While existing protocols offer better computational complexity, our scheme offers significantly smaller communication and better scalability (in the number of parties) owing to better memory usage.

2023

PKC

Pseudorandom Correlation Functions from Variable-Density LPN, Revisited
Abstract

Pseudorandom correlation functions (PCF), introduced in the work of (Boyle et al., FOCS 2020), allow two parties to locally generate, from short correlated keys, a near-unbounded amount of pseudorandom samples from a target correlation. PCF is an extremely appealing primitive in secure computation, where they allow to confine all preprocessing phases of all future computations two parties could want to execute to a single short interaction with low communication and computation, followed solely by offline computations. Beyond introducing the notion, Boyle et al. gave a candidate construction, using a new variable-density} variant of the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption. Then, to provide support for this new assumption, the authors showed that it provably resists a large class of linear attacks, which captures in particular all known attacks on LPN.
In this work, we revisit the analysis of the VDLPN assumption. We make two key contributions:
- First, we observe that the analysis of Boyle et al is purely asymptotic: they do not lead to any concrete and efficient PCF instantiation within the bounds that offer security guarantees. To improve this state of affairs, we combine a new variant of a VDLPN assumption with an entirely new, much tighter security analysis, which we further tighten using extensive computer simulations to optimize parameters. This way, we manage to obtain for the first time a set of provable usable parameters (under a simple combinatorial conjecture which is easy to verify experimentally), leading to a concretely efficient PCF resisting all linear tests.
- Second, we identify a flaw in the security analysis of Boyle et al., which invalidates their proof that VDLPN resists linear attacks. Using several new non-trivial arguments, we repair the proof and fully demonstrate that VDLPN resists linear attack; our new analysis is more involved than the original (flawed) analysis.
Our parameters set leads to PCFs with keys around 3MB allowing ~ 500 evaluations per second on one core of a standard laptop for 110 bits of security; these numbers can be improved to 360kB keys and ~ 3800 evaluations/s using a more aggressive all-prefix variant. All numbers are quite tight: only within a factor 3 of the best bounds one could heuristically hope for.

2023

PKC

QCCA-Secure Generic Transformations in the Quantum Random Oracle Model
Abstract

The post-quantum security of cryptographic schemes assumes that the quantum adversary only receives the classical result of computations with the secret key. Further, it is unknown whether the post-quantum secure schemes still remain secure if the adversary can obtain a superposition state of the results.
In this paper, we formalize one class of public-key encryption schemes named oracle-masked schemes. Then we define the plaintext extraction procedure for those schemes and this procedure simulates the quantum-accessible decryption oracle with a certain loss.
The construction of the plaintext extraction procedure does not need to take the secret key as input. Based on this property, we prove the IND-qCCA security of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformation in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) and our security proof is tighter than the proof given by Zhandry (Crypto 2019). We also give the first IND-qCCA security proof of the REACT transformation in the QROM. Furthermore, our formalization can be applied to prove the IND-qCCA security of key encapsulation mechanisms with explicit rejection. As an example, we present the IND-qCCA security proof of TCH transformation, proposed by Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay (Eurocrypt 2022), in the QROM.

2023

PKC

Round-Optimal Oblivious Transfer and MPC from Computational CSIDH
Abstract

We present the first round-optimal and plausibly quantum-safe oblivious transfer (OT) and multi-party computation (MPC) protocols from the computational CSIDH assumption - the weakest and most widely studied assumption in the CSIDH family of isogeny-based assumptions. We obtain the following results:
- The first round-optimal maliciously secure OT and MPC protocols in the plain model that achieve (black-box) simulation-based security while relying on the computational CSIDH assumption.
- The first round-optimal maliciously secure OT and MPC protocols that achieves Universal Composability (UC) security in the presence of a trusted setup (common reference string plus random oracle) while relying on the computational CSIDH assumption.
Prior plausibly quantum-safe isogeny-based OT protocols (with/without setup assumptions) are either not round-optimal, or rely on potentially stronger assumptions.
We also build a 3-round maliciously-secure OT extension protocol where each base OT protocol requires only 4 isogeny computations. In comparison, the most efficient isogeny-based OT extension protocol till date due to Lai et al. [Eurocrypt 2021] requires 12 isogeny computations and 4 rounds of communication, while relying on the same assumption as our construction, namely the reciprocal CSIDH assumption.

