International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

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Papers from ASIACRYPT 2021

Year
Venue
Title
2021
ASIACRYPT
Generic Framework for Key-Guessing Improvements
We propose a general technique to improve the key-guessing step of several attacks on block ciphers. This is achieved by defining and studying some new properties of the associated S-boxes and by representing them as a special type of decision trees that are crucial for finding fine-grained guessing strategies for various attack vectors. We have proposed and implemented the algorithm that efficiently finds such trees, and use it for providing several applications of this approach, which include the best known attacks on NOKEON, GIFT, and RECTANGLE.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Systematic Approach and Analysis of Key Mismatch Attacks on Lattice-Based NIST Candidate KEMs
Research on key mismatch attacks against lattice-based KEMs is an important part of the cryptographic assessment of the ongoing NIST standardization of post-quantum cryptography. There have been a number of these attacks to date. However, a unified method to evaluate these KEMs' resilience under key mismatch attacks is still missing. Since the key index of efficiency is the number of queries needed to successfully mount such an attack, in this paper, we propose and develop a systematic approach to find lower bounds on the minimum average number of queries needed for such attacks. Our basic idea is to transform the problem of finding the lower bound of queries into finding an optimal binary recovery tree (BRT), where the computations of the lower bounds become essentially the computations of a certain Shannon entropy. The optimal BRT approach also enables us to understand why, for some lattice-based NIST candidate KEMs, there is a big gap between the theoretical bounds and bounds observed in practical attacks, in terms of the number of queries needed. This further leads us to propose a generic improvement method for these existing attacks, which are confirmed by our experiments. Moreover, our proposed method could be directly used to improve the side-channel attacks against CCA-secure NIST candidate KEMs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
DEFAULT: Cipher Level Resistance Against Differential Fault Attack
Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) is a well known cryptanalytic technique that exploits faulty outputs of an encryption device. Despite its popularity and similarity with the classical Differential Analysis (DA), a thorough analysis explaining DFA from a designer's point of view is missing in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, no DFA immune cipher at an algorithmic level has been proposed so far. Furthermore, all known DFA countermeasures somehow depend on the device/protocol or on the implementation such as duplication/comparison. As all of these are outside the scope of the cipher designer, we focus on designing a primitive which can protect from DFA on its own. We present the first concept of cipher level DFA resistance which does not rely on any device/protocol related assumption, nor does it depend on any form of duplication. Our construction is simple, software/hardware friendly and DFA security scales up with the state size. It can be plugged before and/or after (almost) any symmetric key cipher and will ensure a non-trivial search complexity against DFA. One key component in our DFA protection layer is an SBox with linear structures. Such SBoxes have never been used in cipher design as they generally perform poorly against differential attacks. We argue that they in fact represent an interesting trade-off between good cryptographic properties and DFA resistance. As a proof of concept, we construct a DFA protecting layer, named DEFAULT-LAYER, as well as a full-fledged block cipher DEFAULT. Our solutions compare favourably to the state-of-the-art, offering advantages over the sophisticated duplication based solutions like impeccable circuits/CRAFT or infective countermeasures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Massive Superpoly Recovery with Nested Monomial Predictions
Determining the exact algebraic structure or some partial information of the superpoly for a given cube is a necessary step in the cube attack -- a generic cryptanalytic technique for symmetric-key primitives with some secret and public tweakable inputs. Currently, the division property based approach is the most powerful tool for exact superpoly recovery. However, as the algebraic normal form (ANF) of the targeted output bit gets increasingly complicated as the number of rounds grows, existing methods for superpoly recovery quickly hit their bottlenecks. For example, previous method stuck at round 842, 190, and 892 for \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium, respectively. In this paper, we propose a new framework for recovering the exact ANFs of massive superpolies based on the monomial prediction technique (ASIACRYPT 2020, an alternative language for the division property). In this framework, the targeted output bit is first expressed as a polynomial of the bits of some intermediate states. For each term appearing in the polynomial, the monomial prediction technique is applied to determine its superpoly if the corresponding MILP model can be solved within a preset time limit. Terms unresolved within the time limit are further expanded as polynomials of the bits of some deeper intermediate states with symbolic computation, whose terms are again processed with monomial predictions. The above procedure is iterated until all terms are resolved. Finally, all the sub-superpolies are collected and assembled into the superpoly of the targeted bit. We apply the new framework to \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium. As a result, the exact ANFs of the superpolies for 843-, 844- and 845-round \trivium, 191-round \grain and 894-round \kreyvium are recovered. Moreover, with help of the M\"{o}bius transform, we present a novel key-recovery technique based on superpolies involving \textit{all} key bits by exploiting the sparse structures, which leads to the best key-recovery attacks on the targets considered.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Gentry-Wichs Is Tight: A Falsifiable Non-Adaptively Sound SNARG
By the impossibility result of Gentry and Wichs, non-falsifiable assumptions are needed to construct (even non-zero-knowledge) adaptively sound succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) for hard languages. It is important to understand whether this impossibility result is tight. While it is known how to construct adaptively sound non-succinct non-interactive arguments for $\mathsf{NP}$ from falsifiable assumptions, adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{NP}$ from non-falsifiable assumptions, and adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{P}$ from falsifiable assumptions, there are no known non-adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{NP}$ from falsifiable assumptions. We show that Gentry-Wichs is tight by constructing the latter. In addition, we prove it is non-adaptively knowledge-sound in the algebraic group model and Sub-ZK (i.e., zero-knowledge even if the CRS is subverted) under a non-falsifiable assumption.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Fine-tuning the ISO/IEC Standard LightMAC
LightMAC, by Luykx et al., is a block cipher based message authentication code (MAC). The simplicity of design and low overhead allows it to have very compact implementations. As a result, it has been recently chosen as an ISO/IEC standard MAC for lightweight applications. LightMAC has been shown to achieve query-length independent security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ when instantiated with two independently keyed $n$-bit block ciphers, where $q$ denotes the number of MAC queries and the query-length is upper bounded by $(n-s)2^s$ bits for a fixed counter size $s$. In this paper, we aim to minimize the number of block cipher keys in LightMAC. First, we show that the original LightMAC instantiated with a single block cipher key, referred as 1k-LightMAC, achieves security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ while the query-length is at least $(n-s)$ bits and at most $(n-s)\min\{2^{n/4},2^s\}$ bits. Second, we show that a minor variant of 1k-LightMAC, dubbed as LightMAC-ds, achieves security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ while query-length is upper bounded by $(n-s)2^{s-1}$ bits. Of independent interest, our security proof of 1k-LightMAC employs a novel sampling approach, called the reset-sampling, as a subroutine within the H-coefficient proof setup.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Gladius: LWR based efficient hybrid public key encryption with distributed decryption
Standard hybrid encryption schemes based on the KEM-DEM framework are hard to implement efficiently in a distributed manner whilst maintaining the CCA security property of the scheme. This is because the DEM needs to be decrypted under the key encapsulated by the KEM, before the whole ciphertext is declared valid. In this paper we present a new variant of the KEM-DEM framework, closely related to Tag-KEMs, which sidesteps this issue. We then present a post-quantum KEM for this framework based on Learning-with-Rounding, which is designed specifically to have fast distributed decryption. Our combined construction of a hybrid encryption scheme with Learning-with-Rounding based KEM, called Gladius, is closely related to the NIST Round 3 candidate called Saber. Finally, we give a prototype distributed implementation that achieves a decapsulation time of 4.99 seconds for three parties.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Public Key Encryption with Flexible Pattern Matching
Many interesting applications of pattern matching (e.g. deep-packet inspection or medical data analysis) target very sensitive data. In particular, spotting illegal behaviour in internet traffic conflicts with legitimate privacy requirements, which usually forces users (e.g. children, employees) to blindly trust an entity that fully decrypts their traffic in the name of security. The compromise between traffic analysis and privacy can be achieved through searchable encryption. However, as the traffic data is a stream and as the patterns to search are bound to evolve over time (e.g. new virus signatures), these applications require a kind of searchable encryption that provides more flexibility than the classical schemes. We indeed need to be able to search for patterns of variable sizes in an arbitrary long stream that has potentially been encrypted prior to pattern identification. To stress these specificities, we call such a scheme a stream encryption supporting pattern matching. Recent papers use bilinear groups to provide public key constructions supporting these features. These solutions are lighter than more generic ones (e.g. fully homomorphic encryption) while retaining the adequate expressivity to support pattern matching without harming privacy more than needed. However, all existing solutions in this family have weaknesses with respect to efficiency and security that need to be addressed. Regarding efficiency, their public key has a size linear in the size of the alphabet, which can be quite large, in particular for applications that naturally process data as bytestrings. Regarding security, they all rely on a very strong computational assumption that is both interactive and specially tailored for this kind of scheme. In this paper, we tackle these problems by providing two new constructions using bilinear groups to support pattern matching on encrypted streams. Our first construction shares the same strong assumption but dramatically reduces the size of the public key by removing the dependency on the size of the alphabet, while nearly halving the size of the ciphertext. On a typical application with large patterns, our public key is two order of magnitude smaller that the one of previous schemes, which demonstrates the practicality of our approach. Our second construction manages to retain most of the good features of the first one while exclusively relying on a simple (static) variant of DDH, which solves the security problem of previous works.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic Attacks on Rasta and Dasta Using Low-Degree Equations
Rasta and Dasta are two fully homomorphic encryption friendly symmetric-key primitives proposed at CRYPTO 2018 and ToSC 2020, respectively. We point out that the designers of Rasta and Dasta neglected an important property of the $\chi$ operation. Combined with the special structure of Rasta and Dasta, this property directly leads to significantly improved algebraic cryptanalysis. Especially, it enables us to theoretically break 2 out of 3 instances of full Agrasta, which is the aggressive version of Rasta with the block size only slightly larger than the security level in bits. We further reveal that Dasta is more vulnerable against our attacks than Rasta for its usage of a linear layer composed of an ever-changing bit permutation and a deterministic linear transform. Based on our cryptanalysis, the security margins of Dasta and Rasta parameterized with $(n,\kappa,r)\in\{(327,80,4),(1877,128,4),(3545,256,5)\}$ are reduced to only 1 round, where $n$, $\kappa$ and $r$ denote the block size, the claimed security level and the number of rounds, respectively. These parameters are of particular interest as the corresponding ANDdepth is the lowest among those that can be implemented in reasonable time and target the same claimed security level.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Generalized Channels from Limited Blockchain Scripts and Adaptor Signatures
Decentralized and permissionless ledgers offer an inherently low transaction rate, as a result of their consensus protocol demanding the storage of each transaction on-chain. A prominent proposal to tackle this scalability issue is to utilize off-chain protocols, where parties only need to post a limited number of transactions on-chain. Existing solutions can roughly be categorized into: (i) application-specific channels (e.g., payment channels), offering strictly weaker functionality than the underlying blockchain; and (ii) state channels, supporting arbitrary smart contracts at the cost of being compatible only with the few blockchains having Turing-complete scripting languages (e.g., Ethereum). In this work, we introduce and formalize the notion of generalized channels allowing users to perform any operation supported by the underlying blockchain in an off-chain manner. Generalized channels thus extend the functionality of payment channels and relax the definition of state channels. We present a concrete construction compatible with any blockchain supporting transaction authorization, time-locks and constant number of Boolean and and or operations -- requirements fulfilled by many (non-Turing-complete) blockchains including the popular Bitcoin. To this end, we leverage adaptor signatures -- a cryptographic primitive already used in the cryptocurrency literature but formalized as a standalone primitive in this work for the first time. We formally prove the security of our generalized channel construction in the Universal Composability framework. As an important practical contribution, our generalized channel construction outperforms the state-of-the-art payment channel construction, the Lightning Network, in efficiency. Concretely, it halves the off-chain communication complexity and reduces the on-chain footprint in case of disputes from linear to constant in the number of off-chain applications funded by the channel. Finally, we evaluate the practicality of our construction via a prototype implementation and discuss various applications including financially secured fair two-party computation.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Key Encapsulation Mechanism with Tight Enhanced Security in the Multi-User Setting: Impossibility Result and Optimal Tightness
For Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) deployed in a multi-user setting, an adversary may corrupt some users to learn their secret keys, and obtain some encapsulated keys due to careless key managements of users. To resist such attacks, we formalize Enhanced security against Chosen Plaintext/Ciphertext Attack (ECPA/ECCA), which ask the pseudorandomness of unrevealed encapsulated keys under uncorrupted users. This enhanced security for KEM serves well for the security of a class of Authenticated Key Exchange protocols built from KEM. In this paper, we study the achievability of tight ECPA and ECCA security for KEM in the multi-user setting, and present an impossibility result and an optimal security loss factor that can be obtained. The existing meta-reduction technique due to Bader et al. (EUROCRYPT 2016) rules out some KEMs, but many well-known KEMs, e.g., Cramer-Shoup KEM (SIAM J. Comput. 2003), Kurosawa-Desmedt KEM (CRYPTO 2004), run out. To solve this problem, we develop a new technique tool named rank of KEM and a new secret key partitioning strategy for meta-reduction. With this new tool and new strategy, we prove that KEM schemes with polynomially-bounded ranks have no tight ECPA and ECCA security from non-interactive complexity assumptions, and the security loss is at least linear in the number n of users. This impossibility result covers lots of well-known KEMs, including the Cramer-Shoup KEM, Kurosawa-Desmedt KEM and many others. Moreover, we show that the linear security loss is optimal by presenting concrete KEMs with security loss Θ(n). This is justified by a non-trivial security reduction with linear loss factor from ECPA/ECCA security to the traditional multi-challenge CPA/CCA security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Balanced Non-Adjacent Forms
Integers can be decomposed in multiple ways. The choice of a recoding technique is generally dictated by performance considerations. The usual metric for optimizing the decomposition is the Hamming weight. In this work, we consider a different metric and propose new modified forms (i.e., integer representations using signed digits) that satisfy minimality requirements under the new metric. Specifically, we introduce what we call balanced non-adjacent forms and prove that they feature a minimal Euclidean weight. We also present efficient algorithms to produce these new minimal forms. We analyze their asymptotic and exact distributions. We extend the definition to modular integers and show similar optimality results. The balanced non adjacent forms find natural applications in fully homomorphic encryption as they optimally reduce the noise variance in LWE-type ciphertexts.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Garbling, Stacked and Staggered: Faster k-out-of-n Garbled Function Evaluation
Stacked Garbling (SGC) is a Garbled Circuit (GC) improvement that efficiently and securely evaluates programs with conditional branching. SGC reduces bandwidth consumption such that communication is proportional to the size of the single longest program execution path, rather than to the size of the entire program. Crucially, the parties expend increased computational effort compared to classic GC. Motivated by procuring a subset in a menu of computational services or tasks, we consider GC evaluation of k-out-of-n branches, whose indices are known (or eventually revealed) to the GC evaluator E. Our stack-and-stagger technique amortizes GC computation in this setting. We retain the communication advantage of SGC, while significantly improving computation and wall-clock time. Namely, each GC party garbles (or evaluates) the total of n branches, a significant improvement over the O(nk) garblings/evaluations needed by standard SGC. We present our construction as a garbling scheme. Our technique brings significant overall performance improvement in various settings, including those typically considered in the literature: e.g. on a 1Gbps LAN we evaluate 16-out-of-128 functions ~7.68x faster than standard stacked garbling.
