## CryptoDB

### Papers from CRYPTO 2023

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2023

CRYPTO

A Framework for Statistically Sender Private OT with Optimal Rate
Abstract

Statistical sender privacy (SSP) is the strongest achievable security notion for two-message oblivious transfer (OT) in the standard model, providing statistical security against malicious receivers and computational security against semi-honest senders. In this work we provide a novel construction of SSP OT from the Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumptions achieving (asymptotically) optimal amortized communication complexity, i.e. it achieves rate 1. Concretely, the total communication complexity for $k$ OT instances is $2k(1+o(1))$, which (asymptotically) approaches the information-theoretic lower bound. Previously, it was only known how to realize this primitive using heavy rate-1 FHE techniques [Brakerski et al., Gentry and Halevi TCC'19].
At the heart of our construction is a primitive called statistical co-PIR, essentially a a public key encryption scheme which statistically erases bits of the message in a few hidden locations. Our scheme achieves nearly optimal ciphertext size and provides statistical security against malicious receivers. Computational security against semi-honest senders holds under the DDH assumption.

2023

CRYPTO

Black-Hole Radiation Decoding is Quantum Cryptography
Abstract

We propose to study equivalence relations between phenomena in high-energy physics and the existence of standard cryptographic primitives, and show the first example where such an equivalence holds. A small number of prior works showed that high-energy phenomena can be explained by cryptographic hardness. Examples include using the existence of one-way functions to explain the hardness of decoding black-hole Hawking radiation (Harlow and Hayden 2013, Aaronson 2016), and using pseudorandom quantum states to explain the hardness of computing AdS/CFT dictionary (Bouland, Fefferman and Vazirani, 2020).
In this work we show, for the former example of black-hole radiation decoding, that it also implies the existence of secure quantum cryptography. In fact, we show an existential equivalence between the hardness of black-hole radiation decoding and a variety of cryptographic primitives, including bit-commitment schemes and oblivious transfer protocols (using quantum communication). This can be viewed (with proper disclaimers, as we discuss) as providing a physical justification for the existence of secure cryptography. We conjecture that such connections may be found in other high-energy physics phenomena.

2023

CRYPTO

Completeness Theorems for Adaptively Secure Broadcast
Abstract

The advent of blockchain protocols has reignited the interest in adaptively secure broadcast; it is by now well understood that broadcasting over a diffusion network allows an adaptive adversary to corrupt the sender depending on the message it attempts to send and change it. Hirt and Zikas [Eurocrypt '10] proved that this is an inherent limitation of broadcast in the simulation-based setting---i.e., this task is impossible against an adaptive adversary corrupting a majority of the parties (a task that is achievable against a static adversary).
The contributions of this paper are two-fold. First, we show that, contrary to previous perception, the above limitation of adaptively secure broadcast is not an artifact of simulation-based security, but rather an inherent issue of adaptive security. In particular, we show that: (1) it also applies to the property-based broadcast definition adapted for adaptive adversaries, and (2) unlike other impossibilities in adaptive security, this impossibility cannot be circumvented by adding a programmable random oracle, in neither setting, property-based or simulation-based.
Second, we turn to the resource-restricted cryptography (RRC) paradigm [Garay et al., Eurocrypt '20], which has proven useful in circumventing impossibility results, and ask whether it also affects the above negative result. We answer this question in the affirmative, by showing that time-lock puzzles (TLPs)---which can be viewed as an instance of RRC---indeed allow for achieving the property-based definition and circumvent the impossibility of adaptively secure broadcast. The natural question is then, do TLPs also allow for simulation-based adaptively secure broadcast against corrupted majorities? We answer this question in the negative. However, we show that a positive result can be achieved via a non-committing analogue of TLPs in the programmable random-oracle model.
Importantly, and as a contribution of independent interest, we also present the first (limited) composition theorem in the resource-restricted setting, which is needed for the complexity-based, non-idealized treatment of TLPs in the context of other protocols.