2023

PKC

SCALLOP: scaling the CSI-FiSh
Abstract

We present SCALLOP: SCALable isogeny action based on Oriented supersingular curves with Prime conductor, a new group action based on isogenies of supersingular curves. Similarly to CSIDH and OSIDH, we use the group action of an imaginary quadratic order's class group on the set of oriented supersingular curves.
Compared to CSIDH, the main benefit of our construction is that it is easy to compute the class-group structure; this data is required to uniquely represent - and efficiently act by - arbitrary group elements, which is a requirement in, e.g., the CSI-FiSh signature scheme by Beullens, Kleinjung and Vercauteren. The index-calculus algorithm used in CSI-FiSh to compute the class-group structure has complexity $L(1/2)$, ruling out class groups much larger than CSIDH-512, a limitation that is particularly problematic in light of the ongoing debate regarding the quantum security of cryptographic group actions.
Hoping to solve this issue, we consider the class group of a quadratic order of large prime conductor inside an imaginary quadratic field of small discriminant. This family of quadratic orders lets us easily determine the size of the class group, and, by carefully choosing the conductor, even exercise significant control on it - in particular supporting highly smooth choices. Although evaluating the resulting group action still has subexponential asymptotic complexity, a careful choice of parameters leads to a practical speedup that we demonstrate in practice for a security level equivalent to CSIDH-1024, a parameter currently firmly out of reach of index-calculus-based methods. However, our implementation takes 35 seconds (resp. 12.5 minutes) for a single group-action evaluation at a CSIDH-512-equivalent (resp. CSIDH-1024-equivalent) security level, showing that, while feasible, the SCALLOP group action does not achieve realistically usable performance yet.

2023

PKC

Security Analysis of RSA-BSSA
Abstract

In a blind signature scheme, a user can obtain a digital signature on a message of her choice without revealing anything about the message or the resulting signature to the signer. Blind signature schemes have recently found applications for privacy-preserving web browsing and ad ecosystems, and as such, are ripe for standardization. In this paper, we show that the recent proposed standard of Denis, Jacobs and Wood constitutes a strongly one-more-unforgeable blind signature scheme in the random-oracle model under the one-more-RSA assumption. Further, we show that the blind version of RSA-FDH proposed and analyzed by Bellare, Namprempre, Pointcheval and Semanko does not satisfy blindness when the public key is chosen maliciously, but satisfies a weaker notion of a blind token.

2023

PKC

Sender-binding Key Encapsulation
Abstract

Secure communication is gained by combining encryption with authentication. In real-world applications encryption commonly takes the form of KEM-DEM hybrid encryption, which is combined with ideal authentication. The pivotal question is how weak the employed key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is allowed to be to still yield universally composable (UC) secure communication when paired with symmetric encryption and ideal authentication. This question has so far been addressed for public-key encryption (PKE) only, showing that encryption does not
need to be stronger than sender-binding CPA, which binds the CPA secure ciphertext non-malleably to the sender ID. For hybrid encryption, prior research unanimously reaches for CCA2 secure encryption which is unnecessarily strong. Answering this research question is vital to develop more efficient and feasible protocols for real-world secure communication and thus enable more communication to be conducted securely.
We use ideas from the PKE setting to develop new answers for hybrid encryption in this paper. This allows us to develop a new and significantly weaker security notion—sender-binding CPA for KEMs—which is still strong enough for secure communication. By using game-based notions as building blocks, we attain secure communication in the form of ideal functionalities with proofs in the UC-framework. Secure communication is reached in both the classic as well as session context by adding authentication and one-time and replayable CCA secure symmetric encryption respectively. We furthermore provide an efficient post-quantum secure LWE-based construction in the standard model giving a first indication of the real-world benefit resulting from our new security notion. Overall we manage to make significant progress on discovering the minimal security requirements for hybrid encryption components to facilitate secure communication.