2021
ASIACRYPT
PrORAM: Fast O(log n) Authenticated Shares ZK ORAM
We construct a concretely efficient Zero Knowledge (ZK) Oblivious RAM (ORAM) for ZK Proof (ZKP) systems based on authenticated sharings of arithmetic values. It consumes 2logn oblivious transfers (OTs) of length-2sigma secrets per access of an arithmetic value, for statistical security parameter sigma and array size n. This is an asymptotic and concrete improvement over previous best (concretely efficient) ZK ORAM BubbleRAM of Heath and Kolesnikov ([HK20a], CCS 2020), whose access cost is 1/2 log^2 n OTs of length-2sigma secrets. ZK ORAM is essential for proving statements that are best expressed as RAM programs, rather than Boolean or arithmetic circuits. Our construction is private-coin ZK. We integrate it with [HK20a]’s ZKP protocol and prove the resulting ZKP system secure. We implemented PrORAM in C++. Compared to the state-of-the-art BubbleRAM, our PrORAM is ~10x faster for arrays of size 2^20 of 40-bit values.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Redeeming Reset Indifferentiability and Applications to Post-Quantum Security
Indifferentiability is used to analyze the security of constructions of idealized objects, such as random oracles or ideal ciphers. Reset indifferentiability is a strengthening of plain indifferentiability which is applicable in far more scenarios, but has largely been abandoned due to significant impossibility results and a lack of positive results. Our main results are: - Under \emph{weak} reset indifferentiability, ideal ciphers imply (fixed size) random oracles, and domain shrinkage is possible. We thus show reset indifferentiability is more useful than previously thought. - We lift our analysis to the quantum setting, showing that ideal ciphers imply random oracles under quantum indifferentiability. - Despite Shor's algorithm, we observe that generic groups are still meaningful quantumly, showing that they are quantumly (reset) indifferentiable from ideal ciphers; combined with the above, cryptographic groups yield post-quantum \emph{symmetric} key cryptography. In particular, we obtain a plausible post-quantum random oracle that is a subset-product followed by two modular reductions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Bounded Collusion ABE for TMs from IBE
We give an attribute-based encryption system for Turing Machines that is provably secure assuming only the existence of identity- based encryption (IBE) for large identity spaces. Currently, IBE is known to be realizable from most mainstream number theoretic assumptions that imply public key cryptography including factoring, the search Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the Learning with Errors assumption. Our core construction provides security against an attacker that makes a single key query for a machine T before declaring a challenge string w∗ that is associated with the challenge ciphertext. We build our construction by leveraging a Garbled RAM construction of Gentry, Halevi, Raykova and Wichs; however, to prove security we need to introduce a new notion of security called iterated simulation security. We then show how to transform our core construction into one that is secure for an a-priori bounded number q = q(\lambda) of key queries that can occur either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We do this by first showing how one can use a special type of non-committing encryption to transform a system that is secure only if a single key is chosen before the challenge ciphertext is declared into one where the single key can be requested either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We give a simple construction of this non-committing encryption from public key encryption in the Random Oracle Model. Next, one can apply standard combinatorial techniques to lift from single-key adaptive security to q-key adaptive security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Adaptive Security via Deletion in Attribute-Based Encryption: Solutions from Search Assumptions in Bilinear Groups
One of the primary research challenges in Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) is constructing and proving cryptosystems that are adaptively secure. To date the main paradigm for achieving adaptive security in ABE is dual system encryption. However, almost all such solutions in bilinear groups rely on (variants of) either the subgroup decision problem over composite order groups or the decision linear assumption. Both of these assumptions are decisional rather than search assumptions and the target of the assumption is a source or bilinear group element. This is in contrast to earlier selectively secure ABE systems which can be proven secure from either the decisional or search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this work we make progress on closing this gap by giving a new ABE construction for the subset functionality and prove security under the Search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. We first provide a framework for proving adaptive security in Attribute-Based Encryption systems. We introduce a concept of ABE with deletable attributes where any party can take a ciphertext encrypted under the attribute string x in {0, 1}^n and modify it into a ciphertext encrypted under any string x' in {0, 1, bot}^n where x' is derived by replacing any bits of x with bot symbols (i.e. ``deleting" attributes of x). The semantics of the system are that any private key for a circuit C can be used to decrypt a ciphertext associated with x' if none of the input bits read by circuit C are bot symbols and C(x') = 1. We show a pathway for combining ABE with deletable attributes with constrained pseudorandom functions to obtain adaptively secure ABE building upon the recent work of [Tsabary19]. Our new ABE system will be adaptively secure and be a ciphertext-policy ABE that supports the same functionality as the underlying constrained PRF as long as the PRF is ``deletion conforming". Here we also provide a simple constrained PRF construction that gives subset functionality. Our approach enables us to access a broader array of Attribute-Based Encryption schemes support deletion of attributes. For example, we show that both the [GPSW06] and [Boyen13] ABE schemes can trivially handle a deletion operation. And, by using a hardcore bit variant of GPSW scheme we obtain an adaptively secure ABE scheme under the Search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in addition to pseudo random functions in NC1. This gives the first adaptively secure ABE from a search assumption as all prior work relied on decision assumptions over source group elements.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Homomorphic Secret Sharing for Multipartite and General Adversary Structures Supporting Parallel Evaluation of Low-Degree Polynomials
Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) for a function $f$ allows input parties to distribute shares for their private inputs and then locally compute output shares from which the value of $f$ is recovered. HSS can be directly used to obtain a two-round multiparty computation (MPC) protocol for possibly non-threshold adversary structures whose communication complexity is independent of the size of $f$. In this paper, we propose two constructions of HSS schemes supporting parallel evaluation of a single low-degree polynomial and tolerating multipartite and general adversary structures. Our multipartite scheme tolerates a wider class of adversary structures than the previous multipartite one in the particular case of a single evaluation and has exponentially smaller share size than the general construction. While restricting the range of tolerable adversary structures (but still applicable to non-threshold ones), our schemes perform $\ell$ parallel evaluations with communication complexity approximately $\ell/\log\ell$ times smaller than simply using $\ell$ independent instances. We also formalize two classes of adversary structures taking into account real-world situations to which the previous threshold schemes are inapplicable. Our schemes then perform $O(m)$ parallel evaluations with almost the same communication cost as a single evaluation, where $m$ is the number of parties.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Onion Routing with Replies
Onion routing (OR) protocols are a crucial tool for providing anonymous internet communication. An OR protocol enables a user to anonymously send requests to a server. A fundamental problem of OR protocols is how to deal with replies: ideally, we would want the server to be able to send a reply back to the anonymous user without knowing or disclosing the user's identity. Existing OR protocols do allow for such replies, but do not provably protect the payload (i.e., message) of replies against manipulation. Kuhn et al. (IEEE S&P 2020) show that such manipulations can in fact be leveraged to break anonymity of the whole protocol. In this work, we close this gap and provide the first framework and protocols for OR with protected replies. We define security in the sense of an ideal functionality in the universal composability model, and provide corresponding (less complex) game-based security notions for the individual properties. We also provide two secure instantiations of our framework: one based on updatable encryption, and one based on succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) to authenticate payloads both in requests and replies. In both cases, our central technical handle is an implicit authentication of the transmitted payload data, as opposed to an explicit, but insufficient authentication (with MACs) in previous solutions. Our results exhibit a new and surprising application of updatable encryption outside of long-term data storage.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Partial Key Exposure Attack on Short Secret Exponent CRT-RSA
Let $(N,e)$ be an RSA public key, where $N=pq$ is the product of equal bitsize primes $p,q$. Let $d_p, d_q$ be the corresponding secret CRT-RSA exponents. Using a Coppersmith-type attack, Takayasu, Lu and Peng (TLP) recently showed that one obtains the factorization of $N$ in polynomial time, provided that $d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.122}$. Building on the TLP attack, we show the first {\em Partial Key Exposure} attack on short secret exponent CRT-RSA. Namely, let $N^{0.122} \leq d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.5}$. Then we show that a constant known fraction of the least significant bits (LSBs) of both $d_p, d_q$ suffices to factor $N$ in polynomial time. Naturally, the larger $d_p,d_q$, the more LSBs are required. E.g. if $d_p, d_q$ are of size $N^{0.13}$, then we have to know roughly a $\frac 1 5$-fraction of their LSBs, whereas for $d_p, d_q$ of size $N^{0.2}$ we require already knowledge of a $\frac 2 3$-LSB fraction. Eventually, if $d_p, d_q$ are of full size $N^{0.5}$, we have to know all of their bits. Notice that as a side-product of our result we obtain a heuristic deterministic polynomial time factorization algorithm on input $(N,e,d_p,d_q)$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Beyond Software Watermarking: Traitor-Tracing for Pseudorandom Functions
Software watermarking schemes allow a user to embed an identifier into a piece of code such that the resulting program is nearly functionally-equivalent to the original program, and yet, it is difficult to remove the identifier without destroying the functionality of the program. Such schemes are often considered for proving software ownership or for digital rights management. Existing constructions of watermarking have focused primarily on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work, we revisit the definitional foundations of watermarking, and begin by highlighting a major flaw in existing security notions. Existing security notions for watermarking only require that the identifier be successfully extracted from programs that preserve the exact input/output behavior of the original program. In the context of PRFs, this means that an adversary that constructs a program which computes a quarter of the output bits of the PRF or that is able to distinguish the outputs of the PRF from random are considered to be outside the threat model. However, in any application (e.g., watermarking a decryption device or an authentication token) that relies on PRF security, an adversary that manages to predict a quarter of the bits or distinguishes the PRF outputs from random would be considered to have defeated the scheme. Thus, existing watermarking schemes provide very little security guarantee against realistic adversaries. None of the existing constructions of watermarkable PRFs would be able to extract the identifier from a program that only outputs a quarter of the bits of the PRF or one that perfectly distinguishes. To address the shortcomings in existing watermarkable PRF definitions, we introduce a new primitive called a traceable PRF. Our definitions are inspired by similar definitions from public-key traitor tracing, and aim to capture a very robust set of adversaries: namely, any adversary that produces a useful distinguisher (i.e., a program that can break PRF security), can be traced to a specific identifier. We provide a general framework for constructing traceable PRFs via an intermediate primitive called private linear constrained PRFs. Finally, we show how to construct traceable PRFs from a similar set of assumptions previously used to realize software watermarking. Namely, we obtain a single-key traceable PRF from standard lattice assumptions and a fully collusion-resistant traceable PRF from indistinguishability obfuscation (together with injective one-way functions).
2021
ASIACRYPT
Chain Reductions for Multi-Signatures and the HBMS Scheme
Existing proofs for existing Discrete Log (DL) based multi-signature schemes give only weak guarantees if the schemes are implemented, as they are in practice, in 256-bit groups. This is because the underlying reductions, which are mostly in the standard model and from DL, are loose. We show that relaxing either the model or the assumption suffices to obtain tight reductions. Namely we give (1) tight proofs from DL in the Algebraic Group Model, and (2) tight, standard-model proofs from well-founded assumptions other than DL. We first do this for the classical 3-round schemes, namely $\BN$ and $\MuSig$. Then we give a new 2-round multi-signature scheme, $\MSB$, as efficient as prior ones, for which we do the same. These multiple paths to security for a single scheme are made possible by a framework of chain reductions, in which a reduction is broken into a chain of sub-reductions involving intermediate problems. Overall our results improve the security guarantees for DL-based multi-signature schemes in the groups in which they are implemented in practice.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Transciphering Framework for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption
Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a promising cryptographic primitive that enables computation over encrypted data, with a variety of applications including medical, genomic, and financial tasks. In Asiacrypt 2017, Cheon et al. proposed the CKKS scheme to efficiently support approximate computation over encrypted data of real numbers. HE schemes including CKKS, nevertheless, still suffer from slow encryption speed and large ciphertext expansion compared to symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid framework, dubbed RtF (Real-to-Finite-field) framework, that supports CKKS. The main idea behind this construction is to combine the CKKS and the FV homomorphic encryption schemes, and use a stream cipher using modular arithmetic in between. As a result, real numbers can be encrypted without significant ciphertext expansion or computational overload on the client side. As an instantiation of the stream cipher in our framework, we propose a new HE-friendly cipher, dubbed HERA, and extensively analyze its security and efficiency. The main feature of HERA is that it uses a simple randomized key schedule. Compared to recent HE-friendly ciphers such as FLIP and Rasta using randomized linear layers, HERA requires a smaller number of random bits. For this reason, HERA significantly outperforms existing HE-friendly ciphers on both the client and the server sides. With the RtF transciphering framework combined with HERA at the 128-bit security level, we achieve small ciphertext expansion ratio with a range of 1.23 to 1.54, which is at least 23 times smaller than using (symmetric) CKKS-only, assuming the same precision bits and the same level of ciphertexts at the end of the framework. We also achieve 1.6 $\mu$s and 21.7 MB/s for latency and throughput on the client side, which are 9085 times and 17.8 times faster than the CKKS-only environment, respectively.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A New Variant of Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Using Quotient Ring: QR-UOV
The unbalanced oil and vinegar signature scheme (UOV) is a multivariate signature scheme that has essentially not been broken for over 20 years. However, it requires the use of a large public key; thus, various methods have been proposed to reduce its size. In this paper, we propose a new variant of UOV with a public key represented by block matrices whose components correspond to an element of a quotient ring. We discuss how it affects the security of our proposed scheme whether or not the quotient ring is a field. Furthermore, we discuss their security against currently known and newly possible attacks and propose parameters for our scheme. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve a small public key size without significantly increasing the signature size compared with other UOV variants. For example, the public key size of our proposed scheme is 85.8 KB for NIST's Post-Quantum Cryptography Project (security level 3), whereas that of compressed Rainbow is 252.3 KB, where Rainbow is a variant of UOV and is one of the third-round finalists of the NIST PQC project.