2023

CRYPTO

Cuckoo Hashing in Cryptography: Optimal Parameters, Robustness and Applications
Abstract

Cuckoo hashing is a powerful primitive that enables storing items using small space with efficient querying. At a high level, cuckoo hashing maps $n$ items into $b$ entries storing at most $\ell$ items such that each item is placed into one of $k$ randomly chosen entries. Additionally, there is an overflow stash that can store at most $s$ items. Many cryptographic primitives rely upon cuckoo hashing to privately embed and query data where it is integral to ensure small failure probability when constructing cuckoo hashing tables as it directly relates to the privacy guarantees.
As our main result, we present a more query-efficient cuckoo hashing construction using more hash functions. For construction failure probability $\epsilon$, the query overhead of our scheme is $O(1 + \sqrt{\log(1/\epsilon)/\log n})$. Our scheme has quadratically smaller query overhead than prior works for any target failure probability $\epsilon$. We also prove lower bounds matching our construction. Our improvements come from a new understanding of the locality of cuckoo hashing failures for small sets of items.
We also initiate the study of robust cuckoo hashing where the input set may be chosen with knowledge of the hash functions. We present a cuckoo hashing scheme using more hash functions with query overhead $\tilde{O}(\log \lambda)$ that is robust against $\poly(\lambda)$ adversaries. Furthermore, we present lower bounds showing that this construction is tight and that extending previous approaches of large stashes or entries cannot obtain robustness except with $\Omega(n)$ query overhead.
As applications of our results, we obtain improved constructions for batch codes and PIR. In particular, we present the most efficient explicit batch code and blackbox reduction from single-query PIR to batch PIR.

2023

CRYPTO

Efficient Hybrid Exact/Relaxed Lattice Proofs and Applications to Rounding and VRFs
Abstract

In this work, we study hybrid exact/relaxed zero-knowledge proofs from lattices, where the proved relation is exact in one part and relaxed in the other. Such proofs arise in important real-life applications such as those requiring verifiable PRF evaluation and have so far not received significant attention as a standalone problem.
We first introduce a general framework, LANES+, for realizing such hybrid proofs efficiently by combining standard relaxed proofs of knowledge RPoK and the LANES framework (due to a series of works in Crypto'20, Asiacrypt'20, ACM CCS'20). The latter framework is a powerful lattice-based proof system that can prove exact linear and multiplicative relations. The advantage of LANES+ is its ability to realize hybrid proofs more efficiently by exploiting RPoK for the high-dimensional part of the secret witness while leaving a low-dimensional secret witness part for the exact proof that is proven at a significantly lower cost via LANES. Thanks to the flexibility of LANES+, other exact proof systems can also be supported.
We apply our LANES+ framework to construct substantially shorter proofs of rounding, which is a central tool for verifiable deterministic lattice-based cryptography. Based on our rounding proof, we then design an efficient long-term verifiable random function (VRF), named LaV. LaV leads to the shortest VRF outputs among the proposals of standard (i.e., long-term and stateless) VRFs based on quantum-safe assumptions. Of independent interest, we also present generalized results for challenge difference invertibility, a fundamental soundness security requirement for many proof systems.