2023

PKC

Simple, Fast, Efficient, and Tightly-Secure Non-Malleable Non-Interactive Timed Commitments
Abstract

Timed commitment schemes, introduced by Boneh and Naor (CRYPTO 2000), can be used to achieve fairness in secure computation protocols in a simple and elegant way. The only known non-malleable construction in the standard model is due to Katz, Loss, and Xu (TCC 2020). This construction requires general-purpose zero knowledge proofs with specific properties, and it suffers from an inefficient commitment protocol, which requires the committing party to solve a computationally expensive puzzle.
We propose new constructions of non-malleable non-interactive timed commitments, which combine (an extension of) the Naor-Yung paradigm used to construct IND-CCA secure encryption with a non-interactive ZK proof for a simple algebraic language. This yields much simpler and more efficient non-malleable timed commitments in the standard model.
Furthermore, our constructions also compare favourably to known constructions of timed commitments in the random oracle model, as they achieve several further interesting properties that make the schemes very practical. This includes the possibility of using a homomorphism for the forced opening of multiple commitments in the sense of Malavolta and Thyagarajan (CRYPTO 2019), and they are the first constructions to achieve public verifiability, which seems particularly useful to apply the homomorphism in practical applications.

2023

PKC

Structure-Preserving Compilers from New Notions of Obfuscations
Abstract

The dream of software obfuscation is to take programs, as they are, and then generically compile them into obfuscated versions that hide their secret inner workings. In this work we investigate notions of obfuscations weaker than virtual black-box (VBB) but which still allow obfuscating cryptographic primitives preserving their original functionalities as much as possible.
In particular we propose two new notions of obfuscations, which we call oracle-differing-input obfuscation (odiO) and oracle-indistinguishability obfuscation (oiO). In a nutshell, odiO is a natural strengthening of differing-input obfuscation (diO) and allows obfuscating programs for which it is hard to find a differing-input when given only oracle access to the programs. An oiO obfuscator allows to obfuscate programs that are hard to distinguish when treated as oracles.
We then show applications of these notions, as well as positive and negative results around them. A few highlights include:
– Our new notions are weaker than VBB and stronger than diO.
– As it is the case for VBB, we show that there exist programs that
cannot be obfuscated with odiO or oiO.
– Our new notions allow to generically compile several flavours of
secret-key primitives (e.g., SKE, MAC, designated verifier NIZK) into their public-key equivalent (e.g., PKE, signatures, publicly verifiable NIZK) while preserving one of the algorithms of the original scheme (function-preserving), or the structure of their outputs (format-preserving).

2023

PKC

The Hidden Number Problem with Small Unknown Multipliers: Cryptanalyzing MEGA in Six Queries and Other Applications
Abstract

In recent work, Backendal, Haller, and Paterson identified several exploitable vulnerabilities in the cloud storage provider MEGA. They demonstrated an RSA key recovery attack in which a malicious server could recover a client's private RSA key after 512 client login attempts. We show how to exploit additional information revealed by MEGA's protocol vulnerabilities to give an attack that requires only six client logins to recover the secret key.
Our optimized attack combines several cryptanalytic techniques. In particular, we formulate and give a solution to a variant of the hidden number problem with small unknown multipliers, which may be of independent interest. We show that our lattice construction for this problem can be used to give improved results for the implicit factorization problem of May and Ritzenhofen.