2021
ASIACRYPT
FAST: Secure and High Performance Format-Preserving Encryption and Tokenization
We propose a new construction for format-preserving encryption. Our design provides the flexibility for use in format-preserving encryption (FPE) and for static table-driven tokenization. Our algorithm is a substitution-permutation network based on random Sboxes. Using pseudorandom generators and pseudorandom functions, we prove a strong adaptive security based on the super-pseudorandom permutation assumption of our core design. We obtain empirical parameters to reach this assumption. We suggest parameters for quantum security. Our design accommodates very small domains, with a radix $a$ from 4 to the Unicode alphabet size and a block length $l$ starting 2. The number of Sbox evaluations per encryption is asymptotically $l^{\frac32}$, which is also the number of bytes we need to generate using AES in CTR mode for each tweak setup. For instance, we tokenize 10 decimal digits using 29 (parallel) AES computations to be done only once, when the tweak changes.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Bit Security as Computational Cost for Winning Games with High Probability
We introduce a novel framework for quantifying the bit security of security games. Our notion is defined with an operational meaning that a $\lambda$-bit secure game requires a total computational cost of $2^\lambda$ for winning the game with high probability, e.g., 0.99. We define the bit security both for search-type and decision-type games. Since we identify that these two types of games should be structurally different, we treat them differently but define the bit security using the unified framework to guarantee the same operational interpretation. The key novelty of our notion of bit security is to employ two types of adversaries: inner adversary and outer adversary. While the inner adversary plays a ``usual'' security game, the outer adversary invokes the inner adversary many times to amplify the winning probability for the security game. We find from our framework that the bit security for decision games can be characterized by the information measure called the \emph{R\'enyi divergence} of order $1/2$ of the inner adversary. The conventional ``advantage,'' defined as the probability of winning the game, characterizes our bit security for search-type games. We present several security reductions in our framework for justifying our notion of bit security. Many of our results quantitatively match the results for the bit security notion proposed by Micciancio and Walter in 2018. In this sense, our bit security strengthens the previous notion of bit security by adding an operational meaning. A difference from their work is that, in our framework, the Goldreich-Levin theorem gives an optimal reduction only for ``balanced'' adversaries who output binary values in a balanced manner.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Fault-Injection Attacks against NIST’s Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 3 KEM Candidates
We investigate __all__ NIST PQC Round 3 KEM candidates from the viewpoint of fault-injection attacks: Classic McEliece, Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU Prime, and SIKE. All KEM schemes use variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, so the equality test with re-encryption in decapsulation is critical. We survey effective key-recovery attacks when we can skip the equality test. We found the existing key-recovery attacks against Kyber, NTRU, Saber, FrodoKEM, HQC, one of two KEM schemes in NTRU Prime, and SIKE. We propose a new key-recovery attack against the other KEM scheme in NTRU Prime. We also report an attack against BIKE that leads to leakage of information of secret keys. The open-source pqm4 library contains all KEM schemes except Classic McEliece and HQC. We show that giving a single instruction-skipping fault in the decapsulation processes leads to skipping the equality test __virtually__ for Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, and SIKE. We also report the experimental attacks against them. We also report the implementation of NTRU Prime allows chosen-ciphertext attacks freely and the timing side-channel of FrodoKEM reported in Guo, Johansson, and Nilsson (CRYPTO 2020) remains, while there are no such bugs in their NIST PQC Round 3 submissions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Toward a Fully Secure Authenticated Encryption Scheme From a Pseudorandom Permutation
In this paper, we propose a new block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme, dubbed the Synthetic Counter with Masking (SCM) mode. SCM follows the NSIV paradigm proposed by Peyrin and Seurin (CRYPTO 2016), where a keyed hash function accepts a nonce N with associated data and a message, yielding an authentication tag T, and then the message is encrypted by a counter-like mode using both T and N. Here we move one step further by encrypting nonces; in the encryption part, the inputs to the block cipher are determined by T, counters, and an encrypted nonce, and all its outputs are also masked by an (additional) encrypted nonce, yielding keystream blocks. As a result, we obtain, for the first time, a block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme of rate 1/2 that provides n-bit security with respect to the query complexity (ignoring the influence of message length) in the nonce-respecting setting, and at the same time guarantees graceful security degradation in the faulty nonce model, when the underlying n-bit block cipher is modeled as a secure pseudorandom permutation. Seen as a slight variant of GCM-SIV, SCM is also parallelizable and inverse-free, and its performance is still comparable to GCM-SIV.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Strong and Tight Security Guarantees against Integral Distinguishers
Integral attacks belong to the classical attack vectors against any given block ciphers. However, providing arguments that a given cipher is resistant against those attacks is notoriously difficult. In this paper, based solely on the assumption of independent round keys, we develop significantly stronger arguments than what was possible before: our main result is that we show how to argue that the sum of ciphertexts over any possible subset of plaintext is key-dependent, i.e., the non existence of integral distinguishers.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Secure and Efficient Software Masking on Superscalar Pipelined Processors
Physical side-channel attacks like power analysis pose a serious threat to cryptographic devices in real-world applications. Consequently, devices implement algorithmic countermeasures like masking. In the past, works on the design and verification of masked software implementations have mostly focused on simple microprocessors that findusage on smart cards. However, many other applications such as in the automotive industry require side-channel protected cryptographic computations on much more powerful CPUs. In such situations, the security loss due to complex architectural side-effects, the corresponding performance degradation, as well as discussions of suitable probing models and verification techniques are still vastly unexplored research questions. We answer these questions and perform a comprehensive analysis of more complex processor architectures in the context of masking-related side effects. First, we analyze the RISC-V SweRV core — featuring a 9-stage pipeline, two execution units, and load/store buffers — and point out a significant gap between security in a simple software probing model and practical security on such CPUs. More concretely, we show that architectural side effects of complex CPU architectures can significantly reduce the protection order of masked software, both via formal analysis in the hardware probing model, as well as empirically via gate-level timing simulations. We then discuss the options of fixing these problems in hardware or leaving them as constraints to software. Based on these software constraints, we formulate general rules for the design of masked software on more complex CPUs. Finally, we compare several implementation strategies for masking schemes and present in a case study that designing secure masked software for complex CPUs is still possible with overhead as low as 13%.
2021
ASIACRYPT
NTRU Fatigue: How Stretched is Overstretched?
Until recently lattice reduction attacks on NTRU lattices were thought to behave similar as on (ring)-LWE lattices with the same parameters. However several works (Albrecht-Bai-Ducas 2016, Kirchner-Fouque 2017) showed a significant gap for large moduli $q$, the so-called overstretched regime of NTRU. With the NTRU scheme being a finalist to the NIST PQC competition it is important to understand ---both asymptotically and concretely--- where the fatigue point lies exactly, i.e. at which $q$ the overstretched regime begins. Unfortunately the analysis by Kirchner and Fouque is based on an impossibility argument, which only results in an asymptotic upper bound on the fatigue point. It also does not really {\em explain} how lattice reduction actually recovers secret-key information. We propose a new analysis that asymptotically improves on that of Kirchner and Fouque, narrowing down the fatigue point for ternary NTRU from $q \leq n^{2.783+o(1)}$ to $q=n^{2.484+o(1)}$, and finally explaining the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We push this analysis further to a concrete one, settling the fatigue point at $q \approx 0.004 \cdot n^{2.484}$, and allowing precise hardness predictions in the overstretched regime. These predictions are backed by extensive experiments.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On Time-Lock Cryptographic Assumptions in Abelian Hidden-Order Groups
In this paper we study cryptographic finite abelian groups of unknown order and hardness assumptions in these groups. Abelian groups necessitate multiple group generators, which may be chosen at random. We formalize this setting and hardness assumptions therein. Furthermore, we generalize the algebraic group model and strong algebraic group model from cyclic groups to arbitrary finite abelian groups of unknown order. Building on these formalizations, we present techniques to deal with this new setting, and prove new reductions. These results are relevant for class groups of imaginary quadratic number fields and time-lock cryptography build upon them.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Linearization Attacks
Recent works have shown that quantum period-finding can be used to break many popular constructions (some block ciphers such as Even-Mansour, multiple MACs and AEs...) in the superposition query model. So far, all the constructions broken exhibited a strong algebraic structure, which enables to craft a periodic function of a single input block. The recovery of the secret period allows to recover a key, distinguish, break the confidentiality or authenticity of these modes. In this paper, we introduce the \emph{quantum linearization attack}, a new way of using Simon's algorithm to target MACs in the superposition query model. Specifically, we use inputs of multiple blocks as an interface to a function hiding a linear structure. The recovery of this structure allows to perform forgeries. We also present some variants of this attack that use other quantum algorithms, which are much less common in quantum symmetric cryptanalysis: Deutsch's, Bernstein-Vazirani's, and Shor's. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these algorithms have been used in quantum forgery or key-recovery attacks. Our attack breaks many parallelizable MACs such as {\sf LightMac}, {\sf PMAC}, and numerous variants with (classical) beyond-birthday-bound security ({\sf LightMAC+}, {\sf PMAC+}) or using tweakable block ciphers ({\sf ZMAC}). More generally, it shows that constructing parallelizable quantum-secure PRFs might be a challenging task.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Giving an Adversary Guarantees (Or: How to Model Designated Verifier Signatures in a Composable Framework)
When defining a security notion, one typically specifies what dishonest parties cannot achieve. For example, communication is confidential if a third party cannot learn anything about the messages being transmitted, and it is authentic if a third party cannot impersonate the real (honest) sender. For certain applications, however, security crucially relies on giving dishonest parties certain capabilities. As an example, in Designated Verifier Signature (DVS) schemes, one captures that only the designated verifier can be convinced of the authenticity of a message by guaranteeing that any dishonest party can forge signatures which look indistinguishable (to a third party) from original ones created by the sender. However, composable frameworks cannot typically model such guarantees as they are only designed to bound what a dishonest party can do. In this paper we show how to model such guarantees---that dishonest parties must have some capability---in the Constructive Cryptography (CC) framework (Maurer and Renner, ICS 2011). More concretely, we give the first composable security definitions for Multi-Designated Verifier Signature (MDVS) schemes---a generalization of DVS schemes. The ideal world is defined as the intersection of two worlds. The first captures authenticity in the usual way. The second provides the guarantee that a dishonest party can forge signatures. By taking the intersection we have an ideal world with the desired properties. We also compare our composable definitions to existing security notions for MDVS schemes from the literature. We find that only recently, 23 years after the introduction of MDVS schemes, sufficiently strong security notions were introduced capturing the security of MDVS schemes (Damg{\r a}rd et al., TCC 2020). As we prove, however, these notions are still strictly stronger than necessary.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tardigrade: An Atomic Broadcast Protocol for Arbitrary Network Conditions
We study the problem of \emph{atomic broadcast}---the underlying problem addressed by blockchain protocols---in the presence of a malicious adversary who corrupts some fraction of the $n$ parties running the protocol. Existing protocols are either robust for any number of corruptions in a \emph{synchronous} network (where messages are delivered within some known time~$\Delta$) but fail if the synchrony assumption is violated, or tolerate fewer than $n/3$ corrupted parties in an \emph{asynchronous} network (where messages can be delayed arbitrarily) and cannot tolerate more corruptions even if the network happens to be well behaved. We design an atomic broadcast protocol (TARDIGRADE) that, for any $t_s \geq t_a$ with $2t_s + t_a < n$, provides security against $t_s$ corrupted parties if the network is synchronous, while remaining secure when $t_a$ parties are corrupted even in an asynchronous network. We show that TARDIGRADE achieves optimal tradeoffs between $t_s$ and~$t_a$. Finally, we show a second protocol (UPGRADE) with similar (but slightly weaker) guarantees that achieves per-transaction communication complexity linear in~$n$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Revisiting Homomorphic Encryption Schemes for Finite Fields
The Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV) and Brakerski/ Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) schemes are the two main homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes to perform exact computations over finite fields and integers. Although the schemes work with the same plaintext space, there are significant differences in their noise management, algorithms for the core homomorphic multiplication operation, message encoding, and practical usability. The main goal of our work is to revisit both schemes, focusing on closing the gap between the schemes by improving their noise growth, computational complexity of the core algorithms, and usability. The other goal of our work is to provide both theoretical and experimental performance comparison of BGV and BFV. More precisely, we propose an improved variant of BFV where the encryption operation is modified to significantly reduce the noise growth, which makes the BFV noise growth somewhat better than for BGV (in contrast to prior results showing that BGV has smaller noise growth for larger plaintext moduli). We also modify the homomorphic multiplication procedure, which is the main bottleneck in BFV, to reduce its algorithmic complexity. Our work introduces several other novel optimizations, including lazy scaling in BFV homomorphic multiplication and an improved BFV decryption procedure in the Residue Number System (RNS) representation. We also develop a usable variant of BGV as a more efficient alternative to BFV for common practical scenarios. We implement our improved variants of BFV and BGV in PALISADE and evaluate their experimental performance for several benchmark computations. The experimental results suggest that our BGV implementation is faster for intermediate and large plaintext moduli, which are often used in practical scenarios with ciphertext packing, while our BFV implementation is faster for small plaintext moduli. More precisely, we propose an improved variant of BFV where the encryption operation is modified to significantly reduce the noise growth, which makes the BFV noise growth somewhat better than for BGV (in contrast to prior results showing that BGV has smaller noise growth for larger plaintext moduli). We also modify the homomorphic multiplication procedure, which is the main bottleneck in BFV, to reduce its algorithmic complexity. Our work introduces several other novel optimizations, including lazy scaling in BFV homomorphic multiplication and an improved BFV decryption procedure in the Residue Number System (RNS) representation. We also develop a usable variant of BGV as a more efficient alternative to BFV for common practical scenarios. We implement our improved variants of BFV and BGV in PALISADE and evaluate their experimental performance for several benchmark computations. Our results suggest that BGV is faster for intermediate and large plaintext moduli, which are often used in practical scenarios with ciphertext packing, while BFV is faster for small plaintext moduli.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Computationally Predicate-Binding Commitments with Application in Quantum Zero-Knowledge Arguments for NP
A quantum bit commitment scheme is to realize bit (rather than qubit) commitment by exploiting quantum communication and quantum computation. In this work, we study the binding property of the quantum string commitment scheme obtained by composing a generic quantum perfectly(resp. statistically)-hiding computationally-binding bit commitment scheme (which can be realized based on quantum-secure one-way permutations(resp. functions)) in parallel. We show that the resulting scheme satisfies a stronger quantum computational binding property, which we will call predicate-binding, than the trivial honest-binding. Intuitively and very roughly, the predicate-binding property guarantees that given any inconsistent predicate pair over a set of strings (i.e. no strings in this set can satisfy both predicates), if a (claimed) quantum commitment can be opened so that the revealed string satisfies one predicate with certainty, then the same commitment cannot be opened so that the revealed string satisfies the other predicate (except for a negligible probability). As an application, we plug a generic quantum perfectly(resp. statistically)-hiding computationally-binding bit commitment scheme in Blum's zero-knowledge protocol for the NP-complete language Hamiltonian Cycle. This will give rise to the first quantum perfect(resp. statistical) zero-knowledge argument system (with soundness error 1/2) for all NP languages based solely on quantum-secure one-way permutations(resp. functions). The quantum computational soundness of this system will follow immediately from the quantum computational predicate-binding property of commitments.