2023

CRYPTO

Fast Blind Rotation for Bootstrapping FHEs
Abstract

Blind rotation is one of the key techniques to construct fully homomorphic encryptions with the best known bootstrapping algorithms running in less than one second. Currently, the two main approaches, namely, AP and GINX, for realizing blind rotation are first introduced by Alperin-Sheriff and Peikert (CRYPTO 2014) and Gama, Izabachene, Nguyen and Xie (EUROCRYPT 2016), respectively.
In this paper, we propose a new blind rotation algorithm based on a GSW-like encryption from the NTRU assumption. Our algorithm has performance asymptotically independent from the key distributions, and outperforms AP and GINX in both the evaluation key size and the computational efficiency (especially for large key distributions). By using our blind rotation algorithm as a building block, we present new bootstrapping algorithms for both LWE and RLWE ciphertexts.
We implement our bootstrapping algorithm for LWE ciphertexts, and compare the actual performance with two bootstrapping algorithms, namely, FHEW/AP by Ducas and Micciancio (EUROCRYPT 2015) and TFHE/GINX by Chillotti, Gama, Georgieva and Izabach\`ene (Journal of Cryptology 2020), that were implemented in the OpenFHE library. For parameters with ternary key distribution at 128-bit security, our bootstrapping only needs to store evaluation key of size 18.65MB for blind rotation, which is about 89.8 times smaller than FHEW/AP and 2.9 times smaller than TFHE/GINX. Moreover, our bootstrapping can be done in 112ms on a laptop, which is about 3.2 times faster than FHEW/AP and 2.1 times faster than TFHE/GINX. More improvements are available for large key distributions such as Gaussian distributions.

2023

CRYPTO

Lattice Signature with Efficient Protocols, Application to Anonymous Credentials
Abstract

Digital signature is an essential primitive in cryptography, which can be used as the digital analogue of handwritten signatures but also as a building block for more complex systems. In the latter case, signatures with specific features are needed, so as to smoothly interact with the other components of the systems, such as zero-knowledge proofs. This has given rise to so-called signatures with efficient protocols, a versatile tool that has been used in countless applications. Designing such signatures is however quite difficult, in particular if one wishes to withstand quantum computing. We are indeed aware of only one post-quantum construction, proposed by Libert et al. at Asiacrypt'16, yielding very large signatures and proofs.
In this paper, we propose a new construction that can be instantiated in both standard lattices and structured ones, resulting in each case in dramatic performance improvements. In particular, the size of a proof of message-signature possession, which is one of the main metrics for such schemes, can be brought down to less than 650 KB. As our construction retains all the features expected from signatures with efficient protocols, it can be used as a drop-in replacement in all systems using them, which mechanically improves their own performance, and has thus a direct impact on many applications. It can also be used to easily design new privacy-preserving mechanisms. As an example, we provide the first lattice-based anonymous credentials system.

2023

CRYPTO

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from Non-Interactive Batch Arguments
Abstract

Zero-knowledge and succinctness are two important properties that arise in the study of non-interactive arguments. Previously, Kitagawa et al. (TCC 2020) showed how to obtain a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument for NP from a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for NP. In particular, their work demonstrates how to leverage the succinctness property from an argument system and transform it into a zero-knowledge property.
In this work, we study a similar question of leveraging succinctness for zero-knowledge. Our starting point is a batch argument for NP, a primitive that allows a prover to convince a verifier of $T$ NP statements $x_1, \ldots, x_T$ with a proof whose size scales sublinearly with $T$. Unlike SNARGs for NP, batch arguments for NP can be built from group-based assumptions in both pairing and pairing-free groups and from lattice-based assumptions. The challenge with batch arguments is that the proof size is only amortized over the number of instances, but can still encode full information about the witness to a small number of instances.
We show how to combine a batch argument for NP with a local pseudorandom generator (i.e., a pseudorandom generator where each output bit only depends on a small number of input bits) and a dual-mode commitment scheme to obtain a NIZK for NP. Our work provides a new generic approach of realizing zero-knowledge from succinctness and highlights a new connection between succinctness and zero-knowledge.

2023

CRYPTO

Quantum Linear Key-recovery Attacks Using the QFT
Abstract

The Quantum Fourier Transform is a fundamental tool in
quantum cryptanalysis. In symmetric cryptanalysis, hidden shift algorithms
such as Simon’s, which rely on the QFT, have been
used to obtain structural attacks on some very specific block ciphers.
The Fourier Transform is also used in classical cryptanalysis, for example
in FFT-based linear key-recovery attacks introduced by Collard et al.
(ICISC 2007). Whether such techniques can be adapted to the quantum
setting has remained so far an open question.
In this paper, we introduce a new framework for quantum linear key-recovery
attacks using the QFT. These attacks loosely follow the classical
method of Collard et al., in that they rely on the fast computation of a
correlation state in which experimental correlations, rather than being
directly accessible, are encoded in the amplitudes of a quantum state.
The experimental correlation is a statistic that is expected to be higher
for the good key, and on some conditions, the increased amplitude creates
a speedup with respect to an exhaustive search of the key. The same
method also yields a new family of structural attacks, and new examples
of quantum speedups beyond quadratic using classical known-plaintext
queries.