2023

PKC

Threshold Private Set Intersection with Better Communication Complexity
Abstract

Given $\ell$ parties with sets $X_1, \dots, X_\ell$ of size $n$, we would like to securely compute the intersection $\cap_{i=1}^\ell X_i$, if it is larger than $n-t$ for some threshold $t$, without revealing any other additional information.
It has previously been shown (Ghosh and Simkin, Crypto 2019) that this function can be securely computed with a communication complexity that only depends on $t$ and in particular does not depend on $n$.
For small values of $t$, this results in protocols that have a communication complexity that is sublinear in the size of the inputs.
Current protocols either rely on fully homomorphic encryption or have an at least quadratic dependency on the parameter $t$.
In this work, we construct protocols with a quasilinear dependency on $t$ from simple assumptions like additively homomorphic encryption and oblivious transfer.
All existing approaches, including ours, rely on protocols for computing a single bit, which indicates whether the intersection is larger than $n-t$ without actually computing it.
Our key technical contribution, which may be of independent interest, takes any such protocol with secret shared outputs and communication complexity $\mathcal{O}(\lambda \ell \mathsf{poly}(t))$, where $\lambda$ is the security parameter, and transforms it into a protocol with communication complexity $\mathcal{O}(\lambda^2 \ell t \mathsf{polylog}(t))$.

2023

PKC

Tracing a Linear Subspace: Application to Linearly-Homomorphic Group Signatures
Abstract

When multiple users have power or rights, there is always the risk of corruption or abuse. Whereas there is no solution to avoid those malicious behaviors, from the users themselves or from external adversaries, one can strongly deter them with tracing capabilities that will later help to revoke the rights or negatively impact the reputation. On the other hand, privacy is an important issue in many applications, which seems in contradiction with traceability.
In this paper, we first extend usual tracing techniques based on codes so that not just one contributor can be traced but the full collusion. In a second step, we embed suitable codes into a set~$\mathcal V$ of vectors in such a way that, given a vector~$\mathbf U \in \mathsf{span}(\mathcal V)$, the underlying code can be used to efficiently find a minimal subset~$\mathcal X \subseteq \mathcal V$ such that~$\mathbf U \in \mathsf{span}(\mathcal X)$.
To meet privacy requirements, we then make the vectors of~$\mathsf{span}(\cV)$ anonymous while keeping the efficient tracing mechanism. As an interesting application, we formally define the notion of linearly-homomorphic group signatures and propose a construction from our codes: multiple signatures can be combined to sign any linear subspace in an anonymous way, but a tracing authority is able to trace back all the contributors involved in the signatures of that subspace.

2023

PKC

Transparent Batchable Time-lock Puzzles and Applications to Byzantine Consensus
Abstract

Time-lock puzzles (TLP) are a fascinating type of cryptographic problem that is easy to generate, but takes a certain time to solve, even when arbitrary parallel speedup is allowed. TLPs have wide-ranging applications including fairness, round efficient computation, and more. To reduce the effort needed to solve large numbers of TLPs, prior work has proposed batching techniques to reduce the cost of solving. However, these proposals either require: (1) a trusted setup or (2) the puzzle size be linear in the maximum batch size, which implies setting an a priori bound on the maximum size of the batch. Any of these limitations restrict the utility of TLPs in decentralized and dynamic settings like permissionless blockchains. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of a TLP that overcomes all the above limitations using indistinguishability obfuscation to show that there are no fundamental barriers to achieving such a TLP construction.
As a main application of our TLP, we show how to improve the resilience of consensus protocols toward network-level adversaries in the following settings: (1) We show a generic compiler that boosts the resilience of a Byzantine broadcast protocol $\Pi$ as follows: if $\Pi$ is secure against $t<n$ weakly adaptive corruptions, then the compiled protocol is secure against $t<n$ strongly adaptive corruptions. Here, `strong' refers to adaptively corrupting a party and deleting messages that it sent while still honest. Our compiler is round and communication preserving, and gives the first expected constant-round Byzantine broadcast protocol against a strongly adaptive adversary for the dishonest majority setting. (2) We adapt the Nakamoto consensus protocol to a weak model of synchrony where the adversary can adaptively create minority partitions in the network. Unlike prior works, we do not assume that all honest messages are delivered within a known upper bound on the message delay. This is the first work to show that it is possible to achieve consensus in the permissionless setting even after relaxing the standard synchrony assumption.