2021
ASIACRYPT
(Compact) Adaptively Secure FE for Attribute-Weighted Sums from k-Lin
This paper presents the first adaptively simulation secure functional encryption (FE) schemes for attribute-weighted sums. In such an FE scheme, encryption takes as input N pairs of attribute {(x_i, z_i )}_{i \in [N]} for some N \in \mathbb{N} where the attributes {x_i}_{i \in [N]} are public while the attributes {z_i}_{i \in [N]} are private. The indices i \in [N] are referred to as the slots. A secret key corresponds to some weight function f, and decryption recovers the weighted sum \sum_{i \in [N]} f(x_i)z_i. This is an important functionality with a wide range of potential real life applications. In the proposed FE schemes attributes are viewed as vectors and weight functions are arithmetic branching programs (ABP). We present two schemes with varying parameters and levels of adaptive security. (a) We first present a one-slot scheme that achieves adaptive security in the simulation-based security model against a bounded number of ciphertext queries and an arbitrary polynomial number of secret key queries both before and after the ciphertext queries. This is the best possible level of security one can achieve in the adaptive simulation-based framework. From the relations between the simulation-based and indistinguishability-based security frameworks for FE, it follows that the proposed FE scheme also achieves indistinguishability- based adaptive security against an a-priori unbounded number of ciphertext queries and an arbitrary polynomial number of secret key queries both before and after the ciphertext queries. Moreover, the scheme enjoys compact ciphertexts that do not grow with the number of appearances of the attributes within the weight functions. (b) Next, bootstrapping from the one-slot scheme, we present an unbounded-slot scheme that achieves simulation-based adaptive security against a bounded number of ciphertext and pre-ciphertext secret key queries while supporting an a-priori unbounded number of post-ciphertext secret key queries. The scheme achieves public parameters and secret key sizes independent of the number of slots N and a secret key can decrypt a ciphertext for any a-priori unbounded N. Further, just like the one-slot scheme, this scheme also has the ciphertext size independent of the number of appearances of the attributes within the weight functions. However, all the parameters of the scheme, namely, the master public key, ciphertexts, and secret keys scale linearly with the bound on the number of pre-ciphertext secret key queries. Our schemes are built upon asymmetric bilinear groups of prime order and the security is derived under the standard (bilateral) k-Linear (k-Lin) assumption. Our work resolves an open problem posed by Abdalla, Gong, and Wee in CRYPTO 2020, where they presented an unbounded-slot FE scheme for attribute-weighted sum achieving only semi-adaptive simulation security. At a technical level, our work extends the recent adaptive security framework of Lin and Luo [EUROCRYPT 2020], devised to achieve compact ciphertexts in the context of indistinguishability-based payload-hiding security, into the setting of simulation-based adaptive attribute-hiding security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Compressed Sigma-Protocols for Bilinear Group Arithmetic Circuits and Application to Logarithmic Transparent Threshold Signatures
Lai et al. (CCS 2019) have shown how Bulletproof’s arithmetic circuit zero-knowledge protocol (Bootle et al., EUROCRYPT 2016 and B{\"u}nz et al., S\&P 2018) can be generalized to work for bilinear group arithmetic circuits directly, i.e., without requiring these circuits to be translated into arithmetic circuits. In a nutshell, a bilinear group arithmetic circuit is a standard arithmetic circuit augmented with special gates capturing group exponentiations or pairings. Such circuits are highly relevant, e.g., in the context of zero-knowledge statements over pairing-based languages. As expressing these special gates in terms of a standard arithmetic circuit results in a significant overhead in circuit size, an approach to zero-knowledge via standard arithmetic circuits may incur substantial additional costs. The approach due to Lai et al. shows how to avoid this by integrating additional zero-knowledge techniques into the Bulletproof framework so as to handle the special gates very efficiently. We take a different approach by generalizing {\em Compressed $\Sigma$-Protocol Theory} (CRYPTO 2020) from arithmetic circuit relations to bilinear group arithmetic circuit relations. Besides its conceptual simplicity, our approach has the practical advantage of reducing the communication costs of Lai et al.'s protocol by roughly a multiplicative factor $3$. Finally, we show an application of our results which may be of independent interest. We construct the first $k$-out-of-$n$ threshold signature scheme (TSS) that allows for transparent setup {\em and} that yields threshold signatures of size logarithmic in $n$. The threshold signature hides the identities of the $k$ signers and the threshold $k$ can be dynamically chosen at aggregation time.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Luby-Rackoff Backwards with More Users and More Security
It is known, from the work of Dai \textit{et al.} (in CRYPTO'17), that the PRF advantage of $\xorp$ (bitwise-xor of two outputs of $n$-bit random permutations with domain separated inputs), against an adversary making $q$ queries, is about $q/2^n$ for $q \leq 2^{n- 5}$. The same bound can be easily shown to hold for $\xorp[k]$ (bitwise-xor of $k$ outputs $n$-bit pseudorandom random permutations with domain separated inputs), for $k \geq 3$. In this work, we first consider multi-user security of $\xorp[3]$. We show that the multi-user PRF advantage of $\xorp[3]$ is about $\sqrt{uq_{\max}}/2^n$ for all {$q_{\max} \leq 2^{n}/12$}, where $u$ is the number of users and $q_{\max}$ is the maximum number of queries the adversary can make to each user. In the multi-user setup, this implies that $\xorp[3]$ gives security for $O(2^n)$ users even allowing almost $O(2^n)$ queries to each user. This also indicates significant improvement in the single-user setup ({\em i.e.,} when $u =1$), where the distinguishing advantage of the adversary even after making $O(2^n)$ queries is $O({1 \over \sqrt{2^n}})$, {\em i.e.,} negligible. Subsequently, we consider a simple efficient variant of $\xorp[3]$ in which we use five calls to produce $2n$ bit output (instead of six calls in the case of $\xorp[3]$). This variant also achieves similar level of security. As an immediate application, we can construct a variant of block cipher based counter mode which provides much higher security (both in the single-user and the multi-user setup) compared to the security of the encryption part of GCM at the cost of efficiency.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice-Based Group Encryption with Full Dynamicity and Message Filtering Policy
Group encryption (GE) is a fundamental privacy-preserving primitive analog of group signatures, which allows users to decrypt specific ciphertexts while hiding themselves within a crowd. Since its first birth, numerous constructions have been proposed, among which the schemes separately constructed by Libert et al. (Asiacrypt 2016) over lattices and by Nguyen et al. (PKC 2021) over coding theory are postquantum secure. Though the last scheme, at the first time, achieved the full dynamicity (allowing group users to join or leave the group in their ease) and message filtering policy, which greatly improved the state-of-affairs of GE systems, its practical applications are still limited due to the rather complicated design, inefficiency and the weaker security (secure in the random oracles). In return, the Libert et al.’s scheme possesses a solid security (secure in the standard model), but it lacks the previous functions and still suffers from inefficiency because of extremely using lattice trapdoors. In this work, we re-formalize the model and security definitions of fully dynamic group encryption (FDGE) that are essentially equivalent to but more succinct than Nguyen et al.’s; Then, we provide a generic and efficient zero-knowledge proof method for proving that a binary vector is non-zero over lattices, on which a proof for the Prohibitive message filtering policy in the lattice setting is first achieved (yet in a simple manner); Finally, by combining appropriate cryptographic materials and our presented zero-knowledge proofs, we achieve the first latticebased FDGE schemes in a simpler manner, which needs no any lattice trapdoor and is proved secure in the standard model (assuming interaction during the proof phase), outweighing the existing post-quantum secure GE systems in terms of functions, efficiency and security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On the hardness of the NTRU problem
The 25 year-old NTRU problem is an important computational assumption in public-key cryptography. However, from a reduction perspective, its relative hardness compared to other problems on Euclidean lattices is not well-understood. Its decision version reduces to the search Ring-LWE problem, but this only provides a hardness upper bound. We provide two answers to the long-standing open problem of providing reduction-based evidence of the hardness of the NTRU problem. First, we reduce the worst-case approximate Shortest Vector Problem over ideal lattices to an average-case search variant of the NTRU problem. Second, we reduce another average-case search variant of the NTRU problem to the decision NTRU problem.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Snarky Ceremonies
Succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) have found numerous applications in the blockchain setting and elsewhere. The most efficient SNARKs require a distributed ceremony protocol to generate public parameters, also known as a structured reference string (SRS). Our contributions are two-fold: \begin{compactitem} \item We give a security framework for non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments with a ceremony protocol. \item We revisit the ceremony protocol of Groth's SNARK [Bowe et al., 2017]. We show that the original construction can be simplified and optimized, and then prove its security in our new framework. Importantly, our construction avoids the random beacon model used in the original work. \end{compactitem}
2021
ASIACRYPT
Reverse Firewalls for Adaptively Secure MPC without Setup
We study Multi-party computation (MPC) in the setting of subversion, where the adversary tampers with the machines of honest parties. Our goal is to construct actively secure MPC protocols where parties are corrupted adaptively by an adversary (as in the standard adaptive security setting), and in addition, honest parties' machines are compromised. The idea of reverse firewalls (RF) was introduced at EUROCRYPT'15 by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz as an approach to protecting protocols against corruption of honest parties' devices. Intuitively, an RF for a party $\mathcal{P}$ is an external entity that sits between $\mathcal{P}$ and the outside world and whose scope is to sanitize $\mathcal{P}$’s incoming and outgoing messages in the face of subversion of their computer. Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz constructed a protocol for passively-secure two-party computation. At CRYPTO'20, Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen constructed a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that improved on this result, both by extending it to \textit{multi}-party computation protocol, and considering \textit{active} security in the presence of \textit{static} corruptions. In this paper, we initiate the study of RF for MPC in the \textit{adaptive} setting. We put forward a definition for adaptively secure MPC in the reverse firewall setting, explore relationships among the security notions, and then construct reverse firewalls for MPC in this stronger setting of adaptive security. We also resolve the open question of Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen by removing the need for a trusted setup in constructing RF for MPC. Towards this end, we construct reverse firewalls for adaptively secure augmented coin tossing and adaptively secure zero-knowledge protocols and obtain a constant round adaptively secure MPC protocol in the reverse firewall setting without setup. Along the way, we propose a new multi-party adaptively secure coin tossing protocol in the plain model, that is of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic Adversaries in the Universal Composability Framework
The algebraic-group model (AGM), which lies between the generic group model and the standard model of computation, provides a means by which to analyze the security of cryptosystems against so-called algebraic adversaries. We formalize the AGM within the framework of universal composability, providing formal definitions for this setting and proving an appropriate composition theorem. This extends the applicability of the AGM to more-complex protocols, and lays the foundations for analyzing algebraic adversaries in a composable fashion. Our results also clarify the meaning of composing proofs in the AGM with other proofs and they highlight a natural form of independence between idealized groups that seems inherent to the AGM and has not been made formal before---these insights also apply to the composition of game-based proofs in the AGM. We show the utility of our model by proving several important protocols universally composable for algebraic adversaries, specifically: (1) the Chou-Orlandi protocol for oblivious transfer, and (2) the SPAKE2 and CPace protocols for password-based authenticated key exchange.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Categorization of Faulty Nonce Misuse Resistant Message Authentication
A growing number of lightweight block ciphers are proposed for environments such as the Internet of Things. An important contribution to the reduced implementation cost is a block length n of 64 or 96 bits rather than 128 bits. As a consequence, encryption modes and message authentication code (MAC) algorithms require security beyond the 2^{n/2} birthday bound. This paper provides an extensive treatment of MAC algorithms that offer beyond birthday bound PRF security for both nonce-respecting and nonce-misusing adversaries. We study constructions that use two block cipher calls, one universal hash function call and an arbitrary number of XOR operations. We start with the separate problem of generically identifying all possible secure n-to-n-bit pseudorandom functions (PRFs) based on two block cipher calls. The analysis shows that the existing constructions EDM, SoP, and EDMD are the only constructions of this kind that achieve beyond birthday bound security. Subsequently we deliver an exhaustive treatment of MAC algorithms, where the outcome of a universal hash function evaluation on the message may be entered at any point in the computation of the PRF. We conclude that there are a total amount of nine schemes that achieve beyond birthday bound security, and a tenth construction that cannot be proven using currently known proof techniques. For these former nine MAC algorithms, three constructions achieve optimal n-bit security in the nonce-respecting setting, but are completely insecure if the nonce is reused. The remaining six constructions have 3n/4-bit security in the nonce-respecting setting, and only four out of these six constructions still achieve beyond the birthday bound security in the case of nonce misuse.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Better Security-Efficiency Trade-Offs in Permutation-Based Two-Party Computation