2023

CRYPTO

Revisiting cycles of pairing-friendly elliptic curves
Abstract

A recent area of interest in cryptography is recursive composition of proof systems. One of the approaches to make recursive composition efficient involves cycles of pairing-friendly elliptic curves of prime order. However, known constructions have very low embedding degrees. This entails large parameter sizes, which makes the overall system inefficient. In this paper, we explore 2-cycles composed of curves from families parameterized by polynomials, and show that such cycles do not exist unless a strong condition holds. As a consequence, we prove that no 2-cycles can arise from the known families, except for those cycles already known. Additionally, we show some general properties about cycles, and provide a detailed computation on the density of pairing-friendly cycles among all cycles.

2023

CRYPTO

Simple Tests of Quantumness Also Certify Qubits
Abstract

A test of quantumness is a protocol that allows a classical verifier to certify (only) that a prover is not classical. We show that tests of quantumness that follow a certain template, which captures recent proposals such as [KCVY21,KLVY22], in fact can do much more. Namely, the same protocols can be used for certifying a qubit, a building-block that stands at the heart of applications such as certifiable randomness and classical delegation of quantum computation.
Certifying qubits was previously only known to be possible based on the hardness of the Learning with Errors problem and the use of adaptive hardcore bits [BCM+21]. Our framework allows certification of qubits based only on the existence of post-quantum trapdoor claw-free functions, or on quantum fully homomorphic encryption. These can be instantiated, for example, from Ring Learning with Errors. This has the potential to improve the efficiency of qubit certification and derived functionalities.
On the technical side, we show that the quantum soundness of any such protocol can be reduced to proving a bound on a simple algorithmic task: informally, answering “two challenges simultaneously” in the protocol. Our reduction formalizes the intuition that these protocols demonstrate quantumness by leveraging the impossibility of rewinding a general quantum prover. This allows us to prove tight bounds on the quantum soundness of [KCVY21] and [KLVY22], showing that no quantum polynomial-time prover can succeed with probability larger than cos2 π8 ≈ 0.853. Previously, only an upper bound on the success probability of classical provers, and a lower bound on the success probability of quantum provers, were known. We then extend this proof of quantum soundness to show that provers that approach the quantum soundness bound must perform almost anti-commuting measurements. This certifies that the prover holds a qubit.

2023

CRYPTO

Tracing Quantum State Distinguishers via Backtracking
Abstract

We show the following results:
- The post-quantum equivalence of indisitnguishability obfuscation and differing inputs obfuscation in the restricted setting where the outputs differ on at most a polynomial number of points. Our result handles the case where the auxiliary input may contain a \emph{quantum state}; previous results could only handle classical auxiliary input.
- Bounded collusion traitor tracing from general public key encryption, where the decoder is allowed to contain a quantum state. The parameters of the scheme grow polynomially in the collusion bound.
- Collusion-resistant traitor tracing with constant-size ciphertexts from general public key encryption, again for quantum state decoders. The public key and secret keys grow polynomially in the number of users.
- Traitor tracing with embedded identities, again forquantum state decoders, under a variety of different assumptions with different parameter size trade-offs.
Traitor tracing and differing inputs obfuscation with quantum decoders / auxiliary input arises naturally when considering the post-quantum security of these primitives. We obtain our results by abstracting out a core algorithmic model, which we call the Back One Step (BOS) model. We prove a general theorem, reducing many quantum results including ours to designing \emph{classical} algorithms in the BOS model. We then provide simple algorithms for the particular instances studied in this work.