2023

PKC

Unidirectional Updatable Encryption and Proxy Re-encryption from DDH
Abstract

Updatable Encryption (UE) and Proxy Re-encryption (PRE) allow re-encrypting a ciphertext from one key to another in the symmetric-key and public-key settings, respectively, without decryption. A longstanding open question has been the following: do unidirectional UE and PRE schemes (where ciphertext re-encryption is permitted in only one direction) necessarily require stronger/more structured assumptions as compared to their bidirectional counterparts? Known constructions of UE and PRE seem to exemplify this "gap" -- while bidirectional schemes can be realized as relatively simple extensions of public-key encryption from standard assumptions such as DDH or LWE, unidirectional schemes typically rely on stronger assumptions such as FHE or indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), or highly structured cryptographic tools such as bilinear maps or lattice trapdoors.
In this paper, we bridge this gap by showing the first feasibility results for realizing unidirectional UE and PRE from a new generic primitive that we call Key and Plaintext Homomorphic Encryption (KPHE) -- a public-key encryption scheme that supports additive homomorphisms on its plaintext and key spaces simultaneously. We show that KPHE can be instantiated from DDH. This yields the first constructions of unidirectional UE and PRE from DDH.
Our constructions achieve the strongest notions of post-compromise security in the standard model. Our UE schemes also achieve "backwards-leak directionality" of key updates (a notion we discuss is equivalent, from a security perspective, to that of unidirectionality with no-key updates).
Our results establish (somewhat surprisingly) that unidirectional UE and PRE schemes satisfying such strong security notions do not, in fact, require stronger/more structured cryptographic assumptions as compared to bidirectional schemes.

2023

PKC

Verifiable Capacity-bound Functions: A New Primitive from Kolmogorov Complexity (Revisiting space-based security in the adaptive setting)
Abstract

We initiate the study of verifiable capacity-bound function (VCBF). The main VCBF property imposes a strict lower bound on the number of bits read from memory during evaluation (referred to as minimum capacity). No adversary, even with unbounded computational resources, should produce an output without spending this minimum memory capacity. Moreover, a VCBF allows for an efficient public verification process: Given a proof-of-correctness, checking the validity of the output takes significantly fewer memory resources, sublinear in the target minimum capacity. Finally, it achieves soundness, i.e., no computationally bounded adversary can produce a proof that passes verification for a false output. With these properties, we believe a VCBF can be viewed as a “space” analog of a verifiable delay function. We then propose the first VCBF construction relying on evaluating a degree-$d$ polynomial $f$ from $F_p[x]$ at a random point. We leverage ideas from Kolmogorov complexity to prove that sampling $f$ from a large set (i.e., for high-enough d) ensures that evaluation must entail reading a number of bits proportional to the size of its coefficients. Moreover, our construction benefits from existing verifiable polynomial evaluation schemes to realize our efficient verification requirements. In practice, for a field of order $O(2^\lambda)$ our VCBF achieves $O((d + 1)\lambda)$ minimum capacity, whereas verification requires just $O(\lambda)$. The minimum capacity of our VCBF construction holds against adversaries that perform a constant number of random memory accesses during evaluation. This poses the natural question of whether a VCBF with high minimum capacity guarantees exists when dealing with adversaries that perform non-constant (e.g., polynomial) number of random accesses.

2023

PKC

Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Subverted RSA Groups
Abstract

This work investigates zero-knowledge protocols in subverted RSA groups where the prover can choose the modulus and where the verifier does not know the group order. We introduce a novel technique for extracting the witness from a general homomorphism over a group of unknown order that does not require parallel repetitions. We then present a NIZK range proof for general homomorphisms as Paillier encryptions in the designated verifier model that works under a subverted setup. The key ingredient of our proof is a constant sized NIZK proof of knowledge for a plaintext. Security is proven in the ROM assuming an IND-CPA additively homomorphic encryption scheme. The verifier's public key can be maliciously generated and is reusable and linear in the number of proofs to be verified.