We improve upon the security of (tweakable) correlation-robust hash functions, which are essential components of garbling schemes and oblivious-transfer extension schemes. We in particular focus on constructions from permutations, and improve upon the work by Guo etal. (IEEE S\&P '20) in terms of security and efficiency. We present a tweakable one-call construction which matches the security of the most secure two-call construction -- the resulting security bound takes form O((p+q)q/2^n), where q is the number of construction evaluations and p is the number of direct adversarial queries to the underlying n-bit permutation, which is modeled as random. Moreover, we present a new two-call construction with much better security degradation -- in particular, for applications of interest, where only a constant number of evaluations per tweak are made, the security degrades as O((\sqrt{q} p+q^2)/2^n). Our security proof relies on on the sum-capture theorems (Babai ’02; Steinberger ’12, Cogliati and Seurin ’18), as well as on new balls-into-bins combinatorial lemmas for limited independence ball-throws. Of independent interest, we also provide a self-contained concrete security treatment of oblivious transfer extension.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Practical Key-Recovery Attack on 805-Round Trivium
The cube attack is one of the most important cryptanalytic techniques against Trivium. Many key-recovery attacks based on cube attacks have been established. However, few attacks can recover the 80-bit full key information practically. In particular, the previous best practical key-recovery attack was on 784-round Trivium proposed by Fouque and Vannet at FSE 2013. To mount practical key-recovery attacks, it requires a sufficient number of low-degree superpolies. It is difficult both for experimental cube attacks and division property based cube attacks with randomly selected cubes due to lack of efficiency. In this paper, we give a new algorithm to construct candidate cubes targeting linear superpolies. Our experiments show that the success probability is 100% for finding linear superpolies using the constructed cubes. We obtain over 1000 linear superpolies for 805-round Trivium. With 42 independent linear superpolies, we mount a practical key-recovery attack on 805-round Trivium, which increases the number of attacked rounds by 21. The complexity of our attack is $ 2^{41.40} $, which could be carried out on a PC with a GTX-1080 GPU in several hours.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Automatic Classical and Quantum Rebound Attacks on AES-like Hashing by Exploiting Related-key Differentials
Collision attacks on AES-like hashing (hash functions constructed by plugging AES-like ciphers or permutations into the famous PGV modes or their variants) can be reduced to the problem of finding a pair of inputs respecting a differential of the underlying AES-like primitive whose input and output differences are the same. The rebound attack due to Mendel et al. is a powerful tool for achieving this goal, whose quantum version was first considered by Hosoyamada and Sasaki at EUROCRYPT 2020. In this work, we automate the process of searching for the configurations of rebound attacks by taking related-key differentials of the underlying block cipher into account with the MILP-based approach. In the quantum setting, our model guide the search towards characteristics that minimize the resources (e.g., QRAM) and complexities of the resulting rebound attacks. We apply our method to Saturnin-hash, Skinny, and Whirlpool and improved results are obtained.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On the non-tightness of measurement-based reductions for key encapsulation mechanism in the quantum random oracle model
Key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformation (TCC 2017) that turn a weakly-secure public-key encryption (PKE) into an IND-CCA-secure KEM, were widely used among the KEM submissions to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Project. Under the standard CPA security assumptions, i.e., OW-CPA and IND-CPA, the security of these variants in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) has been proved by black-box reductions, e.g., Jiang et al. (CRYPTO 2018), and by non-black-box reductions (EUROCRYPT 2020). The non-black-box reductions (EUROCRYPT 2020) have a liner security loss, but can only apply to specific \emph{reversible} adversaries with strict \emph{reversible} implementation. On the contrary, the existing black-box reductions in the literature can apply to an arbitrary adversary with an arbitrary implementation, but suffer a quadratic security loss. In this paper, for KEM variants of the FO transformation, we first show the tightness limits of the black-box reductions, and prove that a \emph{measurement-based} reduction in the QROM from breaking the standard OW-CPA (or IND-CPA) security of the underlying PKE to breaking the IND-CCA security of the resulting KEM, will \emph{inevitably} incur a quadratic loss of the security, where ``measurement-based" means the reduction measures a hash query from the adversary and uses the measurement outcome to break the underlying security of PKE. In particular, most black-box reductions for these FO-like KEM variants are of this type, and our results suggest an explanation for the lack of progress in improving this reduction tightness in terms of the degree of security loss. Then, we further show that the quadratic loss is also unavoidable when one turns a search problem into a decision problem using the one-way to hiding technique in a black-box manner, which has been recognized as an essential technique to prove the security of cryptosystems involving quantum random oracles.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Simulation-Based Bi-Selective Opening Security for Public Key Encryption
Selective opening attacks (SOA) (for public-key encryption, PKE) concern such a multi-user scenario, where an adversary adaptively corrupts some fraction of the users to break into a subset of honestly created ciphertexts, and tries to learn the information on the messages of some unopened (but potentially related) ciphertexts. Until now, the notion of selective opening attacks is only considered in two settings: sender selective opening (SSO), where part of senders are corrupted and messages together with randomness for encryption are revealed; and receiver selective opening (RSO), where part of receivers are corrupted and messages together with secret keys for decryption are revealed. In this paper, we consider a more natural and general setting for selective opening security. In the setting, the adversary may adaptively corrupt part of senders and receivers \emph{simultaneously}, and get the plaintext messages together with internal randomness for encryption and secret keys for decryption, while it is hoped that messages of uncorrupted parties remain protected. We denote it as Bi-SO security since it is reminiscent of Bi-Deniability for PKE. We first formalize the requirement of Bi-SO security by the simulation-based (SIM) style, and prove that some practical PKE schemes achieve SIM-Bi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security in the random oracle model. Then, we suggest a weak model of Bi-SO security, denoted as SIM-wBi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security, and argue that it is still meaningful and useful. We propose a generic construction of PKE schemes that achieve SIM-wBi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security in the standard model and instantiate them from various standard assumptions. Our generic construction is built on a newly presented primitive, namely, universal$_{\kappa}$ hash proof system with key equivocability, which may be of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Modular Design of Role-Symmetric Authenticated Key Exchange Protocols
Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) is an important primitive in applied cryptography. Previously several strong models of AKE were introduced, e.g., CK, CK+, eCK and their extended versions considering perfect forward secrecy (PFS), (denoted by a “-PFS” suffix). These models provide different security guarantees and they are incomparable. Hence, one still lacks systematic understanding of the prerequisites for secure AKEs and a modular design of AKE protocols. In this paper, we investigate this issue in the context of One-Round Authenticated Key Exchange (ORKE), which is role-symmetric for players and only needs a single round to establish a session key. Our treatments are as follows: First, we reformat the CK, CK-PFS, CK+, CK+-PFS, eCK and eCK-PFS models in the context of ORKE, some of which are formulated for the first time in the literature. Next, we introduce a new tool, Key-wise Recoverable Function (KRF). With merely black-box calls to KRFs, we build modular constructions for ORKEs. As an immediate application, many previous protocols can be explained naturally by the construction. We further build a protocol with CK, CK+, eCK, CK-PFS, CK+-PFS and eCK-PFS security simultaneously, by properly instantiating the underlying KRF. As a by-product, we have simplified proofs for a few known protocols, with non-standard assumptions avoidable.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A formula for disaster: a unified approach to elliptic curve special-point-based attacks
The Refined Power Analysis, Zero-Value Point, and Exceptional Procedure attacks introduced side-channel techniques against specific cases of elliptic curve cryptography. The three attacks recover bits of a static ECDH key adaptively, collecting information on whether a certain multiple of the input point was computed. We unify and generalize these attacks in a common framework, and solve the corresponding problem for a broader class of inputs. We also introduce a version of the attack against windowed scalar multiplication methods, recovering the full scalar instead of just a part of it. Finally, we systematically analyze elliptic curve point addition formulas from the Explicit-Formulas Database, classify all non-trivial exceptional points, and find them in new formulas. These results indicate the usefulness of our tooling, which we released publicly, for unrolling formulas and finding special points, and potentially for independent future work.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Security Analysis of CPace
In response to standardization requests regarding password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols, the IRTF working group CFRG has setup a PAKE selection process in 2019, which led to the selection of the CPace protocol in the balanced setting, in which parties share a common password. In subsequent standardization efforts, the CPace protocol further developed, yielding a protocol family whose actual security guarantees in practical settings are not well understood. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive security analysis of CPace in the universal composability framework. Our analysis is realistic in the sense that it captures adaptive corruptions and refrains from modeling CPace's MapToPoint function that maps field elements to curve points as an idealized function. In order to extend our proofs to different CPace variants optimized for specific elliptic-curve ecosystems, we employ a new approach which represents the assumptions required by the proof as libraries accessed by a simulator. By allowing for the modular replacement of assumptions used in the proof, this new approach avoids a repeated analysis of unchanged protocol parts and lets us efficiently analyze the security guarantees of all the different CPace variants. As a result of our analysis, all of the investigated practical CPace variants enjoy adaptive UC security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of an oblivious PRF from supersingular isogenies
We cryptanalyse the SIDH-based oblivious pseudorandom function from supersingular isogenies proposed at Asiacrypt'20 by Boneh, Kogan and Woo. To this end, we give an attack on an assumption, the auxiliary one-more assumption, that was introduced by Boneh et al. and we show that this leads to an attack on the oblivious PRF itself. The attack breaks the pseudorandomness as it allows adversaries to evaluate the OPRF without further interactions with the server after some initial OPRF evaluations and some offline computations. More specifically, we first propose a polynomial-time attack. Then, we argue it is easy to change the OPRF protocol to include some countermeasures, and present a second subexponential attack that succeeds in the presence of said countermeasures. Both attacks break the security parameters suggested by Boneh et al. Furthermore, we provide a proof of concept implementation as well as some timings of our attack. Finally, we examine the generation of one of the OPRF parameters and argue that a trusted third party is needed to guarantee provable security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Boosting the Security of Blind Signature Schemes
Existing blind signature schemes that are secure for polynomially many concurrent executions of the signing protocol are either inefficient or rely on non-standard assumptions (even in the random-oracle model). We show the first efficient blind signature schemes achieving this level of security based on the RSA, quadratic residuosity, and discrete logarithm assumptions (in the random-oracle model). Our core technique involves an extension and generalization of a transform due to Pointcheval (Eurocrypt~'98) that allows us to convert certain blind signature schemes that are secure for (concurrently) issuing logarithmically many signatures into ones secure for (concurrently) issuing polynomially many signatures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
The One-More Discrete Logarithm Assumption in the Generic Group Model
The one more-discrete logarithm assumption (OMDL) underlies the security analysis of identification protocols, blind signature and multi-signature schemes, such as blind Schnorr signatures and the recent MuSig2 multi-signatures. As these schemes produce standard Schnorr signatures, they are compatible with existing systems, e.g. in the context of blockchains. OMDL is moreover assumed for many results on the impossibility of certain security reductions. Despite its wide use, surprisingly, OMDL is lacking any rigorous analysis; there is not even a proof that it holds in the generic group model (GGM). (We show that a claimed proof is flawed.) In this work we give a formal proof of OMDL in the GGM. We also prove a related assumption, the one-more computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, in the GGM. Our proofs deviate from prior GGM proofs and replace the use of the Schwartz-Zippel Lemma by a new argument.
2021
ASIACRYPT
New Attacks on LowMC instances with a Single Plaintext/Ciphertext pair
Cryptanalysis of the LowMC block cipher when the attacker has access to a single known plaintext/ciphertext pair is a mathematically challenging problem. This is because the attacker is unable to employ most of the standard techniques in symmetric cryptography like linear and differential cryptanalysis. This scenario is particularly relevant while arguing the security of the Picnic digital signature scheme in which the plaintext/ciphertext pair generated by the LowMC block cipher serves as the public (verification) key and the corresponding LowMC encryption key also serves as the secret (signing) key of the signature scheme. In the paper by Banik et al. (IACR ToSC 2020:4), the authors used a linearization technique of the LowMC S-box to mount attacks on some instances of the block cipher. In this paper, we first make a more precise complexity analysis of the linearization attack. Then, we show how to perform a 2-stage MITM attack on LowMC. The first stage reduces the key candidates corresponding to a fraction of key bits of the master key. The second MITM stage between this reduced candidate set and the remaining fraction of key bits successfully recovers the master key. We show that the combined computational complexity of both these stages is significantly lower than those reported in the ToSC paper by Banik et al.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tight Security for Key-Alternating Ciphers with Correlated Sub-Keys
A substantial effort has been devoted to proving optimal bounds for the security of key-alternating ciphers with independent sub-keys in the random permutation model (e.g., Chen and Steinberger, EUROCRYPT '14; Hoang and Tessaro, CRYPTO '16). While common in the study of multi-round constructions, the assumption that sub-keys are truly independent is not realistic, as these are generally highly correlated and generated from shorter keys. In this paper, we show the existence of non-trivial distributions of limited independence for which a t-round key-alternating cipher achieves optimal security. Our work is a natural continuation of the work of Chen et al. (CRYPTO '14) which considered the case of t = 2 when all-subkeys are identical. Here, we show that key-alternating ciphers remain secure for a large class of (t-1)-wise and (t-2)-wise independent distribution of sub-keys. Our proofs proceed by generalizations of the so-called Sum-Capture Theorem, which we prove using Fourier-analytic techniques.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Astrolabous: A Universally Composable Time Lock Encryption Scheme
In this work, we study the cryptographic primitive called time-lock encryption (TLE). The concept of TLE involves a party initiating the encryption of a message that one can only decrypt after a certain amount of time has elapsed. Following the universal composability (UC) paradigm introduced by Canetti [IEEE FOCS 2001], we formally abstract the concept of TLE into an ideal functionality in a flexible way. In addition, we provide a standalone definition for secure TLE schemes in a game-based style and we devise a hybrid protocol that relies on such a secure TLE scheme. We show that if the underlying TLE scheme satisfies the standalone game-based security definition, then our hybrid protocol UC realises the TLE functionality in the random oracle model. Finally, we present \emph{Astrolabous}, a TLE construction that satisfies our security definition, leading to the first UC realization of the TLE functionality. Interestingly, it is hard to prove UC secure any of the TLE construction proposed in the literature. The reason behind this difficulty relates to the UC framework itself. Intuitively, to capture semantic security, no information should be leaked regarding the plaintext in the ideal world, thus the ciphertext should not contain any information relating to the message. On the other hand, all ciphertexts will eventually open, resulting in a trivial distinction of the real from the ideal world in the standard model. We overcome this limitation by extending any secure TLE construction adopting the techniques of Nielsen [CRYPTO 2002] in the random oracle model. Specifically, the description of the extended TLE algorithms includes calls to the random oracle, allowing our simulator to equivocate. This extension can be applied to any TLE algorithm that satisfies our standalone game-based security definition, and in particular to Astrolabous.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Two-Round Adaptively Secure MPC from Isogenies, LPN, or CDH
We present a new framework for building round-optimal (two-round) adaptively secure MPC. We show that a relatively weak notion of OT that we call indistinguishability OT with receiver oblivious sampleability (r-iOT) is enough to build two-round, adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries in the CRS model. We then show how to construct r-iOT from CDH, LPN, or isogeny-based assumptions that can be viewed as group actions (such as CSIDH and CSI-FiSh). This yields the first concrete constructions of two-round adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries from CDH, LPN, or isogeny-based assumptions. We further extend our non-isogeny results to the plain model, achieving (to the best of our knowledge) the first construction of two-round adaptively secure MPC against semi-honest adversaries in the plain model from LPN. Our results allow us to build two-round adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries from essentially all of the well-studied assumptions in cryptography. In addition, our constructions from isogenies or LPN provide the first post-quantum alternatives to LWE-based constructions for round-optimal adaptively secure MPC. Along the way, we show that r-iOT also implies non-committing encryption (NCE), thereby yielding the first constructions of NCE from isogenies or LPN.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Improved single-round secure multiplication using regenerating codes
In 2016, Guruswami and Wootters showed Shamir's secret-sharing scheme defined over an extension field has a regenerating property. Namely, we can compress each share to an element of the base field by applying a linear form, such that the secret is determined by a linear combination of the compressed shares. Immediately it seemed like an application to improve the complexity of unconditionally secure multiparty computation must be imminent; however, thus far, no result has been published. We present the first application of regenerating codes to MPC, and show that its utility lies in reducing the number of rounds. Concretely, we present a protocol that obliviously evaluates a depth-$d$ arithmetic circuit in $d + O(1)$ rounds, in the amortized setting of parallel evaluations, with $o(n^2)$ ring elements communicated per multiplication. Our protocol makes use of function-dependent preprocessing, and is secure against the maximal adversary corrupting $t < n/2$ parties. All existing approaches in this setting have complexity $\Omega(n^2)$. Moreover, we extend some of the theory on regenerating codes to Galois rings. It was already known that the repair property of MDS codes over fields can be fully characterized in terms of its dual code. We show this characterization extends to linear codes over Galois rings, and use it to show the result of Guruswami and Wootters also holds true for Shamir's scheme over Galois rings.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Identity-Based Encryption for Fair Anonymity Applications: Defining, Implementing, and Applying Rerandomizable RCCA-secure IBE
Our context is anonymous encryption schemes hiding their receiver, but in a setting which allows authorities to reveal the receiver when needed. While anonymous Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) is a natural candidate for such fair anonymity (it gives trusted authority access by design), the {\it de facto} security standard (a.k.a. IND-ID-CCA) is incompatible with the ciphertext rerandomizability which is crucial to anonymous communication. Thus, we seek to extend IND-ID-CCA security for IBE to a notion that can be meaningfully relaxed for rerandomizability while it still protects against active adversaries. To the end, inspired by the notion of replayable adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack (RCCA) security (Canetti {\it et al.}, Crypto'03), we formalize a new security notion called Anonymous Identity-Based RCCA (ANON-ID-RCCA) security for rerandomizable IBE and propose the first construction with rigorous security analysis. The core of our scheme is a novel extension of the double-strand paradigm, which was originally proposed by Golle {\it et al.} (CT-RSA'04) and later extended by Prabhakaran and Rosulek (Crypto'07), to the well-known Gentry-IBE (Eurocrypt'06). Notably, our scheme is the first IBE that simultaneously satisfies adaptive security, rerandomizability, and recipient-anonymity to date. As the application of our new notion, we design a new universal mixnet in the identity-based setting that does not require public key distribution (with fair anonymity). More generally, our new notion is also applicable to most existing rerandomizable RCCA-secure applications to eliminate the need for public key distribution infrastructure while allowing fairness.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Double-Block-Length Hash Function for Minimum Memory Size
Sharing a common primitive for multiple functionalities is essential for lightweight cryptography, and NIST's lightweight cryptography competition (LWC) considers the integration of hashing to AEAD. While permutations are natural primitive choices in such a goal, for design diversity, it is interesting to investigate how small block-cipher (BC) based and tweakable block-cipher (TBC) based schemes can be. Double-block-length (DBL) hash function modes are suitable to ensure the same security level for AEAD and hashing, but hard to achieve a small memory size. Romulus, a TBC-based finalist in NIST LWC, introduced the DBL hashing scheme Romulus-H, but it requires $3n+k$ bits of memory using an underlying primitive with an $n$-bit block and a $k$-bit (twea)key. Even the smallest DBL modes in the literature require $2n+k$ bits of memory. Addressing this issue, we present new DBL modes EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieving $(n+k)$-bit state size, i.e., no extra memory in addition to $n+k$ bits needed within the primitive. EXEX-NI is indifferentiable from a random oracle up to $n - \log n$ bits. By instantiating it with SKINNY, we can provide hashing to Romulus with zero memory overhead. EXEX-I is an optimized mode with collision resistance. We finally compare the hardware performances of EXEX-NI and EXEX-I, and Romulus-H with SKINNY-128-384. EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieve the circuit-area reduction by 2,000+ GE, yielding the total areas being smaller than 70% of that of Romulus-H.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Proofs for Inner Pairing Products and Applications
We present a generalized inner product argument and demonstrate its applications to pairing-based languages. We apply our generalized argument to prove that an inner pairing product is correctly evaluated with respect to committed vectors of $n$ source group elements. With a structured reference string (SRS), we achieve a logarithmic-time verifier whose work is dominated by $6 \log n$ target group exponentiations. Proofs are of size $6 \log n$ target group elements, computed using $6n$ pairings and $4n$ exponentiations in each source group. We apply our inner product arguments to build the first polynomial commitment scheme with succinct (logarithmic) verification, $O(\sqrt{d})$ prover complexity for degree $d$ polynomials (not including the cost to evaluate the polynomial), and a SRS of size $O(\sqrt{d})$. Concretely, this means that for $d=2^{28}$, producing an evaluation proof in our protocol is $76\times$ faster than doing so in the KZG commitment scheme, and the CRS in our protocol is $1000\times$ smaller: $13$MB vs $13$GB for KZG. As a second application, we introduce an argument for aggregating $n$ Groth16 zkSNARKs into an $O(\log n)$ sized proof. Our protocol is significantly faster ($>1000\times$) than aggregating SNARKs via recursive composition: we aggregate $\sim 130,000$ proofs in $25$ minutes, versus $90$ proofs via recursive composition. Finally, we further apply our aggregation protocol to construct a low-memory SNARK for machine computations that does not rely on recursive composition. For a computation that requires time $T$ and space $S$, our SNARK produces proofs in space $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(S+T)$, which is significantly more space efficient than a monolithic SNARK, which requires space $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(S \cdot T)$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Batching Base Oblivious Transfers
Protocols that make use of oblivious transfer (OT) rarely require just one instance. Usually a batch of OTs is required — notably, when generating base OTs for OT extension. There is a natural way to optimize 2-round OT protocols when generating a batch, by reusing certain protocol messages across all instances. In this work we show that this batch optimization is error-prone. We catalog many implementations and papers that have an incorrect treatment of this batch optimization, some of them leading to catastrophic leakage in OT extension protocols. We provide a full treatment of how to properly optimize recent 2-round OT protocols for the batch setting. Along the way we show several performance improvements to the OT protocol of McQuoid, Rosulek, and Roy (ACM CCS 2020). In particular, we show an extremely simple OT construction that may be of pedagogical interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Private Join and Compute from PIR with Default
The private join and compute (PJC) functionality enables secure computation over data distributed across different databases, and is applicable to a wide range of applications, many of which address settings where the input databases are of significantly different sizes. We introduce the notion of private information retrieval (PIR) with default, which enables two-party PJC functionalities in a way that hides the size of the intersection of the two databases and incurs sublinear communication cost in the size of the bigger database. We provide two constructions for this functionality, one of which requires offline linear communication, which can be amortized across queries, and one that provides sublinear cost for each query but relies on more computationally expensive tools. We construct inner-product PJC, which has applications to ads conversion measurement and contact tracing, relying on an extension of PIR with default. We evaluate the efficiency of our constructions, which can enable $\mathbf{2^{8}}$ PIR with default lookups on a database of size $\mathbf{2^{25}}$ (or inner-product PJC on databases with such sizes) with the communication of $\mathbf{44}$MB, which costs less than $\mathbf{0.17}$c. for the client and $\mathbf{26.48}$c. for the server.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lunar: a Toolbox for More Efficient Universal and Updatable zkSNARKs and Commit-and-Prove Extensions
We study how to construct zkSNARKs whose SRS is universal and updatable, i.e., valid for all relations within a size-bound and to which a dynamic set of participants can indefinitely add secret randomness. Our focus is: efficient universal updatable zkSNARKs with linear-size SRS and their commit-and-prove variants. We both introduce new formal frameworks and techniques, as well as systematize existing ones. We achieve a collection of zkSNARKs with different tradeoffs. One of our schemes achieves the smallest proof size and proving time compared to the state of art for proofs for arithmetic circuits. The language supported by this scheme is a variant of R1CS that we introduce, called R1CS-lite. Another of our constructions directly supports standard R1CS and achieves the fastest proving time for this type of constraints. These results stem from different contributions: (1) a new algebraically-flavored variant of IOPs that we call Polynomial Holographic IOPs (PHPs); (2) a new compiler that combines our PHPs with commit-and-prove zk-SNARKs (CP-SNARKs) for committed polynomials; (3) pairing-based realizations of these CP-SNARKs for polynomials; (4) constructions of PHPs for R1CS and R1CS-lite. Finally, we extend the compiler in item (2) to yield commit-and-prove universal zkSNARKs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Clustering Effect in Simon and Simeck
Simon and Simeck are two lightweight block ciphers with a simple round function using only word rotations and a bit-wise AND operation. Previous work has shown a strong clustering effect for differential and linear cryptanalysis, due to the existence of many trails with the same inputs and outputs. In this paper, we explore this clustering effect by exhibiting a class of high probability differential and linear trails where the active bits stay in a fixed window of w bits. Instead of enumerating a set of good trails contributing to a differential or a linear approximation, we compute the probability distribution over this space, including all trails in the class. This results in stronger distinguishers than previously proposed, and we describe key recovery attacks against Simon and Simeck improving the previous results by up to 7 rounds. In particular, we obtain an attack against 42-round Simeck-64, leaving only two rounds of security margin, and an attack against 45-round Simon-96/144, reducing the security margin from 16 rounds to 9 rounds.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Encryption with Certified Deletion, Revisited: Public Key, Attribute-Based, and Classical Communication
Broadbent and Islam (TCC '20) proposed a quantum cryptographic primitive called quantum encryption with certified deletion. In this primitive, a receiver in possession of a quantum ciphertext can generate a classical certificate that the encrypted message is deleted. Although their construction is information-theoretically secure, it is limited to the setting of one-time symmetric key encryption (SKE), where a sender and receiver have to share a common key in advance and the key can be used only once. Moreover, the sender has to generate a quantum state and send it to the receiver over a quantum channel in their construction. Deletion certificates are privately verifiable, which means a verification key for a certificate must be kept secret, in the definition by Broadbent and Islam. However, we can also consider public verifiability. In this work, we present various constructions of encryption with certified deletion. - Quantum communication case: We achieve (reusable-key) public key encryption (PKE) and attribute-based encryption (ABE) with certified deletion. Our PKE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of IND-CPA secure PKE, and our ABE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation and one-way function. These two schemes are privately verifiable. - Classical communication case: We also achieve interactive encryption with certified deletion that uses only classical communication. We give two schemes, a privately verifiable one and a publicly verifiable one. The former is constructed assuming the LWE assumption in the quantum random oracle model. The latter is constructed assuming the existence of one-shot signatures and extractable witness encryption.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Faster Dual Lattice Attacks for Solving LWE -- with applications to CRYSTALS
Cryptosystems based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem are assigned a security level that relates to the cost of generic algorithms for solving the LWE problem. This includes at least the so- called primal and dual lattice attacks. In this paper, we present an improvement of the dual lattice attack using an idea that can be traced back to work by Bleichenbacher. We present an improved distinguisher that in combination with a guessing step shows a reduction in the overall complexity for the dual attack on all schemes. Our second contribution is a new two-step lattice reduction strategy that allows the new dual lattice attack to exploit two recent techniques in lattice reduction algorithms, i.e., the "dimensions for free" trick and the trick of producing many short vectors in one sieving. Since the incompatibility of these two tricks was believed to be the main reason that dual attacks are less interesting, our new reduction strategy allows more efficient dual approaches than primal attacks, for important cryptographic parameter sets. We apply the proposed attacks on CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium, two of the finalists in the NIST post-quantum cryptography project and present new lower complexity numbers, both classically and quantumly in the core-SVP model. Most importantly, for the proposed security parameters, our new dual attack with refined lattice reduction strategy greatly improves the state-of-the-art primal attack in the classical gate-count metric, i.e., the classical Random Access Machine (RAM) model, indicating that some parameters are really on the edge for their claimed security level. Specifically, the improvement factor can be as large as 15 bits for Kyber1024 with an extrapolation model (Albrecht et al. at Eurocrypt 2019). Also, we show that Kyber768 could be solved with classical gate complexity below its claimed security level. Last, we apply the new attack to the proposed parameters in a draft version of Homomorphic Encryption Standard (see https://homomorphicencryption.org) and obtain significant gains. For instance, we could solve a parameter set aiming for 192-bit security in $2^{187.0}$ operations in the classical RAM model. Note that these parameters are deployed in well-known Fully Homomorphic Encryption libraries.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Symmetric Key Exchange with Full Forward Security and Robust Synchronization
We construct lightweight authenticated key exchange protocols based on pre-shared keys, which achieve full forward security and rely only on simple and efficient symmetric-key primitives. All of our protocols have rigorous security proofs in a strong security model, all have low communication complexity, and are particularly suitable for resource-constrained devices. We describe three protocols that apply linear key evolution to provide different performance and security properties. Correctness in parallel and concurrent protocol sessions is difficult to achieve for linearly key-evolving protocols, emphasizing the need for assurance of availability alongside the usual confidentiality and authentication security goals. We introduce synchronization robustness as a new formal security goal, which essentially guarantees that parties can re-synchronize efficiently. All of our new protocols achieve this property. Since protocols based on linear key evolution cannot guarantee that all concurrently initiated sessions successfully derive a key, we also propose two constructions with non-linear key evolution based on puncturable PRFs. These are instantiable from standard hash functions and require O( C log(|CTR|)) memory, where C is the number of concurrent sessions and |CTR| is an upper bound on the total number of sessions per party. These are the first protocols to simultaneously achieve full forward security, synchronization robustness, and concurrent correctness.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks
We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves. It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points. We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation. Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme. We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours. Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.
2021
ASIACRYPT
How to Build a Trapdoor Function from an Encryption Scheme
In this work we ask the following question: Can we transform any encryption scheme into a trapdoor function (TDF)? Alternatively stated, can we make any encryption scheme randomness recoverable? We propose a generic compiler that takes as input any encryption scheme with pseudorandom ciphertexts and adds a trapdoor to invert the encryption, recovering also the random coins. This universal TDFier only assumes in addition the existence of a hinting pseudorandom generator (PRG). Despite the simplicity, our transformation is quite general and we establish a series of new feasibility results: - The first identity-based TDF [Bellare et al. EUROCRYPT 2012] from the CDH assumption in pairing-free groups (or from factoring), thus matching the state of the art for identity-based encryption schemes. Prior works required pairings or LWE. - The first collusion-resistant attribute-based TDF (AB-TDF) for all ($NC^1$, resp.) circuits from LWE (bilinear maps, resp.). Moreover, the first single-key AB-TDF from CDH. To the best of our knowledge, no AB-TDF was known in the literature (not even for a single key) from any assumption. We obtain the same results for predicate encryption. As an additional contribution, we define and construct a trapdoor garbling scheme: A simulation secure garbling scheme with a hidden ``trigger'' that allows the evaluator to fully recover the randomness used by the garbling algorithm. We show how to construct trapdoor garbling from the DDH or LWE assumption with an interplay of key-dependent message (KDM) and randomness-dependent message (RDM) techniques. Trapdoor garbling allows us to obtain alternative constructions of (single-key) AB-TDFs with additional desirable properties, such as adaptive security (in the choice of the attribute) and projective keys. We expect trapdoor garbling to be useful in other contexts, e.g. in case where, upon successful execution, the evaluator needs to immediately verify that the garbled circuit was well-formed.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice sieving via quantum random walks
Lattice-based cryptography is one of the leading proposals for post-quantum cryptography. The Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) is arguably the most important problem for the cryptanalysis of lattice-based cryptography, and many lattice-based schemes have security claims based on its hardness. The best quantum algorithm for the SVP is due to Laarhoven [Laa16 PhD] and runs in (heuristic) time $2^{0.2653d + o(d)}$. In this article, we present an improvement over Laarhoven's result and present an algorithm that has a (heuristic) running time of $2^{0.2570 d + o(d)}$ where $d$ is the lattice dimension. We also present time-memory trade-offs where we quantify the amount of quantum memory and quantum random access memory of our algorithm. The core idea is to replace Grover's algorithm used in [Laa16 PhD] in a key part of the sieving algorithm by a quantum random walk in which we add a layer of local sensitive filtering.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Shorter Lattice-Based Group Signatures via ``Almost Free'' Encryption and Other Optimizations
We present an improved lattice-based group signature scheme whose parameter sizes and running times are independent of the group size. The signature length in our scheme is around $200$KB, which is approximately a $3$X reduction over the previously most compact such scheme, based on any quantum-safe assumption, of del Pino et al. (CCS 2018). The improvement comes via several optimizations of some basic cryptographic components that make up group signature schemes, and we think that they will find other applications in privacy-based lattice cryptography.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Divided We Stand, United We Fall: Security Analysis of Some SCA+SIFA Countermeasures Against SCA-Enhanced Fault Template Attacks
Protection against side-channel (SCA) and fault attacks (FA) requires two classes of countermeasures to be simultaneously embedded in a cryptographic implementation. It has already been shown that a straightforward combination of SCA and FA countermeasures are vul- nerable against FAs, such as Statistical Ineffective Fault Analysis (SIFA) and Fault Template Attacks (FTA). Consequently, new classes of countermeasures have been proposed which prevent against SIFA, and also includes masking for SCA protection. While they are secure against SIFA and SCA individually, one important question is whether the security claim still holds at the presence of a combined SCA and FA adversary. Security against combined attacks is, however, desired, as countermeasures for both threats are included in such implementations. In this paper, we show that some of the recently proposed combined SIFA and SCA countermeasures fall prey against combined attacks. To this end, we enhance the FTA attacks by considering side-channel information during fault injection. The success of the proposed attacks stems from some non-trivial fault propagation properties of S-Boxes, which remains unexplored in the original FTA proposal. The proposed attacks are validated on an open-source software implementation of Keccak with SIFA-protected χ 5 S-Box with laser fault injection and power measurement, and a hardware implementation of a SIFA-protected χ3 S-Box through gate-level power trace simulation. Finally, we discuss some mitigation strategies to strengthen existing countermeasures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Improved Programmable Bootstrapping with Larger Precision and Efficient Arithmetic Circuits for TFHE
Fully Homomorphic Encryption} (FHE) schemes enable to compute over encrypted data. Among them, TFHE [CGGI17] has the great advantage of offering an efficient method for bootstrapping noisy ciphertexts, i.e., reduce the noise. Indeed, homomorphic computation increases the noise in ciphertexts and might compromise the encrypted message. TFHE bootstrapping, in addition to reducing the noise, also evaluates (for free) univariate functions expressed as look-up tables. It however requires to have the most significant bit of the plaintext to be known a priori, resulting in the loss of one bit of space to store messages. Furthermore it represents a non negligible overhead in terms of computation in many use cases. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this limitation, that we call Programmable Bootstrapping Without Padding (WoP-PBS). This approach relies on two building blocks. The first one is the multiplication à la BFV [FV12] that we incorporate into TFHE. This is possible thanks to a thorough noise analysis showing that correct multiplications can be computed using practical TFHE parameters. The second building block is the generalization of TFHE bootstrapping introduced in this paper. It offers the flexibility to select any chunk of bits in an encrypted plaintext during a bootstrap. It also enables to evaluate many LUTs at the same time when working with small enough precision. All these improvements are particularly helpful in some applications such as the evaluation of Boolean circuits (where a bootstrap is no longer required in each evaluated gate) and, more generally, in the efficient evaluation of arithmetic circuits even with large integers. Those results improve TFHE circuit bootstrapping as well. Moreover, we show that bootstrapping large precision integers is now possible using much smaller parameters than those obtained by scaling TFHE ones.
2021
ASIACRYPT
SHealS and HealS: isogeny-based PKEs from a key validation method for SIDH
In 2016, Galbraith et al. presented an adaptive attack on the SIDH key exchange protocol. In SIKE, one applies a variant of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform to force Bob to reveal his encryption key to Alice, which Alice then uses to re-encrypt Bob's ciphertext and verify its validity. Therefore, Bob can not reuse his encryption keys. There have been two other proposed countermeasures enabling static-static private keys: k-SIDH and its variant by Jao and Urbanik. These countermeasures are relatively expensive since they consist in running multiple parallel instances of SIDH. In this paper, firstly, we propose a new countermeasure to the GPST adaptive attack on SIDH. Our countermeasure does not require key disclosure as in SIKE, nor multiple parallel instances as in k-SIDH. We translate our countermeasure into a key validation method for SIDH-type schmes. Secondly, we use our key validation to design HealSIDH, an efficient SIDH-type static-static key interactive exchange protocol. Thirdly, we derive a PKE scheme SHealS using HealSIDH. SHealS uses larger primes compared to SIKE, has larger keys and ciphertexts, but only $4$ isogenies are computed in a full execution of the scheme, as opposed to $5$ isogenies in SIKE. We prove that SHealS is IND-CPA secure relying on a new assumption we introduce and we conjecture its IND-CCA security. We suggest HealS, a variant of SHealS using a smaller prime, providing smaller keys and ciphertexts. As a result, HealSIDH is a practically efficient SIDH based (interactive) key exchange incorporating a "direct" countermeasure to the GPST adaptive attack.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Digital Signatures with Memory-Tight Security in the Multi-Challenge Setting
The standard security notion for digital signatures is "single-challenge" (SC) EUF-CMA security, where the adversary outputs a single message-signature pair and "wins" if it is a forgery. Auerbach et al. (CRYPTO 2017) introduced memory-tightness of reductions and argued that the right security goal in this setting is actually a stronger "multi-challenge" (MC) definition, where an adversary may output many message-signature pairs and "wins" if at least one is a forgery. Currently, no construction from simple standard assumptions is known to achieve full tightness with respect to time, success probability, and memory simultaneously. Previous works showed that memory-tight signatures cannot be achieved via certain natural classes of reductions (Auerbach et al., CRYPTO 2017; Wang et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). These impossibility results may give the impression that the construction of memory-tight signatures is difficult or even impossible. We show that this impression is false, by giving the first constructions of signature schemes with full tightness in all dimensions in the MC setting. To circumvent the known impossibility results, we first introduce the notion of canonical reductions in the SC setting. We prove a general theorem establishing that every signature scheme with a canonical reduction is already memory-tightly secure in the MC setting, provided that it is strongly unforgeable, the adversary receives only one signature per message, and assuming the existence of a tightly-secure pseudorandom function. We then achieve memory-tight many-signatures-per-message security in the MC setting by a simple additional generic transformation. This yields the first memory-tightly, strongly EUF-CMA-secure signature schemes in the MC setting. Finally, we show that standard security proofs often already can be viewed as canonical reductions. Concretely, we show this for signatures from lossy identification schemes (Abdalla et al., EUROCRYPT 2012), two variants of RSA Full-Domain Hash (Bellare and Rogaway, EUROCRYPT 1996), and two variants of BLS signatures (Boneh et al., ASIACRYPT 2001).
2021
ASIACRYPT
Random Probing Expansion: Quasi Linear Gadgets & Dynamic Compilers
The masking countermeasure is widely used to protect cryptographic implementations against side-channel attacks. While many masking schemes are shown to be secure in the widely deployed probing model, the latter raised a number of concerns regarding its relevance in practice. Offering the adversary the knowledge of a fixed number of intermediate variables, it does not capture the so-called horizontal attacks which exploit the repeated manipulation of sensitive variables. Therefore, recent works have focused on the random probing model in which each computed variable leaks with some given probability p. This model benefits from fitting better the reality of the embedded devices. In particular, Belaïd, Coron, Prouff, Rivain, and Taleb (CRYPTO 2020) introduced a framework to generate random probing circuits. Their compiler somehow extends base gadgets as soon as they satisfy a notion called random probing expandability (RPE). A subsequent work from Belaïd, Rivain, and Taleb (EUROCRYPT 2021) went a step forward with tighter properties and improved complexities. In particular, their construction reaches a complexity of O(κ^{3.9}), for a κ-bit security, while tolerating a leakage probability of p = 2^{−7.5}. In this paper, we generalize the random probing expansion approach by considering a dynamic choice of the base gadgets at each step in the expansion. This approach makes it possible to use gadgets with high number of shares –which enjoy better asymptotic complexity in the expansion framework– while still tolerating the best leakage rate usually obtained for small gadgets. We investigate strategies for the choice of the sequence of compilers and show that it can reduce the complexity of an AES implementation by a factor 10. We also significantly improve the asymptotic complexity of the expanding compiler by exhibiting new asymptotic gadget constructions. Specifically, we introduce RPE gadgets for linear operations featuring a quasi-linear complexity, as well as, an RPE multiplication gadget with linear number of multiplications. These new gadgets drop the complexity of the expanding compiler from quadratic to quasi-linear.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Verifiably-Extractable OWFs and Their Applications to Subversion Zero-Knowledge
An extractable one-way function (EOWF), introduced by Canetti and Dakdouk (ICALP 2008) and generalized by Bitansky et al. (SIAM Journal on Computing vol. 45), is an OWF that allows for efficient extraction of a preimage for the function. We study (generalized) EOWFs that have a public image verification algorithm. We call such OWFs verifiably-extractable and show that several previously known constructions satisfy this notion. We study how such OWFs relate to subversion zero-knowledge (Sub-ZK) NIZKs by using them to generically construct a Sub-ZK NIZK from a NIZK satisfying certain additional properties, and conversely show how to obtain them from any Sub-ZK NIZK. Prior to our work, the Sub-ZK property of NIZKs was achieved using concrete knowledge assumptions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
QCB: Efficient Quantum-secure Authenticated Encryption
It was long thought that symmetric cryptography was only mildly affected by quantum attacks, and that doubling the key length was sufficient to restore security. However, recent works have shown that Simon's quantum period finding algorithm breaks a large number of MAC and authenticated encryption algorithms when the adversary can query the MAC/encryption oracle with a quantum superposition of messages. In particular, the OCB authenticated encryption mode is broken in this setting, and no quantum-secure mode is known with the same efficiency (rate-one and parallelizable). In this paper we generalize the previous attacks, show that a large class of OCB-like schemes is unsafe against superposition queries, and discuss the quantum security notions for authenticated encryption modes. We propose a new rate-one parallelizable mode named QCB inspired by TAE and OCB and prove its security against quantum superposition queries.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient NIZKs for Algebraic Sets
Significantly extending the framework of (Couteau and Hartmann, Crypto 2020), we propose a general methodology to construct NIZKs for showing that an encrypted vector $\vec{\chi}$ belongs to an algebraic set, i.e., is in the zero locus of an ideal $\mathscr{I}$ of a polynomial ring. In the case where $\mathscr{I}$ is principal, i.e., generated by a single polynomial $F$, we first construct a matrix that is a ``quasideterminantal representation'' of $F$ and then a NIZK argument to show that $F (\vec{\chi}) = 0$. This leads to compact NIZKs for general computational structures, such as polynomial-size algebraic branching programs. We extend the framework to the case where $\IDEAL$ is non-principal, obtaining efficient NIZKs for R1CS, arithmetic constraint satisfaction systems, and thus for $\mathsf{NP}$. As an independent result, we explicitly describe the corresponding language of ciphertexts as an algebraic language, with smaller parameters than in previous constructions that were based on the disjunction of algebraic languages. This results in an efficient GL-SPHF for algebraic branching programs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
ConTra Corona: Contact Tracing against the Coronavirus by Bridging the Centralized–Decentralized Divide for Stronger Privacy
Contact tracing is among the most important interventions to mitigate the spread of any pandemic usually in the form of manual contact tracing. Smartphone-facilitated digital contact tracing may help to increase tracing capabilities and extend the coverage to those contacts one does not know in person. Most implemented protocols use local Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) communication to detect contagion-relevant proximity, together with cryptographic protections, as necessary to improve the privacy of the users of such a system. However, current decentralized protocols, including DP3T, do not sufficiently protect infected users from having their status revealed to their contacts, which raises fear of stigmatization. We alleviate this by proposing a new and practical solution with stronger privacy guarantees against active adversaries. It is based on the upload-what-you-observed paradigm, includes a separation of duties on the server side, and a mechanism to ensure that users cannot deduce which encounter caused a warning with high time resolution. Finally, we present a simulation-based security notion of digital contact tracing in the real–ideal setting, and prove the security of our protocol in this framework.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Franchised Quantum Money
The construction of public key quantum money based on standard cryptographic assumptions is a longstanding open question. Here we introduce franchised quantum money, an alternative form of quantum money that is easier to construct. Franchised quantum money retains the features of a useful quantum money scheme, namely unforgeability and local verification: anyone can verify banknotes without communicating with the bank. In franchised quantum money, every user gets a unique secret verification key, and the scheme is secure against counterfeiting and sabotage, a new security notion that appears in the franchised model. Finally, we construct franchised quantum money and prove security assuming one-way functions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Cryptographic Analysis of the Bluetooth Secure Connection Protocol Suite
We give a cryptographic analysis of the Bluetooth Secure Connection Protocol Suite. Bluetooth supports several subprotocols such as numeric comparison, passkey entrance, and just works, in order to match the devices' different input/output capabilities. Previous analyses (e.g., Lindell, CT-RSA'09, or Troncoso and Hale, NDSS'21) often considered (and confirmed) the security of single subprotocols only. Recent practically verified attacks, however, such as the Method Confusion Attack (von Tschirschnitz et al., S&P 21) against Bluetooth's authentication and key secrecy property often exploit the bad interplay of different subprotocols. Even worse, some of these attacks show that one cannot show the Bluetooth protocol suite to be a secure authenticated key exchange protocol. We therefore aim at the best we can hope for, and show that the protocol still matches the common key secrecy requirements of a key-exchange protocol if one assumes a trust-on-first-use relationship. This means that the adversary needs to mount an active attack during the first connection, otherwise the subsequent reconnections remain secure. Investigating the cryptographic strength of the Bluetooth protocol we also look into the privacy mechanism of address randomization in Bluetooth (which is only available in the Low Energy version). We show that the cryptography indeed provides a decent level of address privacy, although this does not rule out identification of devices via other means, such as physical characteristics.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Boolean Search over Encrypted Data with Reduced Leakage
Encrypted multi-maps enable outsourcing the storage of a multi-map to an untrusted server while maintaining the ability to query privately. We focus on encrypted Boolean multi-maps that support arbitrary Boolean queries over the multi-map. Kamara and Moataz [Eurocrypt’17] presented the first encrypted multi-map, BIEX, that supports CNF queries with optimal communication, worst-case sublinear search time and non-trivial leakage. We improve on previous work by presenting a new construction CNFFilter for CNF queries with significantly less leakage than BIEX, while maintaining both optimal communication and worst-case sublinear search time. As a direct consequence our construction shows additional resistance to leakage-abuse attacks in comparison to prior works. For most CNF queries, CNFFilter avoids leaking the result sets for any singleton queries for labels appearing in the CNF query. As an example, for the CNF query of the form (l1 ∨ l2) ∧ l3, our scheme does not leak the result sizes of queries to l1, l2 or l3 individually. On the other hand, BIEX does leak some of this information. This is just an example of the reduced leakage obtained by CNFFilter. The core of CNFFilter is a new filtering algorithm that performs set intersections with significantly less leakage compared to prior works. We implement CNFFilter and show that CNFFilter achieves faster search times and similar communication overhead compared to BIEX at the cost of a small increase in server storage.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Leakage-Resilient MACs without Idealized Assumptions
The security proofs of leakage-resilient MACs based on symmetric building blocks currently rely on idealized assumptions that hardly translate into interpretable guidelines for the cryptographic engineers implementing these schemes. In this paper, we first present a leakage-resilient MAC that is both efficient and secure under standard and easily interpretable black box and physical assumptions. It only requires a collision resistant hash function and a single call per message authentication to a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) that is unpredictable with leakage. This construction leverages two design twists: large tweaks for the TBC and a verification process that checks the inverse TBC against a constant. It enjoys beyond birthday security bounds. We then discuss the cost of getting rid of these design twists. We show that security can be proven without them as well. Yet, a construction without large tweaks requires stronger (non idealized) assumptions and inevitably incurs performance overheads if specialized TBCs can be exploited, and a construction without twisted verification requires even stronger assumptions (still non idealized) and leads to more involved bounds. The combination of these results makes a case for our first pragmatic construction and suggests the design of TBCs with large tweaks and good properties for side-channel countermeasures as an interesting challenge.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tight adaptive reprogramming in the QROM
The random oracle model (ROM) enjoys widespread popularity, mostly because it tends to allow for tight and conceptually simple proofs where provable security in the standard model is elusive or costly. While being the adequate replacement of the ROM in the post-quantum security setting, the quantum-accessible random oracle model (QROM) has thus far failed to provide these advantages in many settings. In this work, we focus on adaptive reprogrammability, a feature of the ROM enabling tight and simple proofs in many settings. We show that the straightforward quantum-accessible generalization of adaptive reprogramming is feasible by proving a bound on the adversarial advantage in distinguishing whether a random oracle has been reprogrammed or not. We show that our bound is tight by providing a matching attack. We go on to demonstrate that our technique recovers the mentioned advantages of the ROM in three QROM applications: 1) We give a tighter proof of security of the message compression routine as used by XMSS. 2) We show that the standard ROM proof of chosen-message security for Fiat-Shamir signatures can be lifted to the QROM, straightforwardly, achieving a tighter reduction than previously known. 3) We give the first QROM proof of security against fault injection and nonce attacks for the hedged Fiat-Shamir transform.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Convexity of division property transitions: theory, algorithms and compact models
Integral cryptanalysis is a powerful tool for attacking symmetric primitives, and division property is a state-of-the-art framework for finding integral distinguishers. This work describes new theoretical and practical insights into traditional bit-based division property. We focus on analyzing and exploiting monotonicity/convexity of division property and its relation to the graph indicator. In particular, our investigation leads to a new compact representation of propagation, which allows CNF/MILP modeling for larger S-Boxes, such as 16-bit Super-Sboxes of lightweight block ciphers or even 32-bit random S-boxes. This solves the challenge posed by Derbez and Fouque (ToSC 2020), who questioned the possibility of SAT/SMT/MILP modeling of 16-bit Super-Sboxes. As a proof-of-concept, we model the Super-Sboxes of the 8-round LED by CNF formulas, which was not feasible by any previous approach. Our analysis is further supported by an elegant algorithmic framework. We describe simple algorithms for computing division property of a set of $n$-bit vectors in time $O(n2^n)$, reducing such sets to minimal/maximal elements in time $O(n2^n)$, computing division property propagation table of an $n\times m$-bit S-box and its compact representation in time $O((n+m)2^{n+m})$. In addition, we develop an advanced algorithm tailored to "heavy" bijections, allowing to model, for example, a randomly generated 32-bit S-box.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Hierarchical Integrated Signature and Encryption
In this work, we introduce the notion of hierarchical integrated signature and encryption (HISE), wherein a single public key is used for both signature and encryption, and one can derive a secret key used only for decryption from the signing key, which enables secure delegation of decryption capability. HISE enjoys the benefit of key reuse, and admits individual key escrow. We present two generic constructions of HISE. One is from (constrained) identity-based encryption. The other is from uniform one-way function, public-key encryption, and general-purpose public-coin zero-knowledge proof of knowledge. To further attain global key escrow, we take a little detour to revisit global escrow PKE, an object both of independent interest and with many applications. We formalize the syntax and security model of global escrow PKE, and provide two generic constructions. The first embodies a generic approach to compile any PKE into one with global escrow property. The second establishes a connection between three-party non-interactive key exchange and global escrow PKE. Combining the results developed above, we obtain HISE schemes that support both individual and global key escrow. We instantiate our generic constructions of (global escrow) HISE and implement all the resulting concrete schemes for 128-bit security. Our schemes have performance that is comparable to the best Cartesian product combined public-key scheme, and exhibit advantages in terms of richer functionality and public key reuse. As a byproduct, we obtain a new global escrow PKE scheme that outperforms the best prior work in speed by several orders of magnitude, which might be of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Geometric Approach to Linear Cryptanalysis
A new interpretation of linear cryptanalysis is proposed. This 'geometric approach' unifies all common variants of linear cryptanalysis, reveals links between various properties, and suggests additional generalizations. For example, new insights into invariants corresponding to non-real eigenvalues of correlation matrices and a generalization of the link between zero-correlation and integral attacks are obtained. Geometric intuition leads to a fixed-key motivation for the piling-up principle, which is illustrated by explaining and generalizing previous results relating invariants and linear approximations. Rank-one approximations are proposed to analyze cell-oriented ciphers, and used to resolve an open problem posed by Beierle, Canteaut and Leander at FSE 2019. In particular, it is shown how such approximations can be analyzed automatically using Riemannian optimization.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice Enumeration for Tower NFS: a 521-bit Discrete Logarithm Computation
The Tower variant of the Number Field Sieve (TNFS) is known to be asymptotically the most efficient algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem in finite fields of medium characteristics, when the extension degree is composite. A major obstacle to an efficient implementation of TNFS is the collection of algebraic relations, as it happens in dimension greater than 2. This requires the construction of new sieving algorithms which remain efficient as the dimension grows. In this article, we overcome this difficulty by considering a lattice enumeration algorithm which we adapt to this specific context. We also consider a new sieving area, a high-dimensional sphere, whereas previous sieving algorithms for the classical NFS considered an orthotope. Our new sieving technique leads to a much smaller running time, despite the larger dimension of the search space, and even when considering a larger target, as demonstrated by a record computation we performed in a 521-bit finite field GF(p^6). The target finite field is of the same form than finite fields used in recent zero-knowledge proofs in some blockchains. This is the first reported implementation of TNFS.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Promise $\Sigma$-protocol: How to Construct Efficient Threshold ECDSA from Encryptions Based on Class Groups
Threshold Signatures allow $n$ parties to share the ability of issuing digital signatures so that any coalition of size at least $t+1$ can sign, whereas groups of $t$ or less players cannot. The currently known class-group-based threshold ECDSA constructions are either inefficient (requiring parallel-repetition of the underlying zero knowledge proof with small challenge space) or requiring rather non-standard assumptions. In this paper, under \emph{standard assumptions} we present efficient threshold ECDSA protocols from encryption schemes based on class groups \emph{without parallel repeating the underlying zero knowledge proof}, yielding a significant efficiency improvement in the key generation over previous constructions (even those based on non-standard assumptions). Along the way we introduce a new notion of \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-protocol that satisfies only a weaker soundness called \emph{promise extractability}. An accepting \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-proof for statements related to class-group-based encryptions does not establish the truth of the statement but provides security guarantees (promise extractability) that are sufficient for our applications. We also show how to simulate homomorphic operations on a (possibly invalid) class-group-based encryption whose correctness has been proven via our \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-protocol. We believe that these techniques are of independent interest and applicable to other scenarios where efficient zero knowledge proofs for statements related to class-group is required.